INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 3, No 5, 2013
© Copyright by the authors - Licensee IPA- Under Crea...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake,
Kashmir Him...
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Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on spatio-temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 3, No 5, 2013 © Copyright by the authors - Licensee IPA- Under Creative Commons license 3.0 Research article ISSN 0976 – 4402 Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on spatio-temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas Salim Aijaz Bhat1, Gowhar Meraj2, Sayar Yaseen1, Ab. Rashid Bhat1, Ashok K. Pandit1 1- Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Centre of Research for Development (CORD), University of Kashmir 190006, J&K India 2- GIS Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Kashmir 190006, J&K, India gowharmeraj@gmail.com doi:10.6088/ijes.2013030500032 ABSTRACT In the present study, various physico-chemical parameters of water were assessed over a period of six months (from February, 2012 to July, 2012) on monthly basis at six study sites in Anchar lake of Kashmir valley. The correlation matrix and dendrogram of physicochemical factors have been computed and analyzed. The positive co-relation coefficient was observed between, free carbon dioxide and calcium, alkalinity and nitrate, alkalinity and phosphate, total hardness and calcium, total hardness and magnesium, nitrate and phosphate, conductivity and chloride and total dissolved solids and chloride, while as negative corelation coefficient was found between dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand and pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. The Bray Curtis similarity analysis showed that there is a similarity of 96 % between sites III and V, 94% between sites I and II, and < 92 % for other sites. The physico-chemical analysis of Anchar revealed it is heavily polluted as a result of anthropogenic pressures. Keywords: Correlation, Bray Curtis similarity analysis, water quality, Anchar lake. 1. Introduction Water is one of the most common, yet the most precious, resource on Earth. Water pollution is a serious problem of 70% of India's surface water resources and a growing number of its groundwater reserves have been contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. Due to tremendous development of industry and agriculture, the aquatic ecosystems have become perceptibly altered in the recent years and as such they are exposed to all local disturbances regardless of where they occur (Venkatesan, 2007). The health of lake ecosystems and their biological diversity are directly related to health of almost every component of the ecosystem (Ramesh et al., 2007). Thus, estimation of water quality is extremely important for proper assessment of the associated hazards (Warhate et al., 2006). Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA), and inter-correlation matrix have been used extensively to evaluate the effects of human activities on the quality of surface waters. The valley of Kashmir is well known for its water resources. However they are facing grave pollution problems and as a result number of indigenous and high quality biological species inhabiting these water bodies are diminishing. To formulate holistic mechanism to stop and avert these problems there is a need of application oriented limnological research. The current study is a well thought of approach in this direction. Received on January 2013 Published on April 2013 1625
  2. 2. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas The present study on physico-chemical characteristics of water was carried out on Anchar Lake in Kashmir Himalaya. The Anchar lake is situated 14 km to the North West of Srinagar city at an altitude of 1584 A.S.L within the geographical coordinates of 34˚20´ - 34˚26´ N lat. and 74˚.82´- 74˚.85´ E long. Its area is about 5.8 km2. The lake is connected with Khusalsar Lake which in turn is connected with the famous Dal Lake through small inflow channel, Nalla Amir Khan. River Sind enters the lake on its western side and forms a network of distributaries. The lake is also fed by a number of springs present in the basin itself and along its periphery. Towards the north east of this water basin is situated the complex of SKIMS (Sheri Kashmir Institute of medical Science), draining its toxic influents into the lake. The runoff from the surrounding