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ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE-
SOURCE,TYPES AND
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS.
INTRODUCTION
Solid waste are non-liquid, non-soluble materials
ranging from municipal garbage to industrial waste
which c...
SOURCES AND TYPES OF
SOLID WASTE
WASTE AS A RENEWABLE
SOURCE OF ENERGY
The enormous increase in the quantity of
waste materials generated by human activit...
What are conversion
technologies?
 Technologies used to convert solid waste
into useful products, chemicals and fuels
are...
WASTE-TO-ENERGY CONVERSION PATHWAYS
Various technologies are available for realizing the
potential of waste as an energy ...
Thermochemical conversion
 It is characterized by higher temperatures
and faster conversion rates.
 Best suited for lowe...
Thermochemical conversion
It include…
 Incineration
 Gasification
 Pyrolysis
Waste Incineration
• The incineration technology is the controlled
combustion of waste with the recovery of heat to
produc...
Gasification
 Partial oxidation process, pure oxygen,
oxygen enriched air, hydrogen, or steam.
 Produces electricity, fu...
Pyrolysis
 Thermal degradation of carbonaceous materials.
 Lower temperature than gasification (400 – 700oC)
 Absence o...
Biochemical conversion
It include …
 Anaerobic digestion (occurs in controlled reactors
or digesters and also in a less c...
Physicochemical conversion
It include …
 Transesterification (biodiesel production)
 Physical and chemical synthesis of ...
 Majority of waste that goes into landfills can be reused.
 Always a reliable source of fuel as people will always have ...
 Public is not convinced that Waste to Energy facilities are clean
and free of harmful chemicals.
 Waste to Energy facil...
Waste-to-energy plants offer benefits of
environmentally safe waste management
and disposal, as well as the generation of...
ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE-        SOURCE,TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE-        SOURCE,TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE-        SOURCE,TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE-        SOURCE,TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE-        SOURCE,TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE-        SOURCE,TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE-        SOURCE,TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
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ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE- SOURCE,TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

  1. 1. ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE- SOURCE,TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Solid waste are non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging from municipal garbage to industrial waste which contain complex and hazardous substances. Population growth, Increasing urbanization, Industrialization, and standard of living have contributed to rise in both the amount and variety of waste generated in most countries.  The technology of recovering energy from solid waste will play a significant role in mitigating issues relating to waste and will also result in reduction of overall quantity of waste.
  3. 3. SOURCES AND TYPES OF SOLID WASTE
  4. 4. WASTE AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY The enormous increase in the quantity of waste materials generated by human activity and their potential harmful effects on the general environment and public health, have led to an increasing awareness about an urgent need to adopt scientific methods for safe disposal of wastes.
  5. 5. What are conversion technologies?  Technologies used to convert solid waste into useful products, chemicals and fuels are referred as conversion technology.
  6. 6. WASTE-TO-ENERGY CONVERSION PATHWAYS Various technologies are available for realizing the potential of waste as an energy source, ranging from very simple systems for disposing of dry waste to more complex technologies capable of dealing with large amounts of industrial waste. There are three main pathways for conversion of organic waste material to energy – thermo chemical, biochemical and physicochemical.
  7. 7. Thermochemical conversion  It is characterized by higher temperatures and faster conversion rates.  Best suited for lower moisture feedstock.  Thermochemical routes can convert the entire organic (carbon) portion of suitable feedstock to energy.  Inorganic fraction (ash) of a feedstock does not contribute to the energy products but may increase nutrient loading in wastewater treatment and disposal facilities.
  8. 8. Thermochemical conversion It include…  Incineration  Gasification  Pyrolysis
  9. 9. Waste Incineration • The incineration technology is the controlled combustion of waste with the recovery of heat to produce steam which in turn produces power through steam turbines. • Volume and weight reduced. • Incineration can be done at generation site . • Air discharges can be controlled and small disposal area required.
  10. 10. Gasification  Partial oxidation process, pure oxygen, oxygen enriched air, hydrogen, or steam.  Produces electricity, fuels (methane, hydrogen, ethanol, synthetic diesel), and chemical products.  Temperature > 700oC.  More flexible than incineration, more technologically complex than incineration or pyrolysis, more public acceptance.
  11. 11. Pyrolysis  Thermal degradation of carbonaceous materials.  Lower temperature than gasification (400 – 700oC)  Absence or limited amount of oxygen.  Products are pyrolitic oils and gas, solid char.  Distribution of products depends on temperature  Pyrolysis oil is used for (after appropriate post- treatment) liquid fuels, chemicals, adhesives, and other products.  A number of processes directly combust pyrolysis gases, oils, and char.
  12. 12. Biochemical conversion It include …  Anaerobic digestion (occurs in controlled reactors or digesters and also in a less controlled environment in landfills)  Anaerobic fermentation (for example, the conversion of sugars from cellulose to ethanol) Biochemical conversion proceeds at lower temperatures and lower reaction rates than other conversion processes.
  13. 13. Physicochemical conversion It include …  Transesterification (biodiesel production)  Physical and chemical synthesis of products from feedstock  The combustible fraction of the waste is converted into high-energy fuel pellets which may be used in steam generation.  Fuel pellets have several distinct advantages over coal and wood because it is cleaner, free from incombustibles, has lower ash and moisture contents, is of uniform size, cost-effective, and eco- friendly.
  14. 14.  Majority of waste that goes into landfills can be reused.  Always a reliable source of fuel as people will always have waste.  The fuel is obtained cheaply.
  15. 15.  Public is not convinced that Waste to Energy facilities are clean and free of harmful chemicals.  Waste to Energy facilities are expensive to construct.  Air Pollution from combustion process.  Possibility of toxic ash as a byproduct and it may leach into groundwater and make it impure.
  16. 16. Waste-to-energy plants offer benefits of environmentally safe waste management and disposal, as well as the generation of clean electric power. Waste-to-energy facilities produce clean, renewable energy through thermo chemical, biochemical and physicochemical methods.
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ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTE- SOURCE,TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

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