Header slide Quote: Eco Construction web site. Apple globe images: King's College Cambridge, CB2 1ST, United Kingdom.
Energy and its Usage One third of energy usage comes from the household A UK household creates 6 tonnes of CO 2 every year Electricity usage has doubled since the 1970’s ¾ of the UK electricity is generated by coal and gas plants. Energy usage can be split between three main usage areas industry, transport and household. As well as improving our understanding within our eco-development and community we can also use our consumer power to strive for improvements in the other two areas of usage almost everything we do, use, purchase has an energy cost. One of the driving forces to make existing builds and new builds as energy efficient as possible and limit the consumption of energy in our homes is climate change. Many of the appliances within our homes have now become essential to assist us with our busy lifestyles. We also have the addition of many modern must haves and gadgets for entertainment pleasure and enjoyment. The production of energy from these fossil fuels means not only is the source not sustainable there are also CO 2 emissions and other pollutants produce and released into the air at the point of production and usage. Nuclear power is also used but this has its own downsides not only does it involve a large power station it is expensive to produce and creates dangerous waste.
Solar Power Energy collected from the sun on the solar panel is converted into electricity. Excess energy can be saved if for your own use or it can be sold back to the national grid. Wind Power. Wind turbines converts the kinetic energy provided by the wind through a generator into electricity. There are various scales of sizes of turbines ranging from commercial wind farms to small individuals turbines for personal use. Both of these sources are dependent on the amount of wind and sunshine. Technology is continually advancing to reduce this issue. However when both sources are used together they can work from each others strengths. The solar power being the stronger provider during the summer months and the wind during the winter. They are also extremely accessible when considering housing development. Water/Tide/Wave. Energy generated by running water has been used for many hundreds of years powering water wheels in mills. The main problem involved with the use of water is how to capture the energy and convert it into electricity. Dams are used to control the flow of water through generators to create energy. However capturing the power of a wave or the tide is not easy. Biomass. This process involves burning a renewable material i.e. animal manure, wood, plants to produce energy. This is a low carbon process. It can be used effectively to provide power to small communities and especially well when used for household heating via a pellet boiler or stove. Turbine photo: Fluorescent Efficiency Available from:www.fluorescentefficiency.com Wave photo: Clifton Mair
The code offers a framework for developers to improve the overall sustainability of new builds. It was introduced in England in April 2007 and is a voluntary standard. Each category has a scoring system, credits are not awarded for mandatory requirements. Sustainability is measured against nine categories Energy & CO 2 Emissions, Water, Materials, Surface Water Run-Off, Waste, Pollution, Health and Wellbeing, Management, Ecology. Energy and CO2 Emissions Dwelling & Emission Rate The lower the CO 2 emissions rate the higher the score for this category the score is taken on the basis of a operational energy requirement this may vary once the house was occupied due to individual users. Building Fabric, This is to ensure the energy efficiency of the house. Internal Lighting, To ensure energy efficient lighting is installed. Drying Space, To discourage the use of tumble dryers and ensure that sufficient natural drying space is available. Energy Labelled White Goods, When white goods are integrated within the development provision must be made that they are energy efficient. External Lighting, To ensure energy efficient lighting is installed. Low to Zero Carbon (LZC) Technologies The use and generation of renewable energy sources to supply the property. Reduction in emissions by the use of renewable sources will results in credits. Cycle Storage To discourage the use of cars on short journeys and encourage the use of bicycles sufficient secure space should be available for storage. Home Office With it becoming increasingly easier to work from home sufficient space should be made available. This will reduce the need to travel to and from the place of work. Updated 6 Monthly Technical information and requirements within the code are reviewed on a 6 monthly basis ensuring the code is kept up to date.
When you flick the switch to turn on telly or a light, turn up the heating do you stop and think where that energy is coming from? There are hundreds of tips to conserve and reduce our energy consumption within our home. Switch to a green tariff Use energy efficient light bulbs Only boil the water you need to use Only use dishwashers and washing machines on full loads Buy energy efficient white goods Remember Don’t Standby, Switch Off ALMOST EVERYTHING WE DO, USE OR PURCHASE HAS AN ENERGY COST
Construction covers not only the materials used but also the proximity o the source of those materials and the location of the labour force undertaking the construction.