paddy fields including floating gardens and sewage from the surrounding human habitation is also drained into the lake, there by further enhancing the nutrient levels of the lake. Six different sites were selected for the present study on the basis of water depth, vegetation, inlet and outlet and anthropogenic pressures. Six sampling sites were chosen for the evaluation of various physico-chemical parameters of water within the lake (Table 1. Figure 1) Site I: This site is located near the Holy Shrine Jenab Sahib Soura. At this site the lake is fed by a number of springs, which are present in its basin. Site II: This site is situated on the western Shore of the lake, where the Sind Nalla enters into the lake. Site III: This site is located near about the centre of the lake. At this site lake has a maximum depth. Site IV: This site is situated near the place which is locally known as Kather Sahib dam. At this site the lake is heavily infested with thick macrophytes. Site V: This site is situated near the Sangam village. At this site the water exits from the lake which finally enters into the River Jhelum. Site VI: This site is located towards the north east region of the lake. At this site, the lake receives the toxic effluents and sewage wastes from the drainage system of SKIMS. Table 1: Sampling locations and their coordinates Sampling Site Longitude E (dd*) Latitude N (dd) Elevation form sea level (m) Site I 74.794 34.152 1581 Site II 74.788 34.152 1581 Site III 74.785 34.147 1581 Site IV 74.799 34.132 1581 Site V 74.774 34.136 1581 Site VI 74.793 34.142 1581 * dd Decimal degrees Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1626
  3. 3. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas 2. Material and methods The physico–chemical characteristics of water were monitored on monthly basis from February, 2012 to July, 2012. The surface water samples were collected between 10.00 and 12.00 hours from each of the sampling sites in one liter plastic bottles for the laboratory investigations. The parameters including depth, transparency, temperature, pH and conductivity were determined on spot while the rest of the parameters were determined in the laboratory within 24 hours of sampling. The analysis was done by adopting standard methods of Mackereth (1963), Goltermann and Clymo (1969) and APHA (1989). The data collected were subjected to Pearson’s correlation matrix to study the significant level at 0.05 and 0.01 (2 tailed) to note the positive and negative correlation among the physico-chemical factors. Similarly, Bray-Curtis cluster analysis was applied to construct a dendrogram of percentage of similarity in study sites on the basis of physico-chemical factors to identify relative homogenous clusters of sites and to measure the distance or similarity in relation to aquatic condition. The SPSS ver. 16.0 and PAST statistical programs were used for all statistical analysis throughout this research. 3. Result, discussion and conclusion The mean, range, minimum, maximum, standard deviation and variance of water quality parameters at six study sites in Anchar lake are presented in Table 2. Mean water temperature shows clear monthly variations and ranged from a minimum of 7.83oC in February to a maximum of 24.5o C in July. There were significant difference in temperature (SD = 1-1.9) between sampling sites. Similar findings were also recorded by Shastri and Pendse (2001) and Eshwaralal and Angadi (2002). Further, water temperature was found negatively correlated with DO (Das, 2000) and transparency (Reid and Wood, 1976) (Table 3, Fig.2 a, b). The mean depth of water ranged from 0.9m in February to 1.6m in May. Depth of water is determined by the volume of water column in an aquatic system, which is in turn is dependent on the discharge rate of inflows. The lowest mean depth is an indication of an evolutionary process coinciding with higher trophic status of the lake as also opined by Pandit (2002). Throughout the study period, mean transparency ranged from 0.072 to 0.93 m. The value of mean and coefficient of variation (6.48-26.32%) (Table 3) virtually shows that transparency of water fluctuated spatially as well as temporally. The sites near inflow channel and urban residential areas showed lower water transparency than those near agricultural area and outflow channel. This could be due to the heavy load of organic matter carried into the river by surface run-off and sewage and also by silt generated by the disturbance of the