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Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs


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This presentation involves the Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs, Growth vs Deficit motives , Self-actualization & its characteristics.

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Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs

  1. 1. BIOGRAPHY Name: Abraham Harold Maslow Birth date: April 1, 1908 Birthplace: Brooklyn, New York Parents: Samuel and Rose Maslow
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION:  Maslow believed that human behavior can be explained by the individual’s tendency to seek personal goal states.  Motivational processes are the heart of his personality theory.  In Maslow's system, as one desire is satisfied , another surfaces to take its place.  Motives are innate and they are arranged in an ascending order of hierarchy of priority.  Low orders must be at least somewhat satisfied before an individual can be motivated by another higher-order needs.
  4. 4.  However, there are certain exceptions to this theory.  For eg, there are people who are willing to suffer hunger or even die rather than renounce them.  This was proposed in his paper – A Theory of Human Motivation, in 1943.
  5. 5. Being Needs Deficit Needs
  7. 7.  Mostly, literal requirements for human survival  If not met, the human body cannot function  Metabolic needs – air, water, food, rest  Could be classified as basic animal needs
  9. 9.  Once physical needs are met, safety needs take over.  Health and well-being  Financial, job security  Safety of property against natural disasters, calamities, wars, etc  Law & order  Certain types of neurotic adults are motivated by the search for safety.
  11. 11.  Need to love and be loved  Need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance  Small groups – clubs, office teams, school/college houses  Large groups – political parties, Sports teams, facebook.  Not being loved generates feelings of futility , emptiness and hostility.
  13. 13.  Maslow divided these into 2 types: self-respect and esteem from others.  Self respect includes things like competence, confidence, adequacy, achievement, independence & freedom.  Esteem from others include prestige , recognition, acceptance, attention, reputation etc.  An individual needs to know that he or she is worthwhile.  Satisfaction of this need leads to feelings of self confidence, self-worth, strength and capability.
  15. 15.  If all the lower needs are satisfied , the need for self- actualization comes to the fore.  Self-actualization is the person’s desire for self- improvement.  To reach the peak of one’s potential.  What a man can be, he must be  Intrinsic growth of what is already in a person  Growth-motivated rather than deficiency-motivated  .Rarely happens - < 1%  Acceptance of facts, spontaneous, focused on problems outside self, without prejudice.
  16. 16. NOTE:  Maslow (1970) speculated that the average person has his/her needs met to these levels: • 85% - Physiological • 70% - Safety & Security • 50% - Love & Belongingness • 40% - Self-Esteem • 10% - Self-Actualization
  17. 17. WHY CAN’T ALL PEOPLE ACHIEVE SELF- ACTUALIZATION?  Many people are simply blind to their potential.  They neither know that it exists nor understand the rewards of self-enhancement.  Actualization, on a mass basis is possible only under “good conditions”.  The growth process demands a certain willingness to take risks, to make mistakes, to break old habits.
  18. 18. CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-ACTUALIZERS 1. Perception of reality: The most universal characteristic of these superior people is their unusual ability to perceive other people correctly and efficiently, to see reality as it is, rather than as they wish it to be. They have a better perception of reality and more comfortable relations with it. They do not allow their desires and hopes to distort their observations.
  19. 19. 2. Acceptance of self, others, and nature: Self-actualizers accept themselves as they are, and are not ashamed or guilty about their human nature, with its shortcoming, imperfections, and weaknesses. They are also able to accept others in the same without trying to control them or perfect them in any way.
  20. 20. 3. Spontaneity, Simplicity, Naturalness: Self actualized people are spontaneous, simple, and natural. In other words, this kind of person is not concerned with being as others think they should be. They are individuals who are able to do what feels good and natural, simply because that is how they feel. • Imperfections Self-actualizing people are individuals who are aware of the fact that they are not perfect, that they are as human as the next person, and that there are constantly new things to learn and new ways to grow.
  21. 21. 4. Problem Centering: They are committed to some task,duty,vocation,or beloved job. They are not ego-centered but oriented towards problems beyond their immediate needs. 5. Detachment: They prefer solitude and privacy. They are viewed by “normal” people as aloof, reserved, snobbish and cold.
  22. 22. 6. Autonomous: The self-actualizing person is autonomous meaning they are capable of doing things for themselves and making decisions on their own. They are strong enough to be independent of the good opinion of others. 7.Continued freshness of appreciation: Self-actualizing people have the capacity to appreciate again and again, freshly and naively, the basic goods of life, with awe, pleasure, wonder, and even ecstasy.
  23. 23. 8.Peak or mystic experiences: They have moments of intense excitement and high tensions as well as to those of relaxation, peacefulness, blissfulness and stillness. 9.Social interest: They have a genuine desire to help improve the mankind. There is a special kind of brotherhood. 10. Interpersonal relationship: Self-actualizing people have deep interpersonal relationship with others. These relationships are more likely to be with others who are also self-actualized.
  24. 24. 11. Democratic Character structure: Self-actualized people are said to be democratic. They are able to be friendly with anyone no matter what their background ,class or beliefs are. They believe it is possible to learn something from everyone. 12.Discrimination b/w means & ends: Self-actualizing people have a clear sense of distinction between right and wrong conduct and have little conflict about basic values. They often see as end in itself all what others usually see as means (e.g. eating or exercising).
  25. 25. 13.Sense of philosophical humor: Self-actualizing people laugh but their laugh is never at expense of others feelings. 14.Creativeness: Creativity was more prominent in self-actualizers than others. It maybe humble in nature and can touch virtually all the person’s activities. 15.Resistance to enculturation: These people are in harmony with their culture yet maintain a certain detachment from it.
  26. 26. DEFICIT MOTIVES: Deficit motives are also known as D-Motives. 5 TYPES: a. Their absence produces illness. b. Their presence prevents illness. c. Their restoration cures illness. d. Under certain complex free-choice conditions, they are preferred by the deprived person over other gratifications. e. They are found to be inactive in a healthy person.
  27. 27. GROWTH MOTIVES:  Growth motives are also known as B motives or metaneeds.  They are distinct goals associated with the inborn urge to actualize one’s potential.  They do not involve the repairing of deficit states.  Unsatisfied metaneeds make an individual psychologically “sick”.  The resulting illness is known as “metapathologies.”  Apathy,alienation,depression & cynicism are some of the so-called metapathologies.
  28. 28. THE END