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Fashion and Lifestyle magazines in China

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This is the slides I made for my lecture on fashion and lifestyle magazines in China for the Popular China course in University of Sydney

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Fashion and Lifestyle magazines in China

  1. 1. Fashion and Lifestyle Magazines in China: past, present, and theories
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical approaches </li></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>Shanghai courtesan style in late 19 th century and feminist style in early 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmopolitan lifestyle magazines in Shanghai in the 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>The War Eras (1937-1945; 1945-1949) </li></ul><ul><li>The Maoist Era </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion magazines in the 1980s </li></ul>
  4. 4. Shanghai courtesan style in late 19 th century and feminist style in early 20 th century
  5. 5. cosmopolitan lifestyle magazines in the 1920s and 1930s <ul><li>Linglong 玲瓏 1932-1937 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shanghai’s elegant women, those whom Linglong addressed, were well-educated and well-off. They were open-minded and broadly interested: hungry for gossip about glamorous foreign movie stars as well as the newest Shanghai fashions, about admirable foreign scientific discoveries as well as the latest Shanghai department store opening; they were eager for advice on how to kiss and how to be happy without a man, on how to sew a fashionable qipao and how best to fight Japanese aggression ” </li></ul>“ Ling Long magazine is the mouthpiece of all Chinese women. It is also a guide of life for all Chinese women. ” -- Ma Ji ( Issue 128, 1934. p. 159 )
  6. 6. The War Eras (1937-1945; 1945-1949)
  7. 7. The Maoist Era <ul><li>Long sleeves, long trousers, high necklines and buttons ensured that little flesh was exposed… Urban hairstyles were mainly short, either bobbed or in tight plaits and pig-tails </li></ul><ul><li>Harriet Evans (1997, p.134) </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Maoist Era <ul><li>People’s Pictorial (Renmin Huabao) 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>People’s Pictorial (Renmin Huabao) 1971 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fashion in the 1980s <ul><li>Picture from: http://news.tom.com/1002/3291/200597-2452894.html </li></ul>Dazhong Dianying (Popular Film) , Nov. 1986
  10. 10. Fashion magazines in the 1980s <ul><li>Fashion trade magazines with tailor patterns – Fashion (Shizhuang) </li></ul><ul><li>Failed magazines which targeted consumers – Consumers (Xiaofeizhe) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Inside pages of Fashion (Shizhuang) in the early 1980s
  12. 12. Present <ul><li>The glossy magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation and policy </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity and temptations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Market distribution Top 10 magazines in advertising revenue among all magazines published in mainland China, 2006
  14. 14. Glossy magazines <ul><li>Led by four magazine groups </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright collaboration </li></ul>
  15. 15. Regulation and policy <ul><li>Media regulation and policy in China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely authoritarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frequent changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periodical publishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most magazines: no longer subsidized by the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trinity in management (policy, marketing, content) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loose control on advertisement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Picture from Techluver.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://techluver.com/2007/12/13/rupert-murdochs-dow-jones-dream-about-to-come-true-as-proxy-count-shows-buyout-approved/ </li></ul>
  16. 16. Hachette Filipacchi <ul><li>Elle </li></ul><ul><li>Marie Claire </li></ul><ul><li>25 Ans </li></ul><ul><li>Car & Driver </li></ul><ul><li>Woman’s Day </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologies </li></ul><ul><li>Quo </li></ul><ul><li>Elle Décor </li></ul><ul><li>BMW </li></ul><ul><li>Mercedes-Benz </li></ul><ul><li>(back) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Trends magazine group <ul><li>Cosmopolitan </li></ul><ul><li>Esquire </li></ul><ul><li>Trends Home </li></ul><ul><li>Trends Health (Woman) </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s Health </li></ul><ul><li>Traveler </li></ul><ul><li>Bazaar </li></ul><ul><li>Good Housekeeper </li></ul><ul><li>Trends Time </li></ul><ul><li>National Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Autostyle </li></ul><ul><li>FHM </li></ul><ul><li>Food&Wine </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmopolitan Bride </li></ul><ul><li>Robbre Report </li></ul><ul><li>(Back) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Shishang Cosmopolitan ‘ The most tasteful women’s magazine in China’ <ul><li>《时尚 ·COSMOPOLITAN 》读者构成       </li></ul><ul><li>最具消费能力的女性群体  A group of women who have the highest capacity of consumption ) </li></ul><ul><li>性 别 比 例: Gender Ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>女性占 84.42% , Female 84.42% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>男性占 18.6% ; Male 18.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>年龄段 比 例: Age Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24 岁以下占 30.2%, Under 24 30.2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25-34 岁占 48.6%, 25-34 48.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35 岁 -44 岁占 12.8%, 35-44 12.8% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42 岁以上占 8.4% ; above 42 8.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>收 入 比 例: Level of Salary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2999 元以下的占 16.4% , under 2999 16.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3000-4999 元的占 24.6% , 3000-4999 24.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5000-9999 元占 35.1% , 5000-9999 35.1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10000 元以上占 23.9% ; more than 10000 23.9% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>受教育程度比例: Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>高中文化程度占 6.6% , High School 6.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>大学文化程度占 82% , Bachelor Degree 82% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>研究生或更高学历的占 11.4% 。 Master Degree or Higher 11.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(back) </li></ul></ul>Picture and data from trendmag.com