river bottom (sediment) by the greater turbulence of flood water which comes after heavy rains(Akpan, 2004). Seasonally, the highest value of water transparency occurred in winter at all sampling sites and may be attributed to low suspended organic matter with poor planktonic growth (Sinha et al., 2002). Values of inter-correlation matrix showed positive correlation of transparency with total hardness and dissolved oxygen (Sharma et al., 2010) (Figure 2 c). The lowest pH value was found during the winter season (7.1) being attributed to lower rates of photosynthesis, a fact also revealed by Agarkar and Garode (2001). The increased pH in the month of July (pH=8) may be associated with increase in DO, produced as a result of photosynthesis (Wetzel, 1975). Further, pH showed significant negative correlation with CO2 and positive correlation with DO, thereby confirming that pH is inversely dependent on the Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1627
  4. 4. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas amount of the CO2 present (Colin et al., 1997) and indirectly proportional to the photosynthetic activity (Pandit et al., 2001) (Figure 2 d) (Table 3). Figure 1: Geographic location of the study area with respect to India and J & K state and sampling location sites. Dissolved oxygen is one of the most important parameter in assessing the quality of water, which is essential to maintain biotic forms in water. Oxygen content of water varies with temperature, salinity, turbulence, photosynthetic activity of algae and higher plants atmospheric pressure etc. The present investigation revealed that the average DO content in lake ranged from 6.06 mg/L in July to 8.98 mg/L in February, denoting the inverse relationship with the temperature (Agarwal et al., 1976). The lowest value of DO at Sites-IV and VI may be due to the increased amount of organic matter due to agricultural runoff and sewage which needs oxygen for decomposition, as also opined by Yousuf and Shah (1988),(Figure 3.5). Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1628
  5. 5. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas Carbon dioxide is the chief source needed for photosynthesis process in plants. In aquatic ecosystems carbon dioxide reacts with water and forms carbonic acid which soon dissociates into carbonates and bicarbonates, thus altering pH of water. In the present study the concentration of carbon dioxide in lake ranged between 6.25 mg/L in July at site I and 13.16 mg/L in February at site VI. Spatio-temporal variations in free CO2 are delineated by the values of mean and coefficient of variation (16.23-33.03%, (Fig.3.7).The behavior of carbon dioxide with pH is that an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in water results in decrease of its pH due to the formation of carbonic acid (Chandler, 1970). Conductivity measures the capacity of a substance or solution to conduct electrical current. The electrical conductivity was found to fluctuate between 163.6 µS/cm (February, 2012) and 362.8 µS/cm (April, 2012) and that falls within the range observed for Indian waters. Olsen (1950) classified water bodies having conductivity values greater than 500 µS/cm as eutrophic. According to this criteria, Anchar Lake falls under the category of mesotrophic water body. Range and standard deviation values suggest that there is strong spatial variation in conductivity and may be attributed to varying degree of anthropogenic pressure. Furthermore, inter-correlation matrix showed positive correlation coefficient between conductivity and chloride (Figure 2 e) (Table 3). In natural waters, dissolved solids are composed mainly of carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, sulphates, phosphates, nitrates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese etc. (Ismailia and Jamal, 2005). The lowest total dissolved solids content (104 mg/l) was obtained during February due to low input from catchment while the highest concentration (375 mg/l) was recorded in May as a result of runoff from catchment. Similar findings have been reported by Kirubavathy et al., (2005) and Garg et al., (2006b) with regard to seasonal variations of TDS. Alkalinity of water is the capacity to neutralize strong acids and is primarily a function of carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide content being formed due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in water. In the present investigation the total alkalinity values fluctuated