Simplified TRIZ Ellen Domb & Kalevi Rantanen St Lucie PressVishwanath Ramdas
Background - points • Complement tool to many other methods – Theory of Constraints (TOC), Six Sigma, Quality Function Deployment, Taguchi method, DFM-A • Biography of Altshuller / TRIZ – Resident of Baku | tormented by Stalin until 1954 | • Basic Principles – Ideality | Contradiction | Resources | Patterns of Evolution|Innovative Principles – Motivation | Orientation | Internalization | Application | Evaluation | Implementation [Learning cycle] • How does this compare with the Kaplan learning model?Vishwanath Ramdas
Why do good ideas take time to fruition? • Xerox – lithography • Is it sales? – May be no – Richard Foster’s book Innovation • Penicillin – Alex Fleming • National Cash Register continued to • Molok – dust bins advertise electromechanical cash registers in the 1970s • Mcdonalds – Ray kroc • Is it Prejudice? • Horizontal Petro Drilling – We don’t know whats good or Bad? • T – Drill [without T joint] • Appa – jute wire for opening furnace ladles • Flash smelting • Linz donovitz process ….Vishwanath Ramdas
How to know? – 3 features? • Resolves a contradiction [ 2 – dim TOC ] – Tradeoffs / Inherent • Reaches Ideality – All features / No costs * No harmful effects * less complexity • Uses idle resources [no waste – Lean] – Energy / Materials / Information / objects • 2 Views – Mcgregor :: Cristopher Freeman :: Engestrom :: De Bono – Theory Y :: Demand Pull :: Humanized :: Lateral – Theory X :: Science Push :: Rationlized :: StraightVishwanath Ramdas
Motive force for evolution, trade-offs and inherent contradictions and constraints that stop evolution and lead to assumptions and aceptance. == Are Effects / available reserves and properties psychological inertia. that enable the outcomes on the object. Often invisible in the beginning as users are not accustomed to looking at themVishwanath Ramdas
Getting to the ideal final result – completing the model • Features • ARIZ – Whole gamut of components and – Method guide for solving TRIZ functionality • Standards [76 standards] • Patterns – List of system transformations – Soft formulae [ not rigid algorithms!] • Effects • Laws / Innovative Principles – Database of phenomena – Electro, mechanical, chemical, physical • Software – Automated above!Vishwanath Ramdas
Some training standards • Maintain the good / best practices – Some elements like 40 principles that reflects evolution of thinking for innovation should be maintained • General Concepts >> short procedures – Less than 1 page the better [ capability vs usability] • Social network – provide overall concepts – People will internailze and adapt [ don’t regidify!] – Peter Senge and Engestorm. “Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods. You will be certain to ﬁnd something that you have never seen before.” Alexander Graham Bell in the foyer of Bell Labs as observed by ShockleyVishwanath Ramdas
In the 1950s, Altshuller wrote that ﬁnding and resolving contradictions is essential in problem solvingthe same contradictions have been discovered in science,engineering, and business situations that, on the surface, appear to be very different from each other
Draft the problem to expose the tradeoffs. • Problems are sirens OR scylla & Charybdis – Homers illyiad • Understand the problem – 50% solution! – Problem Finding * Problem Solving – The tool – Action / Effect – Object – Defining what is the end outcome / effect on the object / user • A system by its existence creates trade-offs – Its continuous iterative method [TOC] • Define systems not by deficiencies but by trade-offs – Safety reduces X | Safety reduces as speed increases • Describe the systems as Actions & Features – Typically it is easier to describe features [nouns] than actions [verbs] • Trade-offs happen at different system levels – Needs systems thinking e.g. Lawnmover – muffler noise – Study at muffler system | lawnmover system | Garden systemVishwanath Ramdas
Some e.g.s • Lawnmower Muffler Noise • Carrot garden thinning to – Muffler Level ensure no overlap and • Increase muffler thickness / softness – Lawnmower level therefore nutrition supply • Use exhaust differently – Time split – Garden level – Thinning • Use grass to muffle exhaust noise • Right distance between carrots – Also dries grass to reduce stickiness saplings • Why cut grass at all? • Use mechanization in seeding – Growth control – Seeding • Why have grass at all? • Use bio degradable tapes with – Artificial grass standard distances – Grass like lawn effect?Vishwanath Ramdas
Screens of talented thinking [9 screens] • System @ Present • enhance understanding of a problem – expand the areas in which you can look for solutions. • Simplify by asking what is good or bad in a part [de bono forced removal] – what happens if left out? – Alex Osborn • “What can we eliminate?… Suppose we leave this out.…Why not fewer parts?”Vishwanath Ramdas
System operator Concept • Space & time thinking • Systemic thinking • Getting over psychological intertia • Zoom in & out for more frames.Vishwanath Ramdas Darell Manns description of the system operator model from triz journal.
System operator –between the boxes SLP • Step in & view from each room • Small little people – get into the problem • Become the problem [synectics] • E.g.s – Helicopter blades & dust – Airports & People [beyond airport] – Future modelingVishwanath Ramdas Darell Manns description of the system operator model from triz journal.
