Six Sigma [a greek symbol ] represents standard deviation of sample data Coined by Bill Smith Motorola Engineer Circa 1986 Standard deviation is a measure of Variance..
Devil lies in the Variance… An Average process On Average can perform within expectation But its inherent high variance results in failed customer service Consider guaranteed Pizza delivery within 30 minutes.. Where mean delivery time is 24 minutes but SE is 3, such a process will have a large proportion of delayed delivery ~ 31 % [being 2 sigma]
Six Sigma is about controlling variance Reduce Variance … … .. Improve Performance How many SE can you fit within customer expectation? How much does an SE translate into improved performance?
How does 6 measure. 3.4 0.00034% 99.9997% 6 233 0.023% 99.977% 5 6,210 0.62% 99.38% 4 66,807 6.7% 93.3% 3 308,538 30.9% 69.1% 2 691,462 69.1% 30.9% 1 DPMO % Bad % Good Sigma
This means a lot…. Many Times even 6 sigma is not good enough… just imagine flying an airline that assures 6 Sigma on flight success!! 3 6 ~ 900 flights cancellations / week - USA 1 US flight cancellation / 3 weeks Every hour 47,000 ISD calls drop The same number of drops would take 2 years.. ~ 11000 typos in 1 Harry Potter Book ~ 7 typos in 1 Harry Potter Book
History De Moivre Creates normal Curve 1735 1815 Gauss Uses Normal Curve for error analysis, probability 1896 Wilfred Pareto introduces 80/20 1924 Walter A. Shewhart - control chart | special vs. common cause variation >> process problems. 1949 US DOD introduces FMEA 1960 IshiKawa Diagram 1970’s Kano Model 1994 Larry Bossidy Launches 6sigma @ allied Signal 1997 WIPRO - India 1995 Jack Welch - GE 1986 Bill Smith – 6Sigma @ Motorola 1941 Alex Osborn of BBDO sets “brainstorming” definitions
Evolution of Quality Time & motion Studies >> Frederick Taylor 1920 1930 Statistical Sampling – Walter Shewhart 1960 Japan Quality Movement – Taguchi / Ishikawa 1980 Total quality TQM Quality Circles 1986 BPR – Michael Hammer 1940 Statistical Sampling techniques – Deming 1950 Statistical Process control – Juran Deming Feigenbaum 1970 Zero Defects – Philip Crosby 1990 Bill Smith 6 Sigma - Motorola 1996 Six Sigma GE
Customer is Important 1 End Customers’ needs is Primary Customer’s customer Voice of the Customer PIE – Analysis CTQ – based QFD Ishikawa diagrams
Measurement is key Data & Fact driven management measurement systems that track both results and outcomes and Process, Input, and other predictive factors.
Evolve to excel. Continuous Improvement PDCA Control Systems Knowledge systems Improve every process constantly forever..
Total Quality Approach Quality is everything Quality enhances the brand Quality drives growth & revenue Quality can eliminate errors Quality needs increased awareness End Proactive awarding of business on price tag alone-instead minimize total cost
Just do it.. Bring hands-on involved approach to quality.. Institute training on the job Adopt and institute Leadership Drive out fear Break down barriers between staff areas Eliminate Slogans, exhortations and targets for workforce Eliminate numerical quotas Empower employees
Leadership commitment Top Down drive …. … Bottom Up involvement Act not Mouth On the shop floor
Application matrix.. Repetitive One Time Executive Innovative Processes DMAIC Call-Centers BPO/KPO Transactions . Projects DMADV Software Infrastructure New Launches DMEDI Car Models Pharma - Generics Cell phones Hardware New Products IDDOV Shuttles Pharma – BF New Products
DMAIC <ul><li>Focus on reducing variation </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking out of the box </li></ul><ul><li>Managing by output / data </li></ul>Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Opportunity / project Current performance Root causes To eliminate root causes To sustain gains
Overview Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Opportunity / project Current performance Root causes To eliminate root causes To sustain gains Benchmarking FMEA IPO Diagram Kano’s Model Project Charter SIPOC QFD VOC Value Stream Mapping Confidence Intervals Measurement System Analysis Nominal Group Technique Pair-wise Ranking Process Flow Time Value Map Value Stream Mapping Waste Analysis Affinity Diagram Brainstorming Ishikawa e-test F-test Fault Tree Analysis FMEA Histogram Historical Data Analysis Pareto Chart Reality Tree Regression Analysis Scatter Diagram t-test Thematic Content Analysis Tukey End Count Test 5 Whys DFSS DOE Kanban Mistake Proofing PF/CE/CNX/SOP Standard Work Takt Time TOC Total Productive Maintenance Visual Mgmt Work Cell Design 5S - workplace Control Charts Control Plan Reaction Plan Run Charts Standard Operating Procedures
Who is believing? Companies that have implemented..
Vishwanath Ramdas … <ul><li>Process and Business Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Working in areas like ITSM, Software development, process consulting … </li></ul><ul><li>Based in Bangalore [India] </li></ul><ul><li>Visit him @ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://gopu44.googlepages.com </li></ul></ul>