from 19.4mg/L at Site I to 234 mg/L at Site VI (Figure 3.9). . Total alkalinity in the lake followed a trend of decrease from winter to summer months. Agarwal and Thapliyal (2005) also obtained maximum alkalinity during winter months in Bhilangana. Further, the values of alkalinity above 90mg/L can be categorized as hard water type of Moyle (1945). On the basis of intercorrelation matrix alkalinity showed positive correlations with nitrate and phosphate (Figure 2 f and g) (Table 3). This may be attributed to the enhancement of the decomposition of organic matter by alkalinity which in turn increases concentrations of nitrate and phosphate. Large contents of chloride in fresh-water is an indicator of organic pollution (Venkatasubramani and Meenambal, 2007). In the present study, chloride concentration varied from 5.9 (February at Site II) to 23.7 mg/L (April at Site IV). Jana (1973) and Govindan and Sundaresan (1979) observed that higher concentration of chloride in the summer period could be also due to sewage mixing, increased temperature and higher runoff from catchment. Chloride showed significant positive co-relation coefficient with total dissolved solids as they form one of the constituents of dissolved solids (Figure 2 h) (Table 3). The abundance of Ca and Mg ions are responsible for an increase in hardness (Das, 2002) while its negative correlation with pH is also evident. Calcium, magnesium, carbonates, bicarbonates, sulphates, chlorides, nitrates, organic matter together associate and form hardness of water. According to hardness scale of Water Quality Association (Lehr et al., 1980), hardness values ranged from 0 to 17 mg/L is soft water, 17 to 60 mg/L is slightly hard, 60 to 120 mg/L is moderately hard, 120 to 180 Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1629
  6. 6. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas mg/L hard water and more than 180 mg/L is very hard. In the present investigation low hardness value (84 mg/L) was recorded at Site V as against the high hardness value (362 mg/L) being recorded at Site II, (Fig. 3.11-13). In general, low hardness values were regestered during the spring season which is due to the utilization of carbonates, as a source of carbon, by phytoplankton a fact also revealed by Swarnalatha and Rao (1998) while working on Banjara Lake, Hyderabad. Further, Patil et al. (1986) reported higher hardness during monsoon season, being attributed it to the inflow of rainwater from agricultural fields carrying good amount of suspended salts, which is also collaborated by the present study. In aquatic environment, calcium serves as one of the macronutrients for most of the organisms. The calcium contents in Anchar lake varied from 45 (July, 2012) to 182 mg/L (February, 2012), being minimum in summer and maximum in winter which is in consonance with the findings of Das (2002) on his studies while working on the reservoirs of Andra Pradesh. A similar trend was also depicted for Mg with the minimum concentration of the ion (6.3 mg/L) being noticed in July and the highest (40.82 mg/L) in February. Furthermore, hardness was found positively correlated with calcium and magnesium (Das, 2002) (Fig.2 d I and j) (Table 3). Ammonia in higher concentration is harmful to fishes and other aquatic life. The toxicity of ammonia increases with pH because at higher pH most of the ammonia remains in the gaseous form. At low pH toxicity of ammonia decreases which is attributed to the conversion of ammonia into ammonium ions. In the present study, ammonia content varied from 0.028 in July to 0.257 mg/L in February, 2012 with higher values in winter season and lower value in summer season, a finding also revealed by Ingemar Ahlgren (1967). The presence of nitrate in fresh water bodies depends mostly upon the activity of nitrifying bacteria on nitrogen source of domestic and agricultural origin. In the present study, nitrate content fluctuated from 0.141 mg/L in July to 0.649 mg/L in February. The rapid decrease of nitrate concentrations in July could be explained as due to a combination of a rapid assimilation by phytoplankton and a decreased intensity of nitrification caused by high water temperature (Ingemar Ahlgren, 1967). Trisal (1977) also opined that the increase in nitrate-nitrogen content during winter is the cumulative effect of nitrification in the water column and the mud water interface. The major sources of phosphorous in water are domestic sewage, agricultural runoff containing fertilizers