Migraine

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Migraine

  1. 1. Migraine Bandi Goutham Dept. of Biological Sciences IISER Bhopal
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Different types of Headaches
  4. 4. What is Migraine ? • Derived from the Greek word “ hemikranios“ = half head • A migraine is a common type of headache that may occur with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light. In many people, a throbbing pain is felt only on one side of the head. • Migraine attacks are characterized by unilateral and pulsating severe headache, lasting 4-72 hours.
  5. 5. What causes migraines? Some people who suffer from migraines can clearly identify triggers or factors that cause the headaches, but many cannot. Potential migraine triggers include : • Allergies and allergic reactions • Bright lights, loud noises, and certain odors or perfumes • Physical or emotional stress • Changes in sleep patterns or irregular sleep • Smoking or exposure to smoke • Skipping meals or fasting Triggers do not always cause migraines, and avoiding triggers does not always prevent migraines.
  6. 6. Migraine Symptoms & Stages
  7. 7. Types of Migraine Migraine with aura (classical migraine) Migraine without aura (common migraine)
  8. 8. Primary theory of Migraine: The primary theory is related to increased excitability of the cerebral cortex and abnormal control of pain neurons in the trigeminal nucleus of the brainstem.
  9. 9. Migraine trigger & pain perception
  10. 10. Pathophysiology • There is dilatation of scalp arteries and large amplitude pulsations during attacks of migraine • Radioactive xenon cerebral blood flow studies show significantly reduced regional flow through the cortex during the aura stage of migraine with aura.
  11. 11. Migraine trigger & pain perception
  12. 12. Pathways of Migraine
  13. 13. Concluding Remarks •Neurobiology and patho-physiology of migraine is near to endless. •Hence I am stopping at this, there are many other models also, but it may be too much.
  14. 14. references • Goadsby PJ et al. N Engl J Med. 2002. • wikipedia • Daniela Pietrobon* and Jörg Striessnig Peitrobon_Striessning_nrn2003_migraine, nature reviews , neuro scince.

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