OLM Science6_6


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Grade 6, Chapter 6

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OLM Science6_6

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Plate Tectonics Inside the Earth Section 1
  2. 2. Earth Layers <ul><li>The Earth is divided into four main layers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Crust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Core </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Crust <ul><li>* The Earth’s crust is like the skin of an apple. It is the outer most layer. </li></ul><ul><li>*The crust makes up 1% of the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>* The crust of the Earth is broken into many pieces called plates. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Mantle <ul><li>The mantle is the layer between the crust & the core. </li></ul><ul><li>The mantle is the largest layer of the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The mantle is divided into two regions: the upper and lower sections. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Core <ul><li>* The core extends from the bottom of the mantle to the center of the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>* The outer core is liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>* The inner core is a solid. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Asthenosphere <ul><li>* Soft layer of the mantle on which pieces of the lithosphere move. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lithosphere <ul><li>The outermost ridge layer of the Earth </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mesosphere <ul><li>Beneath the Asthenosphere is the strongest part of the mantle </li></ul>
  9. 9. Outer Core <ul><li>Liquid layer of the Earth’s core </li></ul>
  10. 10. Inner Core <ul><li>Solid dense center of our planet </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tectonic Plates <ul><li>Pieces of the lithoshpere that move around on the top of the asthenosphere </li></ul>
  12. 12. Chapter 6 Plate Tectonics Restless Continents Section 2
  13. 13. Continental Drift <ul><li>Continents can drift apart from one another and have done so in the past </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Break up of Pangea <ul><li>245 Million years ago </li></ul>
  15. 15. Laurasia & Gondwana <ul><li>180 Million years ago </li></ul>
  16. 16. North America, Eurasia, Africa, India, South America, Antarctica <ul><li>65 Million years ago </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sea-floor spreading <ul><li>How a new oceanic lithosphere is created as older materials are pulled away </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sea-floor spreading
  19. 19. Magnetic Reversal <ul><li>Earth’s magnetic poles change positions </li></ul>
  20. 20. Chapter 6 Plate Tectonics The theory of Plate Tectonics Section 3
  21. 21. Plate Tectonics <ul><li>Earth’s lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move around the top of the asthenosphere </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ridge Push <ul><li>Lithosphere is higher then it is where it sinks beneath the continental lithosphere </li></ul>
  23. 23. Slab Pull <ul><li>When an oceanic plate collides with the continental plate. The oceanic plate is forced into the asthenosphere </li></ul>
  24. 24. Convection <ul><li>Hotter material deep within the Earth rises while cooler material sinks </li></ul>
  25. 25. Convergent Boundaries <ul><li>When two tectonic plates push into one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental/Continental Collisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental/Oceanic Collusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceanic/Oceanic Collusions </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Continental/Continental Collisions <ul><li>When 2 tectonic plates with continental crust collide </li></ul>
  27. 27. Continental/Oceanic Collusions <ul><li>When a tectonic plate with continental crust crashes into a plate with oceanic plates </li></ul>
  28. 28. Oceanic/Oceanic Collusions <ul><li>When two oceanic plates collide </li></ul>
  29. 29. Divergent Boundaries <ul><li>When two tectonic plates move away from one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving apart </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Moving Apart <ul><li>Two tectonic plates move apart from each other </li></ul>
  31. 31. Transform Boundaries <ul><li>The boundary between two tectonic plates that slide past each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sliding Past </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Sliding Past <ul><li>Two tectonic plates slide past each other </li></ul>
  33. 33. Chapter 6 Plate Tectonics Deforming the Earth’s Crust Section 4
  34. 34. Stress <ul><li>The amount of force that is put on a given material </li></ul>
  35. 35. Compression <ul><li>The type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed, when 2 tectonic plates collide </li></ul>
  36. 36. Tension <ul><li>Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object </li></ul>
  37. 37. Folding <ul><li>Rock layers bend due to compression of the Earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syncline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocline </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Anticline
  39. 39. Syncline
  40. 40. Monocline
  41. 41. Fault <ul><li>The surface along which rocks break & slide past each other </li></ul>
  42. 42. Normal Fault <ul><li>The hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall </li></ul>
  43. 43. Reverse Fault <ul><li>The hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall </li></ul>
  44. 44. Strike-slip Fault <ul><li>Rocks break & move horizontally </li></ul>
  45. 45. Folded Mountains <ul><li>Rock layers are pushed upward </li></ul>
  46. 46. Fault Block Mountains <ul><li>Large blocks of the Earth’s crust drop relative to other blocks </li></ul>
  47. 47. Volcanic Mountains <ul><li>Form over the type of convergent boundaries that include subduction zones </li></ul>