and industrial effluents. Phosphorus, a nutrient that limits primary productivity of an aquatic ecosystem, is essential for the growth of organisms. In the present study phosphate-phosphorus ranged from a minimum of 0.013 mg/L in July to a maximum of 0.321 mg/L in February. The low content of phosphate-phosphorus in summer season may be due to utilization of the nutrient by phytoplankton (Kaul et al. (1980). Further, significant positive correlation coefficient was obtained between phosphate and nitrate (Katiyar and Belsare, 1997) (Figure 2 k) (Table 3). The mean concentration of iron measured in lake ranged from 0.02 mg/L in February to 0.17 mg/L in July. The significant seasonal variation may be attributed to (i) the little role of iron in phytoplankton growth and (ii) the chemical process in water especially the exchange of substances between sediments and water (Mortimer, 1941-42). Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD ) is the amount of oxygen utilized by microorganisms in stabilizing the organic matter. BOD in water ranged from 19 mg/L in January to 46 mg/L in July. The minimum BOD, as noticed during winter, was due to the decrease in temperature leading to decrease in microbial activity and Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1630
  7. 7. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas algal bloom (Sachidanandamurthy and Yajurvedi, 2004). Further, BOD showed negative corelation coefficient with DO as the latter is consumed in stabilization of organic matter (Fig.2 l). The COD of water increases with increasing concentration of organic matter (Boyd, 1981). In the present study, COD ranged from 19 mg/L in May to 46 mg/L in July. The monthly variations were also noticed by other workers (Fokmare and Musaddiq, 2002). Table 2: Physico-chemical characteritics of water of Anchar lake (February 2012 to July 2012) S No. 6.00 9.00 0.48 1.17 1.37 8.50 3.00 7.00 10.00 0.43 1.05 1.10 Apr 12.17 5.00 10.00 15.00 0.79 1.94 3.77 May 19.00 5.00 16.00 21.00 0.68 1.67 2.80 21.92 3.50 20.00 23.50 0.52 1.28 1.64 24.50 3.40 22.60 26.00 0.49 1.19 1.42 1.00 0.57 0.74 1.31 0.08 0.20 0.04 1.10 0.64 0.80 1.44 0.10 0.24 0.06 Apr 1.33 0.53 1.08 1.61 0.09 0.22 0.05 1.67 0.79 1.28 2.07 0.12 0.28 0.08 1.11 0.24 0.98 1.22 0.05 0.12 0.01 0.93 0.11 0.89 1.00 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.21 0.15 0.14 0.29 0.02 0.05 0.00 Mar 0.18 0.08 0.15 0.23 0.01 0.03 0.00 Apr 0.16 0.11 0.12 0.23 0.02 0.04 0.00 May 0.11 0.04 0.09 0.13 0.01 0.02 0.00 June 0.09 0.03 0.08 0.11 0.00 0.01 0.00 July 0.08 0.01 0.07 0.09 0.00 0.01 0.00 Feb 7.18 0.40 7.00 7.40 0.06 0.15 0.02 Mar 7.17 0.20 7.10 7.30 0.03 0.08 0.01 Apr 7.20 0.30 7.00 7.30 0.04 0.11 0.01 May 7.40 0.30 7.20 7.50 0.05 0.13 0.02 June 7.52 0.70 7.00 7.70 0.11 0.26 0.07 July 8.02 0.30 7.90 8.20 0.05 0.12 0.01 Feb 8.98 1.00 8.50 9.50 0.15 0.36 0.13 Mar 5 3.00 Feb 8.62 0.80 8.20 9.00 0.12 0.31 0.09 Apr 8.07 1.20 7.40 8.60 0.16 0.40 0.16 May 7.45 0.80 7.10 7.90 0.12 0.29 0.08 June 6.95 0.80 6.50 7.30 0.12 0.29 0.08 July 6.07 0.60 5.80 6.40 0.10 0.24 0.06 Feb 13.17 6.00 10.00 16.00 0.87 2.14 4.57 Mar Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (mg/L) 7.83 July pH Variance June 4 Std. Deviation May Transparency (m) Std. Error Mar 3 Max. Feb Depth (m) Min. July 2 Range June 1 Mean Mar Water Temperature (oC) Month Feb Parameters 11.67 5.00 9.00 14.00 0.84 2.07 4.27 Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1631
  8. 8. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas 6 Free CO2 (mg/L) 0.73 1.78 3.16 7.33 6.00 4.00 10.00 0.99 2.42 5.87 6.25 4.50 4.00 8.50 0.79 1.94 3.78 163.67 98.00 129.00 227.00 14.10 34.54 1193.07 320.83 200.00 250.00 450.00 27.55 67.48 4554.17 Apr 362.83 93.00 335.00 428.00 14.60 35.75 1278.17 May 368.00 114.00 326.00 440.00 15.88 38.90 1513.20 322.50 50.00 300.00 350.00 8.04 19.71 388.30 296.00 93.00 227.00 320.00 14.47 35.43 1255.60 104.67 68.00 85.00 153.00 10.28 25.19 634.67 242.17 70.00 195.00 265.00 10.41 25.50 650.17 Apr 323.83 152.00 245.00 397.00 21.33 52.25 2729.77 375.83 161.00 301.00 462.00 21.94 53.74 2888.17 280.50 97.00 215.00 312.00 18.46 45.22 2044.70 July 212.50 43.00 195.00 238.00 7.08 17.35 301.10 Feb 128.67 185.00 49.00 234.00 31.33 76.74 5889.47 Mar 100.83 159.00 29.00 188.00 30.25 74.08 5488.57 Apr 91.00 150.00 26.00 176.00 28.31 69.34 4808.00 May 62.00 86.00 22.00 108.00 16.25 39.80 1584.40 June 54.98 77.50 21.50 99.00 14.87 36.42 1326.36 July 50.28 73.00 19.40 92.40 13.58 33.26 1106.21 Feb 8.13 5.00 