As an example for getting it right from the start, the 1970’s Holly Street Estate in London had to be demolished and rebuilt only 20 years into its planned 60 life, at a cost of £92 m. Not only are the type of materials to be used of importance the longevity of those materials should also be a consideration in reducing not only future costs but also environmental impact by reducing future development needs. Quality and durability are vital aspects of building materials. For some recycled materials such as bricks, slates or timber, appearance will not be good-as-new, but will be compensated for by other aspects of quality. For others, such as ‘plastic’ wood used as interior or exterior trim, durability will be as good or better than the conventional product, but aspects such as behaviour when exposed to UV light and methods of fixing need to be checked. The labour skills required are also in constant need of renewal and trained local people add to the local economy and reduce the carbon footprint during the construction period.
These aims were drawn up in 2007 and reflect the need to have local labour with the correct skills in the area. Interestingly fifty years ago before cars and vans were so prevalent this was the case. People also built in local material and reused any that were to hand.
Cob is a very old method of building with earth and straw or other fibers. It is quite similar to adobe in that the basic mix of clay and sand is the same, but it usually has a higher percentage of straw mixed in. Instead of creating uniform blocks to build with, cob is normally applied by hand in large gobs (or cobs) which can be tossed from one person to another during the building process. The traditional way of mixing the clay/sand/straw is with the bare feet; for this reason, it is fairly labour intensive. Poured earth is similar to ordinary concrete, in that it is mixed and formed like concrete and uses Portland cement as a binder. The main difference is that instead of the sand/gravel used as an aggregate in concrete, poured earth uses ordinary soil and generally uses less Portland cement. Poured earth could be considered a &quot;moderate strength concrete.&quot; Little to no maintenance is required of poured earth walls, since they have a high resistance to the deteriorating effects of water and sun. Straw is a great insulator, is breathable, filters air, and works as a heat exchanger. Straw is a low cost, renewable resource is quick to grow & is low energy to produce. It is durable, easy to build with & to maintain. Bales of straw contain very little air & therefore do not burn easily. There are two major categories of building with strawbales: load-bearing and non-load bearing. A post and beam framework that supports the basic structure of the building, with the bales of straw used as infill, is the most common non-load bearing approach. While there are many load- bearing strawbale buildings that are standing just fine, care must be taken to consider the possible settling of the strawbales as the weight of the roof, etc. compresses them. Timber frame has a minimum of heavy-duty timbers, beams and posts to create strong and versatile load-bearing structures, which can then be completed by either in-filling between the wooden structural members, or completely wrapping them with a variety of other materials. Timber fame photo: Border Oak Straw bale photo: Andrew Morrison Cob photo: Geneses projects
Slate. Slate is probably the most durable roofing material, but it can be expensive. Slate will last a long time, but the fasteners that adhere it to the roof deck will wear out after about 100 years. As a natural material, slate is extremely durable and also recyclable. Since slate is extracted from the earth, it is a non-renewable resource, and the embodied energy taking it from quarry to rooftop leaves a large footprint. Reclaimed slate is readily available. Clay tiles. These have a life span of 50+ years with good insulation value. Clay roofing tiles can come in lighter colours which adhere to the cool roof standards and can reflect well over 50% of the sun’s solar energy. Clay roofs are often a little pricier than conventional roofs. Thatch. Thatch is a natural reed and grass which, when properly cut, dried, and installed, forms a waterproof roof. Traditionally thatchers use locally available materials. If local farmers were growing wheat, then wheat reed or straw was used. Rye, barley and oat straw, and even heathers have been used. In wet lowlands, sedge has been a traditional thatch, particularly for ridging material. Thatch can last up to sixty years. 