OLM Science6_15


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Sixth Grade, Chapter 15

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OLM Science6_15

  1. 1. Chapter 15 The Atmosphere Characteristics of the Atmosphere Section 1
  2. 2. Composition of the Atmosphere <ul><li>Nitrogen is the abundant gas in the atmosphere </li></ul>
  3. 3. Composition of the Atmosphere <ul><li>Oxygen is the second most common gas in the atmosphere </li></ul>
  4. 4. Composition of the Atmosphere <ul><li>1 percent of the atmosphere is made up of argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gases </li></ul>
  5. 5. Air Pressure <ul><li>The measure of the force with which the air molecules push on the surface </li></ul>
  6. 6. Altitude <ul><li>The height of an object above the Earth’s surface </li></ul>
  7. 7. Layers of the Atmosphere
  8. 8. Troposphere <ul><li>Lies next to the Earth’s surface; the lowest layer of the atmosphere </li></ul>                                                         
  9. 9. Stratosphere <ul><li>The atmosphere layer above the Troposphere </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ozone <ul><li>Molecule that is made of three oxygen atoms </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mesosphere <ul><li>Above the stratosphere – Coldest layer of the atmosphere </li></ul>
  12. 12. Thermosphere <ul><li>Uppermost atmosphere </li></ul>
  13. 13. Layers of the Atmosphere
  14. 14. What are the 2 main gasses in the Earth’s atmosphere? <ul><li>Nitrogen & Oxygen </li></ul>What is atmospheric Pressure? The force exerted by molecules on a surface
  15. 15. Name the layers of the atmosphere, starting with the one closest to the Earth? <ul><li>Troposphere </li></ul><ul><li>Stratosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Mesosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Thermosphere </li></ul>
  16. 16. Chapter 15 The Atmosphere Heating of the atmosphere Section 2
  17. 17. Radiation <ul><li>Energy that is transferred as waves </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conduction <ul><li>The transfer of heat from one material to another by direct physical contact </li></ul>
  19. 19. Convection <ul><li>The transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of liquid or gas </li></ul>
  20. 20. Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>The Earth’s heating process, in which the gases in the atmosphere absorb radiation and change that energy into heat. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Global Warming <ul><li>A rise in the average global temperatures </li></ul>
  22. 22. What is Radiation? <ul><li>Energy transferred as waves </li></ul>A metal spoon left in a bowl of hot soup feels hot. Which process is mainly responsible for heating the spoon? Conduction
  23. 23. What is convection current? <ul><li>The continental, circular movement of warm & cool particles in liquid & gas </li></ul>
  24. 24. Chapter 15 The Atmosphere Atmospheric pressure and winds Section 3
  25. 25. Wind <ul><li>Moving Air </li></ul>
  26. 26. Surface Winds <ul><li>Blow from high - pressure areas to equatorial low - pressure areas </li></ul>
  27. 27. Pressure Belts <ul><li>Uneven heating of the Earth produces Pressure Belts These belts occur about every 30 degrees of latitude </li></ul>
  28. 28. Coriolis Effect <ul><li>The curving of moving objects, such as wind, by the Earth’s rotation </li></ul>
  29. 29. Trade Winds <ul><li>Winds that blow from 30 degrees latitude to the Equator </li></ul>
  30. 30. Westerlies <ul><li>Wind belts found in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres between 30 degrees & 60 degrees </li></ul>
  31. 31. Polar Easterlies <ul><li>Wind belts that extend from the poles to 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres </li></ul>
  32. 32. Types of Winds
  33. 33. Jet Streams <ul><li>Narrow belts of high speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere </li></ul>
  34. 34. Sea & Land Breezes
  35. 35. What is wind? <ul><li>Air that flows between air masses </li></ul><ul><li>of different temperatures </li></ul>Describe the general movement of wind over the Earth. Winds generally move from the poles to the equator
  36. 36. What is the Coriolis Effect? <ul><li>The deflection of moving objects due to Earth’s rotation. </li></ul>What are the two types of breezes that result from local topography? Mountain & Valley Breezes
  37. 37. Chapter 15 The Atmosphere The Air We Breathe Section 4
  38. 38. Primary pollutants <ul><li>Pollutants that are put directly into the air by human & natural activity </li></ul>
  39. 39. Secondary Pollutants <ul><li>Pollutants that form from chemical reactions that occur when primary pollutants come into contact with other primary pollutants or with naturally occurring substances </li></ul>
  40. 40. Secondary Pollutants
  41. 41. Industrial Air Pollution <ul><li>Industrial Plants & Electric Power Plants that burn fossil fuels to get their energy </li></ul>
  42. 42. Indoor Air Pollution <ul><li>Household cleaners, air fresheners & smoke from cooking </li></ul>
  43. 43. Acid Precipitation <ul><li>Precipitation that contains acids due to air pollution </li></ul>
  44. 44. Ozone Hole <ul><li>Breakdown of the ozone into oxygen which does not block ultraviolet waves </li></ul>
  45. 45. Scrubber <ul><li>A device that attaches to smokestacks to remove some of the more harmful pollutants before they are released into the air </li></ul>
  46. 46. Classify each of the following as either a primary or secondary air pollution? Smog Secondary Air Pollutant
  47. 47. Chalk Dust Primary Air Pollutant Tobacco Smoke Secondary Air Pollutant Acid Rain Secondary Air Pollutant
  48. 48. What are three sources of outdoor air pollution? <ul><li>Motor Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Power Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Industries </li></ul>
  49. 49. How do scrubbers help reduce air pollution? <ul><li>Scrubbers move gases through a spray of water that dissolves many pollutants before they are released into the atmosphere </li></ul>
  50. 50. References <ul><li>Slides 2, 3 & 4 http://www.dangermouse.net/gurps/amber/atlas/triana.html </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 5 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.truckworld.com/How-To-Tech/03-tire_pressure/03-pressure.html </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 6 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. aseairport .com/ highaltitude .html </li></ul>