5.90 10.90 0.83 2.02 4.09 Mar 12.95 7.10 9.80 16.90 2.20 5.38 28.99 Apr 18.07 12.80 10.90 23.70 1.83 4.48 20.10 May 15.57 7.20 12.50 19.70 1.05 2.58 6.66 June 13.08 5.00 11.00 16.00 0.86 2.11 4.44 July 10.87 3.80 9.70 13.50 0.57 1.40 1.97 Feb 299.33 120.00 242.00 362.00 19.08 46.74 2185.07 Mar 241.33 88.00 192.00 280.00 13.22 32.38 1048.67 Apr 212.00 108.00 156.00 264.00 15.21 37.25 1387.20 May 138.33 56.00 118.00 174.00 8.63 21.14 447.07 June 118.83 37.00 106.00 143.00 5.60 13.72 188.17 July 106.00 50.00 84.00 134.00 6.95 17.03 290.00 Feb 123.33 87.00 95.00 182.00 12.48 30.56 933.87 Mar 12 11.00 June Calcium hardness (mg/L) 6.50 May 11 4.50 Mar Total hardness (mg/L) 8.45 Feb Chloride (mg/L) 6.67 July 10 2.58 June 9 1.05 Mar 109.83 55.00 92.00 147.00 7.84 19.20 368.57 Apr 104.17 51.00 88.00 139.00 7.39 18.10 327.77 May 90.33 57.00 67.00 124.00 8.27 20.25 409.87 June 75.25 47.00 51.00 98.00 7.31 17.92 320.98 July 64.23 33.00 45.00 78.00 5.64 13.82 190.97 Feb Total Alkalinity (mg/L) 13.00 Feb TDS(mg/L) 6.00 July 8 7.00 June Conductivity (µS/cm) 9.67 May 7 Apr 33.21 10.21 30.62 40.82 1.58 3.87 15.01 Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1632
  9. 9. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas 13 Magnesium hardness (mg/L) 24.30 1.51 3.71 13.73 11.30 8.75 8.26 17.01 1.24 3.03 9.16 8.83 3.40 7.29 10.69 0.66 1.63 2.64 7.97 3.79 6.32 10.11 0.69 1.69 2.85 0.16 0.16 0.10 0.26 0.03 0.06 0.00 0.12 0.09 0.08 0.17 0.02 0.04 0.00 Apr 0.09 0.09 0.06 0.15 0.01 0.03 0.00 May 0.07 0.09 0.05 0.14 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.06 0.07 0.03 0.10 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.05 0.06 0.03 0.09 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.54 0.15 0.50 0.65 0.02 0.06 0.00 0.45 0.07 0.41 0.48 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.38 0.05 0.36 0.41 0.01 0.02 0.00 May 0.27 0.30 0.05 0.35 0.05 0.11 0.01 0.30 0.07 0.26 0.33 0.01 0.03 0.00 July 0.20 0.15 0.14 0.29 0.02 0.06 0.00 Feb 0.25 0.25 0.12 0.36 0.04 0.10 0.01 Mar 0.21 0.22 0.10 0.32 0.04 0.09 0.01 Apr 0.13 0.19 0.03 0.23 0.03 0.07 0.01 May 0.08 0.10 0.02 0.12 0.01 0.04 0.00 June 0.07 0.08 0.02 0.10 0.01 0.03 0.00 July 0.05 0.08 0.01 0.09 0.01 0.03 0.00 Feb 0.03 0.05 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.00 Mar 0.05 0.06 0.02 0.08 0.01 0.02 0.00 Apr 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.13 0.01 0.03 0.00 May 0.11 0.07 0.09 0.16 0.01 0.02 0.00 June 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.19 0.01 0.03 0.00 July 0.18 0.12 0.12 0.24 0.02 0.04 0.00 Feb 3.67 3.00 2.00 5.00 0.49 1.21 1.47 Mar 4.33 3.00 3.00 6.00 0.49 1.21 1.47 Apr 4.83 2.00 4.00 6.00 0.31 0.75 0.57 May 6.00 2.00 5.00 7.00 0.26 0.63 0.40 June 6.43 1.50 5.50 7.00 0.24 0.59 0.35 July 6.92 1.40 6.00 7.40 0.23 0.56 0.31 Feb 34.67 24.00 24.00 48.00 3.71 9.09 82.67 Mar 37.83 22.00 26.00 48.00 3.17 7.76 60.17 Apr 45.16 22.00 32.00 54.00 3.47 8.50 72.17 May 48.83 19.00 38.00 57.00 2.99 7.33 53.77 June 53.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 3.18 7.80 60.80 July COD (mg/L) 14.34 June 19 9.96 Apr BOD (mg/L) 19.72 Mar 18 Apr Feb Iron (mg/L) 13.07 July 17 3.62 June Phosphate (mg/L) 1.48 Mar 16 28.19 Feb 15 19.68 July Nitrate nitrogen (mg/L) 8.51 June Ammonical nitrogen (mg/L) 24.34 May 14 Mar 58.00 22.00 46.00 68.00 3.34 8.17 66.80 Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1633
  10. 10. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas Figure 2: Scatter diagram showing positive and negative correlation between monthly average values of physico-chemical parameters of water Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1634
  11. 11. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas Figure 3: Line plots (1-18) showing spatial variation of physico-chemical parameters of water. Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1635
  12. 12. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas Table 3: Pearson’s correlation coefficients of physico-chemical characteristics of Anchar Lake **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). 1 = Water temperature, 2 = Depth, 3 = Transparency, 4 = pH, 5 = Dissolved Oxygen, 6 = Free Co2, 7 = Conductivity, 8 = TDS, 9= Total Alkalinity, 10 = Chloride, 11 = Total Hardness, 12 = Calcium hardness, 13 = Magnesium hardness, 14 = Ammonical-N, 15 = Nitrate-N, 16 = Phosphate, 17 = Iron, 18= BOD, 19 = COD 0.992 0.976 0.96 0.944 0.928 0.912 0.88 0.896 Similarity 0 1 Site__VI 2 Site_III 3 Site_V 4 Site_IV 5 Site_II 6 Site_I Figure 4: Bray-Curtis cluster analysis of five study sites The dendrogram of percentage similarity of five study sites on the basis of physico-chemical factors is presented in Figure 4. The analysis of similarity of study sites from 0.88% to 1% Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1636