5 to 6 foot bundles of reeds are laid atop one another so that an impenetrable shell covers a roof. Thatch is extremely thermally efficient – warm in winter and cool in summer, thatched roofs require no attic ventilation. Green Roof . Proven innovations in eco-roof design and technology over the past 30 years in Germany, have made green roofs practical and economically feasible. While the requirements of an eco-roof are relatively modest, the environmental, economic and green building benefits can be tremendous. Such a roof system is lightweight, provides waterproofing while extending the roof membrane life and covers the entire roof with a growing medium that supports low vegetation. Wood Shingle. These are recyclable and are of renewable materials, the wood used should originate from managed forests that take into account environmental, social and economic factors. They are light in weight, have a low rate of expansion and contraction, and have the added benefit of being easy to install and maintain. Wood shingles and shakes can have high natural durability. Resistance to rot is one of the most important properties to consider when using wood shingles and shakes. However, erosion may occur due to weathering, and therefore it is necessary to protect them for effectiveness and longevity. Such a roof covering will last over 20 years and with preservative treated up to 40 years. Rubber slates. These are made out of the same material car bumpers are made of. They look like an original old welsh slate and have excellent weathering, just like a natural slate. They are Impermeable to Water Won't Lift, cup, warp, break or delaminate due to weather and are usually backed by a 50 year warranty. Thatcher photo: Mike Brand
Natural insulation is thermally more efficient than mineral fibre products. Overall, their impact on the environment is much less than that of conventional insulation products. All natural insulation materials are made from renewable plant or animal sources; their manufacturing processes use very little energy; they are safe for installers and pleasant to handle; and they are re-usable or biodegradable at the end of a building’s life. They are also produced locally. Once installed in buildings, the benefits of natural insulation materials are even more marked. They have the ability to ‘breathe’, meaning they can absorb airborne moisture (resulting naturally from of human activity and the weather) and release it again when the air is drier, keeping the relative humidity in the room stable, at a comfortable level for the occupants. Flax insulation can hold up to 25% of its weight in water before starting to lose its thermal capacity. This reduces the risk of condensation since the insulation acts as a reservoir. It has good thermal properties and includes no synthetic material. It is grown in the UK and is renewable. Wool insulation has low embodied energy, hygroscopic and good thermal acoustic performance, is non toxic, renewable and safe to handle. Cellulose fibre loft insulation manufactured from 100% recycled waste newspaper that can be poured between joists. It combines high levels of thermal performance with excellent environmental credentials, and has been used by national housebuilders, local authorities and housing associations over the last 20 years. Eco fibre is manufactured from 85% recycled plastic bottles, the other 15% being polyester to bind the insulation together. It has the same thermal efficiency as glass fibre but without the free floating fibres. Suitable for lofts, timber frame walls and roofs. This product saves energy and puts to good use all those plastic bottles we discard.
Plaster Lime plaster produces a breathable and elastic surface which helps reduce the risk of mould development and dry rot. Made essentially from calcium hydroxide and sand, it slowly turns into limestone when exposed to free carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Hemp Plaster is a ready mixed plaster made from the chopped stem of the industrial hemp plant and reacted with lime and pozzolan (a vitreous siliceous material which reacts with calcium hydroxide). An additional positive aspect of the plaster’s curing process is that during hardening the plaster absorbs up to 0.66kg of atmospheric CO 2 per m2 of 10mm thickness. This is additional to the CO 2 encapsulated by the hemp component of the plaster. Earthen plaster provide a beautiful, soft, and an organic finishing to walls.It is mixed from ingredients such as sand & clay, and fibers such as straw and