System operator- additional dimension • Multiple layers of system operator plots – Robert Dilts • One direct application – Map vs territory – Reality vs Perception • Management problems esp. • E.g. – Marks & Spencers products – HR problemsVishwanath Ramdas Darell Manns description of the system operator model from triz journal.
System operator- integrations • Using System operator with other models like – SWOT – Co-optition [M] – Association / Dissociation – VAKOG • Kinesthetics / Olfactory / Gustative / Visual / Auditory /Vishwanath Ramdas Darell Manns description of the system operator model from triz journal.
“Start with the universe, any sub- categorization under that level is purely arbitrary” Buckminster Fuller
Selecting the right trade-off • Iterative Definition of the problem based on state of solution • Available resources & time • Select Effected Components • From the problem to the tradeoff – Describe pairs of tools and objects and the action that links them. [Chain] • Select one pair. Explain why you picked this tool and object. – Describe features and conﬂicts between them. • Select one tradeoff. – Explain why you identiﬁed this tradeoff. – Describe the tradeoff graphically and in words.Vishwanath Ramdas
Selecting the tradeoff - summaryVishwanath Ramdas
crazier the conflict you imagine, the better solution you get.
Inherent contradiction – The root cause? • Solution of this solves many • Much ↔ little : water – Atomized water spray • Focus on one provides – Extinguishers [www.hi-fog.com] better answers • Long ↔ short : training • Presenting & influencing with one is better than • Present ↔ Absent : Object cluttered many.Vishwanath Ramdas
“Most important, we think the excellent companies, if they know any one thing, know how to manage paradox.” Peters and Waterman bestseller “In Search of Excellence” : 1982 - Chapter 4
“Drama is conﬂict; without conﬂict there is no action, without action, no character, without character, no story, without story, no screenplay” Syd Field : The Screen- writer’s Workbook
Intensify the inherent contradiction! • Bizarre but true • Push the contradiction to the extreme!Vishwanath Ramdas
How to intensify contradictionVishwanath Ramdas
Mapping of invisible reservesAndersen’s fairytale :little child saw that the emperor had no clothes. The ancient Mayans used wheels for toys and obviouslyknew how to make wheeled vehicles, but they never built them for any other uses.
Idle resource :: Free or cheap resources that are available in the system.
• What are the invisible resources? – Boundary conditions [ proximal / gray zones] of development • Benefits from resources analysis – Understand customer needs – Foresee the evolution of development • What are the resource types and classes? • The seven most important resources in detailVishwanath Ramdas
Invisible Reserves • Areas for proximal development – Available resource not used – Available resources that can be harnessedVishwanath Ramdas
Resource Analysis - Benefits • Getting new ideas directly • What are the resources – MECE • Solving contradictions – Space | Area | Consumer • Predicting the system • Character of resource evolution – Empty Space | Topology | Time & skills of usersVishwanath Ramdas
Resource Types & Classes • System levels [ref fig] • Type of Resource – Substances and things | Modiﬁed substances and things| Voids | Interactions | energy | Form | Features or properties | Space | Time • Additional resources – Information | Harm – Side FX| skills & abilitiesVishwanath Ramdas
Main Resource Types • Resources of tool & Object – Starting point | How – Interaction needs to be understood • Resources : Environment – Natural Fields & Effects – Emptiness & nothing are also resources – NVA = Wasteful work • Resources : Macro levelVishwanath Ramdas
References • TechOptimizer – The Invention Machine Company, http://www.invention-machine.com. • Ideation Workbench, Ideation International Incorporated, – http://www.ide-ationtriz.com. • TRIZ Explorer , Insytec – http://www.insytec.com. • The TRIZ Journal – http://www.triz-journal.com. • CreaTRIZ & CREAX, – http://www.creax.com. • Engeström Y., Learning by Expanding Orienta-Konsultit, Helsinki, 1987. • Shockley W. The Path to the Conception of the Junction Transistor. – IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. ED-23, no. 7, July 1976, 59Vishwanath Ramdas
References • Foster, R.N., Innovation: The Attacker’s Advantage, Summit Books, New York, 1986. • McGregor, D., The Human Side of Enterprise, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960. • Freeman, C., The Determinants of innovation, Futures, , June 1979, 206. • 4 articles by Darrell Mann The TRIZ Journal on 9 screens methods – http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2001/09/c/index.htm – http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2001/11/b/index.htm – http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2001/12/b/index.htm – http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2001/11/b/index.htm • http://www.google.com/patents?id=KBIBAAAAEBAJ&dq=5,875,658 – Latches & Pins patent from google search.Vishwanath Ramdas
References • Peters, T.J. and Waterman, R.H., In Search of Excellence Harper & Row, New York, 1982, 91. • Field, S., The Screen-Writer´s Workbook Dell, New York, 1984, 31. • Altshuller, G.S., And Suddenly the Inventor Appeared Technical Innovation • Center, Worcester, MA, 1996, 21. • Savransky, S.D., Engineering of Creativity, CRC, Boca Raton, 2000, 235. • Altshuller, G.S. and Shapiro R.B., Psychology of inventive creativity, Izobretenie, II , 23, 2000Vishwanath Ramdas