  13. 13. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas was carried out to indicate intensity of relations between sites as cluster. The Bray-Curtis similarity analysis confirms that there is a similarity of 0.96% between sites III and V, 0.94% between sites I and II, and < 0.928% for other sites. Contrary to these sites, sites IV and VI showed maximum dissimilarity during the entire study period because the site IV represents the outlet of the lake and site VI falls in immediate entry of waste water from SKIMS, Soura. The overall nature of the physico-chemical characteristics depicts that the lake waters are eutrophic in nature and the water quality has deteriorated as a result of input of nutrients through various sources caused largely by anthropogenic pressures like urbanization, agricultural expansion and changing land use land cover patterns in whole catchment area of the lake. The trophic status of lake warrants a proper conservation and management strategy. If proper measures are taken for the treatment of sewage before discharge and restrictions are put on various anthropogenic activities in upstream, the lake would remain healthy and ecologically sound in the long run. 4. References 1. Agarkar, S.V. and Garode, A.M., (2000), Evaluation of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of Vyazadi reservoir water, Indian Hydrobiology. 3, pp 3-5. 2. Agarwal, N.K. and Thapliyal, B.L., (2005), Preimpoundment hydrological study of Bhilangana river from Tehri Dam reservoir area in Uttaranchal, Enviromental Geochemistry, 8, pp 143-148. 3. Agarwal, D.K., Gour, S.D., Tiwari, I.C., Narayan Swami, N. and Narwash, S.M. (1976), Physico-chemical characteristic of Ganga water in Varanasi. Indian, Journal of Environmental Health., 18, pp 201-206. 4. Ahlgren, I., (1967), Limnological studies of Lake Norrviken, a eutrophicated Swedish lake. Schweiz. Z. Hydrology, 29, pp 53-90. 5. Amirkolaie, A.K., (2008), Environmental impact of nutrients discharged by aquaculture waste water on the Haraz river, Journal of fish aquatic Science, 3, 275279. 6. A.P.H. A., (1998), Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water. 20th Ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. 7. Boyd, C.E., (1981), Water Quality in Warm Water Fish Ponds. Craftmaster Printers Inc., Albama, Canada. 8. Chandler, J.R., (1970), A biological approach to water quality management, Water Pollution Control, 69, pp 415-422. 9. Das, A.K., (2000), Limno-chemistry of some Andhra Pradesh reservoirs, Journal of Inland Fishery Society, India, 32, pp 37-44. 10. Das, A.K., (2002), Phytoplankton primary production in some selected reservoirs of Andra Pradesh, Geobios, 29, pp 52-57. Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1637
  14. 14. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas 11. Eshwaralal, S. and Angadi, S.B., (2002), Primary productivity of two freshwater bodies of Gulbarga, India, Natural Environmental Pollution Technology, 1, 151157. 12. Esmaeili, H.R. and Johal, M.S., (2005), Study of physico-chemical parameters of water of Gobindsagar reservoir, India. In: Proceeding of National Seminar on New Trends in Fishery Development in India. Punjab University, Chandigarh, India. 13. Golterman, H.L. and Clymo, R.S., (1969), Methods for Physical and Chemical Analysis of Freshwaters. IBP Hand Book No. 8. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, Edinburgh. 14. Fokmare, A.K. and Musaddiq, M., (2002), A study of physico-chemical characteristics of Kapsi lake and Purna river waters in Akola District of Maharastra (India), Natural Environmental Pollution Technology, 1, pp 261-263. 15. Garg, R.K., Saksena, D.N. and Rao, R.J., (2006), Assessment of physico-chemical water quality of Harsi Reservoir, District Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, Journal of Ecophysiology Occupation Health, 6, pp 33-40. 16. Govindan and Sundaresan, B.B., (1979), Seasonal succession of algal flora in polluted region of Adyar river, Indian Journal of Environment and Health, 21: 131142. 17. Katiyar, S.K. and Belsare, D.K., (1997), Limnological studies on Bhopal lakes: Freshwater protozoan communities as indicators of organic pollution, Journal of Environmental Biology, 18, pp 271-282. 