Good Day! DRAW A LINE SEPARATING TODAY & YESTERDAY 1) Write: Date: 10/02/09 , Topic: Industrial Philosophies 2) On the next line, write “ Opener #23 ” and then: 1) Plot your mood, reflect in 1 sent . 2) Respond to the opener by writing at least 2 sentences about : Your opinions/thoughts OR/AND Questions sparked by the clip OR/AND Summary of the clip OR/AND Other things going on in the news. Announcements: None Intro Music: Untitled
Agenda 1) Industrial Revolution Philosophies What you will be able to do: 1) How did industrialized (machine) life change people’s views of the world? Reminder 1) FR Project Due Mon, 10/05
Mock Quiz 1) UK was first for all of the following reasons EXCEPT? a) More mobile culture than rest of Europe b) Better educated, more innovative people c) Money to finance factories 2) Moving from river to coal factories mean all EXCEPT a) Factories were moved to the highlands b) Pollution got worse c) Factories could run whenever the factory owner wanted the factory to run
1600-1750: Enlightenment 1750-1800: Political Rev. 1800-1900: Nationalism 1600-1750: Agric. Rev. 1750-1900: Ind. Rev. 1 (Factories) 1900-X: Ind. Rev. 2 (Corporations) Timeline up to now:
Review 1) Agricultural Revolution (1500-1700) : Enlightenment help farmers share ideas (farm journals) lead to: better soil care, machines, selective breeding, and 1800s (food explosion): chemical fertilizers and powered machines. a) Enclosure : Machines produce more with less ppl, but cost more, rich famers buy out poor , create large farms b) Population Boom : Extra food encourages population to grow c) Unemployed : More births + poor farmers with no land draw them to the cities (where new factories have jobs).
Review 2) Why was England (UK) 1st : a) Financial capital (money) : UK had money to invest from trade (Factories were costly) b) Entrepreneurism (someone start biz) : Unlike Europe, UK culture supported “get ahead” biz culture no matter blood line (biz had power in H. of Commons ) c) Stable Hands Off Gov : Limited monarchy was stable (no invasions) and did not interfere with biz operations d) Geography : UK had many harbors (transport), iron (machines), rivers (water power), and coal (steam power)
Review 3) Immediate Impact of the Ind. Rev : a) Creative Destruction : New innovations destroying old jobs (esp. craftsman) b) New Class System (NOT nobles BUT) : Business Class vs. Working Class c) City Growth : Dirty cities sprout around factories ( Tenements : dense housing) d) Time : Instead of nature or self, time is controlled by jobs, factories, machines e) Labor Hardships : Factory jobs were boring, dangerous, and drew kids + women (women working will = power) f) Cheaper Goods : Ppl could buy goods once only rich could afford, therefore increasing demand for goods.
Notes #23a , Title: “ Industrial Philosophies Notes ” 10 Key Dates So Far 1689 Locke writes on Social Contract Theory 1701 Tull Seed Drill Example of Agric. Innovation 1733 Kay Flying Shuttle Expands Textile Factories 1775 Watts Steam Engine Perfected (IR 1 st Stage) 1776 American Revolution + Smith’s Wealth of Nat. 1789-1799 French Revolution 1799-15 Napoleonic Era 1814-15 Congress of Vienna restore Eur. monarchs 1830 First Operating Railroad 1855 Bessemer Perfects Cheap Steel (IR 2 nd Stage)
Notes #22a , Title: “ Industrial Philosophy Notes ” 1) Classical Liberalism ( Conservatism ) : Gov bad, ppl should be free (personal-Locke+in business-Smith) 2) Utilitarianism : Gov should do whatever maximizes the good for the most people. 3) Jeremy Bentham : Father of utilitarianism 4) Modern Liberalism ( Liberal ) : Gov should promote education + welfare services to prepare ppl for their freedom 5) John Stuart Mills : Father of modern liberals 3) Utopian Socialism (mild) : Biz will share control of resources to create equitable society 8) Robert Owen : Father of utopianism and socialism 5) Socialism (medium) : Gov take control of SOME resources from the upper class, to create equitable society 6) Communism (hot) : New gov eliminate the upper class, all resources controlled by gov for the ppl, eventually when ppl ready, no gov, ppl freely share 10) Friedrich Engels+Karl Marx : Father of Marxism (history is class struggle) and communism
Review 1) Classical Liberalism ( Conservatism ) : Gov bad, ppl should be free (personal-Locke + in business-Smith) Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations 1776 "It is not from the benevolence of the butcher , the brewer or the baker that we expect our dinner , but from their regard to their own self-interest ... [Every individual] intends only his own security, only his own gain. And he is in this led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention. By pursuing his own interest , he frequently promotes that of society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it."