  19. 19. Rayli magazine group <ul><li>Rayli: Fushi Meirong (Clothes and Cosmetics) </li></ul><ul><li>Rayli: Yiren Fengshang (for Office Lady) </li></ul><ul><li>Rayli: Shishang Xianfeng (for Free Sprited Women) </li></ul><ul><li>Rayli: Jiaju Sheji (Home and Design) </li></ul><ul><li>(back) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Rayli: Yiren Fengshang (for office lady) The second most circulated women’s fashion magazine in China Picture and data from:
  21. 21. Condé Nast <ul><li>Vogue </li></ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><li>(back) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Diversity and temptations <ul><li>Men’s magazines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FHM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxim </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gay men’s magazines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men’s Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men’s Box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men’s Style </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Small scale media groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision magazine group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent magazines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation X and Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on individuality and creativity </li></ul></ul>Diversity and Alternatives
  24. 24. Theoretical approaches: a media studies perspective <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global and Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing audience studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research on Shanghai beauty salon readers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion industry, shopping, and metropolitan city space </li></ul>
  25. 25. Semiotics <ul><li>The signified and signifier </li></ul><ul><li>Roland Barthes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… dress… whose individual elements never have any values and which are signifiers only in as much as they are linked by a group of collective norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- History and Sociology of Clothing pp. 7 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Class <ul><ul><li>Georg Simmel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trickling down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thorstein Veblen </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ conspicuous consumption’ (The Theory of the Leisure Class 1899) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese sociologist Zhou Xiaohong: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the beginning of the 1990s, when the first middle-class oriented magazine Trends shyly made its debut in China, many people still found over-consumption and pre-mature consumption wrong deed. However, at present, dozens of glossy lifestyle magazines focus on promoting the middle-class to consume, consume, and consume. Consumption becomes a main way for the middle-class to find their identities. (2006) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Gender <ul><li>Betty Friedan: the feminine mystique </li></ul><ul><li>Marjorie Ferguson: the cult of femininity </li></ul>
  28. 28. Winship (1987) <ul><li>three main appeals the majority of British woman’s magazines have for women: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide practical tips for woman to survive from the patriarchal society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an ideal fantasy world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate a fictional collective of women </li></ul></ul>Presented by Zou Peng
  29. 29. Joke Hermes (1995) <ul><li>Fallacy of meaningfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Repertoires: the cultural resources that speakers fall back on and refer to. Which repertoires are used depends on the cultural capital of an individual reader </li></ul><ul><li>Repertoires employed in the reading of woman’s magazines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy put down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional learning and connected knowing </li></ul></ul>Presented by Zou Peng
  30. 30. March 2008, Beijing
  31. 31. Shopping sites: heterotopia?
  32. 32. Production <ul><ul><li>… one of the significant features of fashion journalism is that it is set apart from other forms of journalism. The fashion media finds itself more closely linked with the fashion industry than would be the case in other journalist fields. The low status of fashion writing within the hierarchical field of print journalism pushes those who work in fashion closer together. The writers, photographers, fashion assistants and contributing editors share the same ‘fashion world’ as the designers, the company directors, the press officers and publicity personnel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Angela McRobbie (1998:152) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Global and Local <ul><li>Globalisation? Localisation? Glocalisation? </li></ul><ul><li>Regionalisation? Or what? </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and copyright collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion influences </li></ul><ul><li>Questions about the fashion industry </li></ul>Elegant south Song Dynasty , Bazaar China, October Issue. Picture from Trends.com.cn
  34. 34. REFERENCES <ul><li>Barthes, R. (1983). The Fashion System (1st ed.). New York: Hill and Wang. </li></ul><ul><li>C.V. Starr East Asian Library. (2005). Ling Long Women's Magazine: Shanghai 1931 -1937. from http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/digital/collections/linglong/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Evans, H. (1997). Women and sexuality in China : dominant discourses of female sexuality and gender since 1949 . Oxford, UK: Polity Press in association with Blackwell. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferguson, M. (1983). Forever feminine : women's magazines and the cult of femininity . London ; Exeter (NH): Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Friedan, B. (1963). The feminine mystique . London: Gollancz. </li></ul><ul><li>Hermes, J. (1995). Reading women's magazines : an analysis of everyday media use . Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. </li></ul><ul><li>McRobbie, A. (1998). British fashion design: rag trade or image industry? London ; New York: Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Simmel, G. (1958). Fashion. The American Journal of Sociology 62 (6), 541-558. </li></ul><ul><li>Veblen, T. (1973). The theory of the leisure class . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. </li></ul><ul><li>Winship, J. (1987). Inside women's magazines . London ; New York: Pandora. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou, X. H. (2005). Zhongguo zhongchan jieji diaocha (Chinese Middle-class Survey) : Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chu Ban She: Beijing. </li></ul>

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