Chapter 5 Tmg


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Introduction to Special Education, Teaching in an Age of Opportunity, Chapter 5 Speech & Language Impairments.

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Chapter 5 Tmg

  1. 1. Speech or Language Impairments Chapter 5 Introduction to Special Education
  2. 2. The Significance of Language <ul><li>Language is the foundation for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition (Understanding and Learning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading Abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically every aspect of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 179, 4 th ed. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Communication Process page 181-183, 4 th ed.
  4. 4. Communication is unsuccessful when… <ul><li>The sender or the receiver cannot use the signals and symbols adequately. </li></ul><ul><li>Either person has a defective mechanism for sending or receiving info. </li></ul><ul><li>Page 181-182, 4 th ed. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Important Terms <ul><li>Communication – the transfer of knowledge, ideas, opinions and feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Language – The formalized method of communication by which ideas are transmitted to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech – The vocal production of language, usually the fastest and most efficient way to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal System – System made up of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) vibrating system (larynx & vocal folds – the makers of sound) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Resonating Systems (oral & nasal cavities – forms the sounds into words). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Body’s Systems for Generating Voice and Speech page 184, 4 th ed.
  7. 7. Types of Speech and Language Impairments page 185, 5 th ed.
  8. 8. Speech Impairments <ul><li>Speech is abnormal when it is unintelligible, is unpleasant, or interferes with communication. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice – Pitch and Loudness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of ones identity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation – ex. “thinger” instead of “finger”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considered “cute” at younger ages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency – hesitations or repetitions that interrupt the flow of speech that are not age appropriate. For example: speaking very quickly or hesitation in the middle of a sentence that is covered by using fillers such as “like”, “you know” or “umm”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This can occur with adults during times of stress, excitement or unfamiliar situations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pages 183-186, 5 th Ed. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Articulation Typical Development of Correctly Producing Sounds (90% of all Children) Page 186, 4 th ed.
  10. 10. Language Impairments <ul><li>Language problems arise when one experiences difficulty or inability to master the various systems of rules in language, which then interferes with communication. Pages 187-188, 4 th Ed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Form – Rule Systems <ul><li>Phonology – Combining speech sounds to form words/sentences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. How vowels and consonants are used together to sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Varies per language spoken. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Hawaiian - 24 speech sound combinations vs. English – 45 speech sound combinations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphology – Structuring of words/meaning of words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Cover, cover ed , un cover ed . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax – Order of words in sentence/phrases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. It is one o’clock. / Is it one o’clock. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Content – Intent or Meanings <ul><li>Spoken or Written Language </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics – System that patterns the intent and meanings of words and sentences to comprise the content of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Not being exact, clear or precise with our language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Child comes home from school and says “left at school”. Mom ask what was left at school. The phrase does not make sense used in this way. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Use – Application of Language <ul><li>Concerns application of language in various communications according to the social context of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics – Study of language in context & focuses of the intention of the communication. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Child must know what a cup is and what it is used for before he/she can properly use the word cup in communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pages 187-188, 4 th ed. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Identification <ul><li>Who? Speech / Language Pathologist (SLP’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal assessment of a person to determine if they have a speech or language impairment is made by an SLP. </li></ul><ul><li>How? (1) Formal Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Informal Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Formal assessments such as standardized test are used by SLP’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Test of Language Development (TOLD) </li></ul><ul><li>Informal assessments such as observations during free play time. This is the primary source of assessment of child’s spontaneous speech. Page 189, 4 th Ed. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What are SLP’s Looking For? <ul><li>Speech Impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation Errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated omission of groups of sounds or substitution of one sound for another or extra sounds added. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic Hoarseness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluency Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Stuttering </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Four Kinds of Articulation Errors
  17. 17. What are SLP’s Looking For? <ul><li>Language Impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Observations to determine how well child uses the Rules of Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Page 191, 4 th Ed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Significance <ul><li>The ability or inability to use speech and language well influences a person’s academics, social world and employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Services should be provided to individuals with speech or language difficulties to enable them to learn how best to communicate successfully with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Page 192, 4 th Ed. </li></ul>
  19. 19. History of the Field <ul><li>S/L problems have been a part of the human condition as long as there have been humans. </li></ul><ul><li>In the past people with S/L Impairments were considered fools or buffoons only good for cruel entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S. speech correction was not available until 20 th Century. </li></ul>
  20. 20. History of the Field <ul><li>1910 – Chicago Public Schools – Speech training program for children who “stammered” </li></ul><ul><li>1914 – First Speech Clinic by Smiley Blanton at the University of Wisconsin </li></ul><ul><li>1925 – American Academy for Speech Correction was formed spearheaded by Robert West. Later became American Speech & hearing Association (ASHA) Page 193, 5 th Ed. </li></ul>
  21. 21. History of the Field <ul><li>Speech clinicians in public schools and military research programs demonstrated that speech therapy can be effective and after the war (WWII) more universities began to train SLP’s. </li></ul><ul><li>1970s were a period of transition and further improvements in the field as more research resulted in new information about S/L Impairments. </li></ul><ul><li>Pages 193-194, 5 th Ed. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Pattern of Development
  23. 23. Prevention and Early Identification <ul><li>Preventative Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper pre-natal care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper immunizations from diseases such as rubella and polio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good childhood nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early ID and Intervention can GREATLY reduce the impact of S/L Impairments on the individual. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Watch For…
  25. 25. Educational Interventions <ul><li>Almost every school in U.S. has access to SLP’s </li></ul><ul><li>General Ed teachers play a crucial role in children’s language development. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers can utilize Instructional Enhancements that encourage expressive and receptive language such as language based games. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative work with teachers and SLP’s are crucial and the shared responsibility for problem definition, planning, provision of services and evaluating outcomes. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Technology <ul><li>Alternative and Augmentative Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Tech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Boards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Tech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech Synthesizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* Video from EDUC 6100 of Autistic Woman in College who used the communication device. AMAZING what she already knew that no one expected. </li></ul></ul></ul>