1) Classical Liberalism ( Conservatism ) : Gov bad, ppl should be free (personal-Locke + in business-Smith) Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations 1776 “ The man whose whole life is spent in performing a few simple operations , of which the effects are perhaps always the same, or very nearly the same, has no occasion to exert his understanding or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He naturally loses , therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible to become for a human creature to become .”
2) Utilitarianism : Gov should do whatever maximizes the good for the most people.
3) Jeremy Bentham : Father of utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham Facts 3 Read Enlightenment Scholars 5 Mastered the Violin 6 Fluent Latin and French 12 Attended Oxford Also a prominent supporter of women’s rights, gay rights, and anti-death penalty .
Enlightenment View of the Brain: Blank Slate (Nurture) Reality: Both Nature (DNA/Instinct) + Nurture
Notes #23a , Title: “ Industrial Philosophy Notes ” 1) Modern Liberalism ( Liberal ) : Gov should promote education + welfare services to prepare ppl for their freedom
2) John Stuart Mills : Father of modern liberals John Stuart Mills Facts Also strongest advocate for women’s rights. His wife was also Harriet Mill was also a gifted scholar.
3) Utopian Socialism (mild) : Biz will share control of resources to create equitable society Robert Owen’s New Harmony (1825)
4) Robert Owen : Father of utopianism and socialism Robert Owen Facts 9 Apprentice 18 Worked in factory 28 Owned factory 54 Started a utopian community: New Harmony, banned money ppl work hard for sake of community 59 Bankrupt
5) Socialism (medium) : Gov take control of SOME resources from the upper class, to create equitable society
6) Communism (hot) : New gov eliminate the upper class , all resources controlled by gov for the ppl, eventually when ppl ready, no gov, ppl freely share
7) Friedrich Engels+Karl Marx : Father of Marxism (history is class struggle) and communism (Communist Manifesto-1848, Das Kapital-1867) Karl Marx and Frederick Engel’s Communist Manifesto, 1848 "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles . Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed …the modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society, has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but established new classes , new conditions of oppression ."
7) Friedrich Engels+Karl Marx : Father of Marxism (history is class struggle) and communism (Communist Manifesto-1848, Das Kapital-1867) Karl Marx and Frederick Engel’s Das Kapital, 1867 " Capital is dead labor , which, vampire-like , lives only by sucking living labor , and lives the more, the more labor it sucks... Capitalist production, therefore, develops technology , and the combining together of various processes into a social whole, only by sapping the original sources of all wealth — the soil and the labourer ... Battle of competition is fought by the cheapening of commodities.."
Karl Marx Socialist ideas had been spreading since the industrial revolution started. His Communist Manifesto won’t really have an effect until after his death in 1883 . Engels , co-writer was a successful capitalist. Marxism: Viewing history+now as class struggle Communism: Solution to class struggle (no prop)
Karl Marx “ From each according to his ability, to each according to his need”
Work #23a , “ Class Conflict Debate ” 1) Read the 2 sides, choose 1 side, and write which you choose and explain why . 2) Then write down what your partner thinks ( include their name at the end ). 1 2 3 4 5 CON: Con Side – Rich Gained Unfairly 1) Workers live in misery with low wages 2) Poor work too long to have a chance to move up 3) The gap between rich and poor explodes as factories are so profitable PRO: Pro Side - Rich Earned Their Money 1) Machines cost money 2) Factories require complex knowledge, rich deserve their wealth 3) Poor have themselves to blame for not working smarter in their lives
Homework: 1) Work of FR Project due Monday 10/05 . Monday: a) Photo of group working b) Video c) 4 HW sources d) Fill out peer eval in class Have a great weekend!