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Bhagavad Gita - Capítulo I

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O primeiro capítulo do Bhagavad Gita descreve a situação que preconizou o discurso do Bhagavad Gita, a Batalha de Kurukshetra.

Ali percebemos o conflito entre o conceito de Dharma (Leis Cósmicas de conduta que levam a harmonia) e Artha (Leis da Prosperidade Material).

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Bhagavad Gita - Capítulo I

  1. 1. BHAGAVAD GITA Um Estudo Profundo da Filosofia do Yoga
  2. 2. CAPITULO 1 OBSERVANDO OS EXÉRCITOS <ul><li>dhrtarastra uvaca dharma-ksetre kuru-ksetre samaveta yuyutsavah mamakah pandavas caiva kim akurvata sanjaya </li></ul>verso 1 Dhrtarastra disse: Que estão fazendo meus filhos e os filhos de Pandu, no lugar de peregrinação de Kurukshetra, oh Sanjaya?
  3. 3. DHARMA <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharma </li></ul><ul><li>Significa “o que suporta (dá base)“; é um conceito espiritual encontrado no Hinduísmo, Budismo, Jainismo e Sikhismo. Significa a ordem em que se baseia a natureza e a vida de acordo com cada tipo de ser. É geralmente traduzido como “lei” referindo-se a ordem que existe no Cosmos e que torna a complexa harmonia da Natureza possivel. Na Índia, assim como no Ocidente, o conceito de lei natural ou divina governa o ideal de conduta dos seres. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>O símbolo do Dharma - a roda – é o motivo central da bandeira da India. Nos usos mais freqüentes, Dharma significa “o jeito certo de viver”, “conduta apropriada” ou “dever”. Com respeito a espiritualidade, Dharma pode ser considerado “o Caminho das Mais Elevadas Verdades”. O que no Ocidente é chamado religião , na India significa o propósito geral do Dharma. O antônimo de Dharma é Adharma , que significa anti-natural ou imoral. </li></ul>DHARMA (continuação) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharma
  5. 5. <ul><li>arjuna uvaca drstvemam sva-janam krsna yuyutsum samupasthitam sidanti mama gatrani mukham ca parisusyati </li></ul>CAPITULO 1 OBSERVANDO OS EXÉRCITOS Verso 28 Arjuna disse: Meu querido Krsna, vendo meus amigos e parentes presentes diante de mim com desejo de lutar, eu sinto meus lábios secar e tremores por meu corpo .
  6. 6. CAPITULO 1 OBSERVANDO OS EXÉRCITOS papam evasrayed asman hatvaitan atatayinah tasman narha vayam hantum dhartarastran sa-bandhavan sva-janam hi katham hatva sukhinah syama madhava Verso 36 Oh Madhava! Ao matar a todos estes agressores só incorreremos em pecado. Portanto, matar a Duryodhana e a nossos outros familiares não é apropriado. Como poderíamos ser felizes depois de assasinar a nossos próprios parentes?
  7. 7. <ul><li>Artha , (em devanagari, o alfabeto sânscrito mais usual: अर्थ ) é uma palavra sânscrita designando causa, motivo, desenvolvimento econômico ou prosperidade material. No hindusimo é uma das tri-varga, ou metas da vida mundana, juntamente com kama e dharma . </li></ul><ul><li>O artha é considerdo virtuoso enquanto atrelado ao dharma, ou código de conduta moral, ética, religiosa. O an-artha é o artha contrário a tri-varga e que não satisfaz os propósitos da existência mundana, como atividade criminosas, vícios e outras transgressões morais e religiosas. </li></ul><ul><li>Diferentemente de moksha , ou o paramapurusha-artha, aqui artha não é uma meta de vida suprema, ou superior, mas apenas um dos três desejos fundamentais da existência material, ou tri-varga . </li></ul>ARTHA
  8. 8. DHARMA X ARTHA Detrás da lógica de Arjuna existe uma razão... De acordo com a artha-sastra, a ciência econômica, é correto matar ao agressor. No entanto, as instruções da artha-sastra são menos importantes que as da dharma-sastra. (comentário de Srila Visvanath Cakravati Thakur)
  9. 9. Varnasrama-Dharma kula-ksaye pranasyanti kula-dharmah sanatanah dharme naste kulam krtsnam adharmo 'bhibhavaty uta adharmabhibhavat krsna pradusyanti kula-striyah strisu dustasu varsneya jayate varna-sankarah sankaro narakayaiva kula-ghnanam kulasya ca patanti pitaro hy esam lupta-pindodaka-kriyah dosair etaih kula-ghnanam varna-sankara-karakaih utsadyante jati-dharmah kula-dharmas ca sasvatah Versos 39, 40, 41 e 42 Com a destruição da dinastia, se destrói a eterna tradição familiar, e assim, o resto da família incorre em práticas irreligiosas. Ó Krishna! Quando a irreligião predomina na família, as mulheres da família se corrompem, e da degradação da mulher se origina a prole não desejada, ó descendente de Vrisni! Quando há um aumento de população não desejada se cria uma situação infernal tanto para a família como para aqueles que destroem a tradição familiar. Em tais famílias corruptas não se oferecem oblações de alimento e água aos antepassados. Devido aos atos malévolos dos destruidores da tradição familiar, destrói-se toda classe de projetos da comunidade e atividades para o bem-estar da família.
  10. 10. Sobre o Varnashrama-dharma, os antepassados e fantasmas <ul><li>Referências: </li></ul><ul><li>Varna-ashrama Dharma : SB V 1.1.4,15,16; V 14.31; BG 18.42-49 </li></ul><ul><li>Antepassados, Fantasmas : SB III 20.40,41,42,43,44; SB V 24.4,5,6 </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Quais Nomes de Krsna e Seus significados aparecem no Cap. 1 (cite os versos)? Cite pelo menos 10 outros Nomes de Deus em outras culturas (e a respectiva cultura ou religião) com Seus significados. </li></ul><ul><li>Quais são as causas do sofrimento material segundo Srila Prabhupada (comentários dos versos 29, 30 e 31)? </li></ul><ul><li>A quem se aplica a Lei do Talião, segundo a Cultura Védica (comentário do verso 36) </li></ul><ul><li>Qual o conceito de Bhagavan dado no “O Bhagavad Gita Como Ele É”? </li></ul>Tarefa de Casa Referencias para pesquisa: VERSOS DO BG 1.15,20,24,28,29, 30,31,32,35,36,37,38,39, - 2.2 E COMENTÁRIOS DE SP Sites : www.bhagavadgita.cc ; http://www.geocities.com/nitai_gaura/gita_br.htm ; http://www.asitis.com/1/28.html ; www.pt.wikipedia.org;

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