cow manure. Paint Eco Paints are paints which do not contain Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), they do not ‘outgas’and make the air in our homes toxic. A VOC is a substance which volatilises, it becomes a gas. Natural paints are based on clays and do not smell. They allow the walls to ‘breathe’, so air and moisture can move through. Plant oils, resins and mineral paints are healthy to use and better for the environment. Free from toxic emissions they allow surfaces to breath and improve indoor air quality considerably. They are virtually odour free and cover well. Clay Paints are made from naturally occurring clays and come in a range of natural earth tones and vibrant colours. They create a warm ambiance and constitute a functional wall treatment that respires with your environment. Clay Paints are extremely low-odour during application and can be used on most interior surfaces including previously painted surfaces, new drywall, various plasters, and masonry. Milk paint (or cottage cheese) , made from the milk protein casein, was used in the tombs of pharaohs and the earthy hues have a rich look. It works best on porous surfaces but can adheres to drywall. Potato paint made from potatoes, chalk and pigment Paper Recycled wallpaper printed with natural vegetable dyes. Natural fibre ‘wall paper’ is available such as Bamboo, Burlap, Arrowroot-grass, Sisal, Seagrass, Jute and hemp cloths. Wallpaper paste can be self made using flour, water, alum and cloves. Earth plastering Photo: Brian Liloia Seagrass wallpper Photo: Luius Allen
This development was intended to demonstrate what is possible rather than provide a model for new development. It is recognised that not all features would be economically viable. Another example: Comely Green Place A development by a Registered Social Landlord (RSL) of housing for rent which is built at high density on a central urban site. The scheme comprises linked blocks of four storey flats enclosing a central courtyard - a housing form which is traditional in Scotland for all social groups. A limited number of recycled materials were used but the scheme exhibits several sustainable features. The project won an environmental award from Chartered Institute of Housing (Scotland) Recycled newspaper insulation (Warmcell) Concrete blocks 85% waste Roof tiles 85% slate waste (product name: 'Redland Recycled') Exceeded conventional construction cost by 4% but energy efficiency will reduce life cycle costs.
Waste is “ any substance or object which the holder discards or intends to or is required to discard” (University of Aberdeen, 2009). Household waste is produced on a daily basis and can include food scraps, paper, cardboard, packaging, garden material, water and energy wastage. Photo: Easy stock photos Available from: http://www.easystockphotos.com/objects/funnyrubbishbin.html
In 2005/2006 the total amount of the UK’s household waste was 28.7 million tonnes, 78% of this waste was not recycled. Household energy use accounts for more than a quarter of all energy used in the UK. The typical household wastes around a third of that energy each year. This wastage amounts to £7.5 billion with £3 billion being wasted on electricity alone. This massive waste of energy has a serious impact on the environment and is contributing to climate change. In 2005 groundwater levels were the lowest they have been for 20 years, the UK has less water than the hotter Mediterranean countries and we are using 50% more water than we did 25 years ago.
If we carry on wasting energy in these vast quantities energy supplies will cease to exist, they are already dwindling. The UK has become a net importer of gas and will become a net importer of oil by 2010. Landfill is a major source of Methane (a gas contributing to climate change). Methane is produced when biodegradable materials such as paper and food wastes decompose in the absence of oxygen. Climate change is massively affecting and destroying our planet, in order to save the planet we need to combat climate change, and therefore reduce our household waste. By wasting less energy utility bills will be cheaper and energy more affordable. Water is one of the earth’s most valuable resources. Water transportation and treatment requires large amounts of energy with the consequent impact on the environment that arises from this. The more water that is used in our homes, the less there is available in rivers, lakes and wetlands. By reducing our water wastage we are also helping to maintain food sources for the wildlife that live in these habitats.
