INTRODUCTION Social classes are economic or cultural arrangements of groups in society. Social class is defined as the division of members of a society into a hierarchy of distinct status classes Members of each class have relatively same status
Social class categorizes group of people within a society who possess the same socioeconomic status Upper class Middle class Lower class
Social class is measured in terms of social status Social status is measured in terms of wealth(economic assets),power(the degree of personal choice or influence over others) and prestige(the degree of recognition received from others)
Dynamics of status consumption It’s a process by which consumers endeavor to increase their social standing through conspicuous consumptions and possessions
The Measurement of Social Class Subjective Measures Reputational Measures Objective Measures
Subjective Measures In the subjective approach to measuring social class, individuals are asked to estimate their own social-class positions.Reputational Measures The reputational approach requires selected community informants to make initial judgments concerning the social-class membership of others within the community.Objective Measures A method of measuring social class whereby individuals are asked specific socioeconomic questions concerning themselves or their families On the basis of their answers, people are placed within specific social-class groupings.
Objective Measures Single-variable indexes The use of a single socioeconomic variable (such as income) to estimate an individual’s relative social class. Occupation Education Income Other Variables Composite-variable indexes An index that combines a number of socioeconomic variables (such as education, income, occupation) to form one overall measure of social class standing. Index of Status Characteristics Socioeconomic Status Score
Social MobilityDefinition Social mobility is the extent to which people move up or down in the class system. Measure of social mobility: Intergenerational social mobility is movement up or down the in the class system from one generation to the next. Intragenerational social mobility is movement up or down in the class system in a single generation
Social StratificationDefinition Viewed as social inequality, which is a universal phenomenon. Inequality is viewed in terms of the distribution of scare goods. Elements of Social Stratification CLASS – as defined by Marx, it is the division of people in society by their relationship to the means of production: those who own a large portion of society’s wealth. STATUS – For Weber, prestige rather than position itself is important. Individuals are ranked in society as high, middle, and low as determined by how the role attached to their status is valued. POWER – refers to the ability of an individual to get other people to do “what he wants them to do with or without their consent.
demographics clustering In demographics, clustering is the gathering of various population based on ethnicity, economics, or religion. In countries that hold equality as important, clustering occurs between groups because of polarizing factors such as religion, wealth or ethnocentrism. Clustering is often considered an enriching part of free cultures in which one can visit a Chinatown or a French quarter for restaurant choices. Other sociologists assert that clustering of like minded individuals leads to political polarity and intolerance of contrary opinions, as the United States has allegedly been trending since the 1950s
Social class role Social class has a complex relationship with consumption behavior. Various classes behave differently, even people within the same class have quite different consumption pattern depending on whether the wealth is acquired or earned.
some other roles and issues Cultural capital Affluent consumer Non-affluent consumer Old money and nouveaux riche Techno class Status symbol
Factors responsible for socialstratification AuthorityExample-Boss has some authorityIn society also classified in terms of authority.
Income level and consumption The Upper Class The Middle Class White collar The Working Class Blue collar