Importance and Relevance of Indigenous Knowledge systemIdentification and Documentation of ITK GOPALA Y.M PAL 1028 I Ph.D. Scholar
INTRODUCTION Why don’t farmers follow the advice we give? 1. Non Suitability of advice 2. Non Relevant advice 3. Ignorance by farmers As a result emphasis was given to participatory approach. This lead the scientific world to concentrate on the ITK
DefinitionWarren (1991) Indigenous knowledge (IK) is the local knowledge –knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society. It is thebasis for local-level decision making in agriculture, health care,food preparation, education, natural-resource management, and ahost of other activities in rural communities.
Flavier et al.(1995) Indigenous Knowledge is the information base for a society, which facilitates communication and decision- making. Indigenous information systems are dynamic, and are continually influenced by internal creativity and experimentation as well as by contact with external systems.
Examples of ITK Medicinal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) Traditional pastoralists as guardians of biological diversity.
Importance of Indigenous Knowledge It provides the basis for problem-solving strategies for local communities, especially the poor. It represents an important component of global knowledge on development issues. IK is an underutilized resource in the development process. Understanding IK can increase responsiveness to clients.
Conti…, Adapting international practices to the local setting can help improve the impact and sustainability of development assistance. Sharing IK within and across communities can enhance cross- cultural understanding and promote the cultural dimension of development The basic component of any country’s knowledge system is its indigenous knowledge. It encompasses the skills, experiences and insights of people, applied to maintain or improve their livelihood
Importance of Indigenous Knowledge for the Poor It is an important part of the lives of the poor It is a integral part of the local ecosystem It is a key element of the “social capital” of the poor; Shape local visions and perceptions of environment and society
Need of study and appreciation of ITK ITK may have scientific basis and its technologies could be transferred to other similar farming situations; documentation and screening of ITK is necessary before the valuable information is lost for ever; ITK may be an alternative, a substitute or a complement to modern technology; ITK may generate ideas for future research It is often easier to secure adoption of ITK than modern technology.
Special Features of Indigenous Knowledge Local Tacit Transmitted orally Experiential rather than theoretical knowledge Learned through repetition Constantly changing
Indigenous knowledge levels for the development process Local community in which the bearers of such knowledge live and produce. Development agents need to recognize it, value it and appreciate it in their interaction with the local communities. Lastly, indigenous knowledge forms part of the global knowledge. Indigenous knowledge can be preserved, transferred, or adopted and adapted elsewhere
Indigenous knowledge is of particular relevance for the following sectors and strategies: Agricultureo Animal husbandry and ethnic veterinary medicineo Use and management of natural resourceso Primary health care (PHC), preventive medicine and psychosocial careo Saving and lendingo Community developmento Poverty alleviation
Identification and documentation of ITKI. Agricultural ProductionSoil ManagementDescription of ITK Farmers’ Logic Probable Scientific ExplanationBurning sugarcane Easy disposal Ensures sanitation and hastrash in the field of trash soil sterilization and priming effectCoconuts garden are Improves nut Tank silt/red earth improvesapplied with 6 to 8 size and yield soil properties and supplytones of tank silt/red nutrientsearth per ha.Crop ManagementSunflower seed soaked Better Acts as a growth retardantin sour butter milk germinationbefore sowing
II. Horticultural ProductionDescription of ITK Farmers’ Logic Probable Scientific ExplanationThe cut ends of plant Better sprouting Reduces desiccation and actscuttings are pasted & rooting as growth promoterwith cowdung ballApplication of 200 ml Improves aroma Ensures availability ofbutter milk to curry enzymes, vitamins andleaf plant every week micro-nutrients
III. Seri cultural ProductionDescription of ITK Farmers’ Logic Probable Scientific ExplanationExposing chandrikas Hastens spinning Warm temperatureto morning sunlight activity of worms increases spinning activity & dries urine of worms and dries urineRemoval of bottom Eliminates Prevents soil borne infectionleaves upto 8 inches soil/dust/yellow and avoids feeding of overabove ground before and over matures matured leaveschopping leaves
IV. Plant ProtectionDescription of ITK Farmers’ Logic Probable Scientific ExplanationSpraying cowdung Cost effective Cowdung is a knownslurry to sapota and control for disinfectantmango plants sooty mouldSpraying jaggery Controls pod Ants and other insectssolution (0.4%) to borer attracted by jaggery destroyredgram pod borer eggs
V. Post Harvest TechnologiesDescription of ITK Farmers’ Logic Probable Scientific ExplanationNeem leaves are put in Controls storage Neem leaves affect hatchingpulse bags for storage insect repellent storage pests eggsBunching local small Enhance self-life Hanging prevents rodentonion and hanging to damage & the higherthe roof temperature & air circulation near the roof has a curing effectMixing wood ash for Controls storage The fine powder of ash acts asstoring pulses pests a physical barrier & also blocks respiration system in storage pests
VI. Animal HealthDescription of ITK Farmers’ Logic Probable Scientific Explanation100g of fresh papaya Cost effective Acts as a helminterseeds are crushed & dewormingadministered in 1 liter of medicinewater to clavesAdministering a handful Stops Restores electrolyte imbalanceof salt in 4 liter of water diarrheaor a handful of saltmixed in cattle feedApplication of cashew Fast healing Acts as antiseptic, naturalshell oil/fresh cowdung of wounds disinfectant and softens theto cattle wounds wound site
Conclusion Not all indigenous practices are beneficial to thesustainable development of a local community; and not all IKcan provide the right solution for a given problem. Therefore,before adopting IK, integrating it into development programs,or even disseminating it, practices need to be scrutinized fortheir appropriateness.