There are many ways in which we can help to reduce our household waste. Food and garden wasted can be composted. Composting is “ Micro-organisms in the waste break down biodegradable material to produce compost” (Environmental Services Association, 2009). This waste can either be composted at home in a compost bin or in central composting facilities. By composting our food and garden waste we are again reducing our waste, and creating a compost to use on our gardens, also saving us money. By recycling as much as we can we can reduce our waste in turn increasing the space in landfills and the amount of methane released into our atmosphere. By recycling and turning these products into new materials we are also reducing the need to use valuable resources Recycling is “the conversion of waste products into new materials” (Web School, 2009). The majority of our waste goes to landfill sites and only 18% is recycled or composted. On average every household in the UK throws away one two-litre plastic bottle every day, this plastic takes hundreds of years to biodegrade. Many household items can be recycled these include: paper including newspapers, cardboard, plastic, glass, aluminum and steel cans, clothes shoes and textiles, computers, car batteries, engine oil garden waste (which can also be composted) Energy from waste - energy recovery goes hand-by-hand with waste elimination. There are different ways of getting energy from waste: incineration, gasification, anaerobic digestion,…. traditionally, the most used one has been incineration, although the other treatments are emerging technologies that are being quickly extended. Image: Microphilox
We can tackle our energy waste and help to reduce our bills by ensuring our houses are as insulated as possible, draft proofing our houses and ensuring our windows are double or triple glazed. By using the sun to produce energy through solar panels you are reduce the need to use non-renewable energy. Turn your thermostat down to reduce your room temperature and cut your heating bills by up to 10 percent. If your washing machine is only half full use the economy mode and turn the temperature down reducing the amount of electricity needed. Completely filling your washing machine (or using an economy/half load cycle when this is not possible) will reduce your CO2 emissions by 45kg a year. The same goes for your dishwasher. Close your curtains at dusk. This will stop heat escaping through the windows. Turn your lights off when leaving a room. This can cut your electricity bill and reduce wasted electricity. Using energy efficient light bulbs can save you around £40 over the lifetime of the bulb which lasts up to 10 times longer that ordinary bulbs. Turn off appliances instead of leaving them on standby. 8% of electricity is wasted because the appliances are left on standby instead of being switched off, and items on standby use 85% of the energy they would use when turned on. You could save £37 a year if you just switched it off. Only filling the kettle with as much water as needed will help to use less electricity. Buying a computer? Buy a laptop instead. A laptop uses 15% less power. Photo: Maholo
By installing systems to recycle our water we can help to cut our water wastage. Install a water butt to collect rain water, which can be used to water the garden and wash your car. On average a garden hose uses 10 L per minute About a third of water usage within the household is from flushing the toilet. The waste water from baths and showers could be recycled and used to flush our toilets. This water can be collected, treated and pumped to the toilet from your home. Another alternative to the conventional toilet is composting toilets. These toilets are waterless and compost your waste safely into a fertilizer, which can then be used on the garden. A water saving device such as a Hippo could be installed in your cistern. This device saves approximately 3 L of water every time the toilet is flushed, and will save you money. Be aware of the amount of water you are using and think about how you can reduce this. On average a bath uses 80 L of water where as a shower uses 35 L. A washing up bowl uses 6 L where as a dishwasher uses 55 L. Have a shower instead of a bath and wash the dishes by hand think how much water you will be saving. Poster image: WATER WASTE MEANS WATER SHORTAGE&quot;, 1941 – 1945. Available on http://www.bringinghistoryhome.org/Activities/fifth/grade5_unit2_activity5.htm
What is a Carbon Footprint? Although the term has been widely used over the last few years, there is still confusion over what a carbon footprint actually is. There is no consensus on how to measure or quantify a carbon footprint. Definitions vary from direct CO 2 emissions to all substances with potential greenhouse warming effect. As you can imagine these would produce very different results, so which one is right? Definitions The common theme in definitions is that a carbon footprint measures the amount of gaseous emissions (related to climate change) associated with human activity. But there isn’t consistency as to whether this is just CO 2 emissions or all greenhouse gases. Also, should it account for direct emissions or should it include all indirect emissions too? World Image: courtesy RBS
Although there are several greenhouse gases (GHG) which are contributing to climate change, it is CO 2 which is the most important for individuals. So for the purpose of this assignment I shall use the Energy Saving Trust definition as it is the most relevant to homes (see slide). Foot Image: Ki Barnes
Using renewable energy to heat your home is an alternative solution to current methods, and should be something considered for all new builds and eco-homes. There are several alternatives to reduce your CO 2 emissions which do not rely on fossil fuels. Ground source heat pumps work by transferring heat from the ground through a network of looped pipes buried underground, to your home. They could be used for under floor heating, or for heating your water. Ground source heat pumps could save up to 7.5 tonnes of CO 2 emissions and up to £1000 off your bills. Alternatively there are also Air and Water Heat Pumps. Solar Water Heating is a renewable energy source using the heat from the sun to heat water. Collected through solar panels, this works alongside the usual water heater and provides 1/3 of hot water needs. For gas heated properties, this method could save up to 325kg of CO 2 each year, but more could be saved if oil was used instead Biofuel is considered a carbon neutral heat source. This is because it only produces the same amount of CO 2 as the biomass absorbs whilst growing. The primary method of using biofuel is through wood burning stoves and a biomass boiler could save up to £470 of your heating bills. This method of renewable energy is particularly sustainable, especially when biofuel is sourced locally. It is also considered a method of waste control.