18. Kaul, V., Handoo, J.K. and Raina, R., (1980), Proceedings of Indian Natural Science Academy, 46(4), pp 528-541. 19. Kirubavathy, A.K., Binukumari, S., Mariamma, N. and Rajammal, T., (2005), Assessment of water quality of Orathupalayam reservoir, Erode district, Tamil Nadu, Journal of Ecophysiology Occupation Health, 5, pp 53-54. 20. Lehr, J. H., Wayne, E.G. and Jack, D., (1980), Toxic inorganics and other constituents. In: Water Pollution-Causes effects and control, New age International (P) Limited, New Delhi, pp 192-194. 21. Li, R. G., Xia, Y. L., Wu, A. Z. and Qian, Y. S., (2000), Pollutants sources and their discharging amount in Taihu lake area of Jiangsu Province, Journal of Lake Science, 12: 147–153. 22. Mackereth, F.J.H., (1963), Some Methods for Water Analysis for Limnologists. Freshwater Biology. Association Science Publication No. 21 London. 23. Mortimer, C. H., (1941-42), The Exchange of Dissolved Substances Between Mud and Water in Lakes. Journal of Ecology. 29, pp 280-329 and 30, pp 147-201. Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1638
  15. 15. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas 24. Colin, N., Martin, H. and Richard, W. J., (1998), Dissolved carbon dioxide and oxygen in the River Thames: Spring–summer 1998, Science of the Total Environment, pp 210-211 and 205-217. 25. Olsen, S., (1950), Aquatic plants and hydrospheric factor, I. Aquatic plants in Switzerland, Arizona, Journal of Sevensk. Botanisk Tidskriff, 44, pp 1-34. 26. Pandit, A.K., (2002), Trophic evolution of lakes in Kashmir Himalaya. p. 175-222. In: Natural Resources of Western Himalaya, Edited by A. K. Pandit (Valley Book House, Srinagar-190006, J&K). 27. Pandit, A.K. Rathore, S. A. and Bhat, S. A., (2001), Limnological features of freshwater of Uri, Kashmir, Journal of Research and Development, 1, pp 22-29. 28. Patil, M.K., Usha Namboodin and Unni K.S., (1986), On Water Quality around Urban Ecosystem, (Ed.) K.S. Unni, pp 222. 29. Ramesh, M, Saravanan, M. and Pradeepa, G., (2007), Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of the Singallunar lake, Coimbatore, South India. In Proceeding National Seminar on Limnol. Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture Technology, Udaipur, India. 30. Reid, G.K. and Wood, R.D., (1976), Ecology of Inland Waters and Estuaries. Second edition. D. Van. Nostrand. Co., New York. 31. Sachidanandamurthy, K.L. and Yajurvedi, H.N., (2004), Monthly variations in water quality parameters (physico-chemical) of a Perennial lake in Mysore city, Indian Hydrobiology, 7, pp 217-228. 32. Sharma, A. Ranga, M.M. and Sharma. P.C., (2010), Water Quality Status of Historical Gundolav lake at Kishangarh as a primary data for sustainable management, South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage,. 3(2), pp 149-158. 33. Shastri, Y. and Pendse, D.C., (2001), Hydrobiological study of Dahikhura Reservoirp Journal of Environmental Biology, 22(1), pp 67-70. 34. Sinha, M.P., Kumar, R., Srivastava, R., Mishra, S.K. and Choudhuri, A.K., (2002), Ecotaxonomy and biomonitoring of lake for conservation and management. Biotic Profile In: Ecology and Conservation of Lakes, Reservoirs and Rivers. Vol. II. Edited by Arvind Kumar 248-289 (ABD Publication Jaipur, India). 35. Stummet, W. and Lee, F., (1960), The chemistry of Aqueous Iron, Schweiz. Z. Hydrology, 22, pp 295-319. 36. Swarnalatha, P. and Rao, A.N., (1998), Ecological studies of Banjara lake with reference to water pollution. Journal of Environmental Biology, 19, pp 179-186. 37. Trisal, C.L., (1977), Studies on primary production in some Kashmir lakes. Ph. D. Thesis, Kashmir University, Srinagar, Kashmir. Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1639
  16. 16. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on Spatio-Temporal variation of water quality in Anchar lake, Kashmir Himalayas 38. Vencatesan, J., (2007), Protecting Wetlands, Current Science, 93: 288-290. 39. Venkatasubramani, R. and Meenambal, T., (2007), Study of sub-surface water quality in Mattupalayam Taluk of Coimbatore district Tamil Nadu, Natural Environmental Pollution Technology, 6, pp 307-310. 40. Wetzel, R.G., (1975), Limnology, Standard publishers, Philadelphia. 41. Yousuf, A.R.; Shah, G.M., (1988), Comparative Limnology of some fresh habitats of Kashmir. Geobiosphere, 7, pp58-61. Salim Aijaz Bhat et al International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.5, 2013 1640

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