Heating your Home -Not everyone can afford to install renewable energy solutions to heat their homes. But you can still reduce your CO 2 emissions by heating your home more efficiently, and you’ll save money too! Condensing boilers By law, all new boilers must be of the high efficiency condensing type. Any boiler over 15 years old should be replaced. A condensing boiler works by recovering waste heat which is usually lost in conventional boilers. By installing a condensing boiler you can significantly cut your CO 2 emissions and save up to £275 a year. Insulating your hot water tank with a ‘jacket’ could save up to 200kg of carbon dioxide a year. A jacket which is 75mm thick will cut down heat loss by 75%. Double glazing cuts heat loss down by 50%. Double glazing can cut CO 2 emissions by 720kg a year. If you can’t afford to double glaze your whole house, install them into the rooms you spend the most time in (and heat more). Or alternatively, if you have a prevailing wind on one side of your house, install double glazing on this side to reduce draughts. At minimum go for a ‘C’ rated energy efficient window’ Turning down your thermostat by just 1 can save you up to £65 a year. But more could be saved. To be more energy efficient, set your thermostat to your lowest comfortable temperature. It takes a while for the house to cool down, so turn off your heating before you leave the house and before you go to bed. Also, the heating does not need to be on while no one is in the house. So turn it off and set it to turn on before you come home. Water Temperature Your hot water doesn’t need to be scalding – turn the thermostat down to 60 C. Any higher and you’re just wasting energy. Close your curtains and reduce the amount of heat escaping through the windows Radiators -Bleeding radiators will keep them working to their maximum output as unwanted air would have been removed. Also, have thermostats on radiator valves, this will enable the temperature in rooms not being used to be reduced. Under floor insulation for suspended timber floors could save 250kg of CO 2 a year. A poorly insulated roof can lose up to ¼ of the heat from your home. Loft insulation is the most cost effective way to reduce heat loss, saving up to 1000kg of CO 2 . Draught Proofing In a typical home, 20% of heat loss is through draughts. By draught proofing (simply filling in the gaps), you can reduce the amount of heat lost, and cold air coming into your home. Draught proofing is easy to do, could save around 150kg of carbon dioxide and can save £30 a year on heating bills. Photo: CSI-Ltd
Electronics and Appliances Now we know how we can heat our homes more efficiently, we need to know how our electrical goods and appliances also have an effect on our carbon footprint. CFC Free Appliances Many appliances in your home such as your refrigerator, contains chemicals called Chlorofluorocarbon (or even fluorocarbon (FC’s)). These chemicals contribute to the greenhouse effect. Many appliances are now being made which are CFC free. Look out for the logo CFC appliances aren’t always possible. So when purchasing new appliances, make sure it has an Energy Saving Recommended logo. These will cost less to run and will reduce carbon emissions. For example if you upgrade a 10 year old fridge to a new energy saving one, you could save up to 140kg of CO 2 annually. Energy Saving Light Bulbs last 10 times longer than ordinary bulbs. They use 80% less electricity and each bulb could save £45 over it’s lifetime. Initially, many people were put off these new energy efficient bulbs due to there unusual shape, but now they are available in various sizes. Eco-Kettle -Only boil as much water as needed. Eco-kettles are excellent because they allow you to measure exactly how much water is needed. By using an eco-kettle you can save up to 28kg of CO 2 a year. DAB radio use approximately 75% less electricity than ordinary radios. Switch to a renewable electricity supplier Ecotricity is a renewable electricity provider which generates power from sustainable sources such as wind power. Photo: Carbon Counted
Location So we now have a warm, energy efficient home. But how else could you reduce your carbon footprint in an eco-home? How about where the home is located. Proximity to services/amenities It’s no good having an eco-home if it’s not in close proximity to services and amenities. This is because the occupiers of this home would have to drive some distance to access these services. An eco-home should be a short distance away in order for the occupants to be in walking/cycling distance to the services they need. 1 in 4 car journeys is less than 2 miles and cold engines use twice as much fuel as warm engines. Walking/cycling is not only good for your health but reduces your carbon footprint. When considering proximity, we must also consider how close the eco-home is to work and to schools. Access to public transport Alternatively, if suitable public transport was available, this could provide an adequate means of transport which has a lower carbon footprint. Perhaps the eco-home should be located on a bus route (although we all know that doesn’t mean it will always be a bus route) Renewable Energy The location may be important when considering renewable energy; the location may effect the options available to you i.e. A wind turbine might not be very effective if your home is in a sheltered valley, but would be much more effective if you lived on the coast. Bus Photo: Kingsway Community
Quote from Foster & Partners, architects
Eco Homes Balancing environmental performance with the need for a high quality of life. A presentation by: Alison Holmes s0809225 Cara Stobart s0712554 Ki Barnes s0712694 Vicki Pine s0711658
Contents <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Slide notes available, attached to each slide </li></ul>
Energy and its Usage <ul><li>One third of all energy produced is consumed by domestic households. </li></ul><ul><li>A UK household creates 6 tonnes of CO 2 every year </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity usage has doubled since the 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>¾ of the UK electricity is generated by coal and gas plants. </li></ul>
Types of Renewable Energy Solar Power Wind Power Biomass Water/Tide/Wave
Energy Within New Development <ul><li>The Code for Sustainable Homes </li></ul><ul><li>9 Design categories </li></ul><ul><li>9 Issues within energy and CO 2 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Updated 6 monthly </li></ul>
Stop And Think <ul><li>Think before you flick </li></ul><ul><li>Top tips </li></ul><ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><li>EVERYTHING WE DO, USE OR PURCHASE HAS AN ENERGY COST </li></ul>
<ul><li>Improving the quality and sustainability of construction is not merely about using greater resource for delivery or efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>It is about getting it right from the start, having the skills in place at all points in the development chain. </li></ul>
Government aims <ul><li>Greater uptake of training programmes, improving skills and increasing retention rates of skilled workers within a safer industry; </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced carbon footprint of activities and better use of resources; </li></ul><ul><li>Development of voluntary agreements and initiatives by the construction industry and its clients with the aim of reducing the carbon footprint and use of resources within the built environment. </li></ul>
Construction methods Timber frame Strawbale Cob Poured Earth
ROOFING Slate or Clay tiles Straw/Reed Green Roof Wood shingles Recycled rubber
Insulation types Flax Wool Paper Recycled plastic
Finishes Plaster Lime, Hemp or Earth Paint Plant, clay or milk Wallpaper Natural fibre or recycled
Using Recycled materials Westlea Integer Homes Cherhill, Wiltshire is a pilot development by a social landlord of two family houses. The project demonstrates a high level of sustainability and incorporates a number of 'green' features including a range of reclaimed and recycled materials. Reclaimed bricks, Recycled Pulverised Fuel Ash, Recycled newspaper insulation Recycled plastic, Railway sleepers/ telegraph poles Crushed concrete from demolition Timber salvaged from demolition
How Much do we Waste? <ul><li>Household Waste: 2005/2006 28.7 million tonnes , 78% not recycled </li></ul><ul><li>Energy: one third wasted every year, amounting to £7.5 billion, £3 billion on electricity alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Water: 2005 groundwater levels lowest for 20 years, 50% more water used than 25 years ago. </li></ul>
Why Should we Cut our Waste? <ul><li>Ensuring the future of energy supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing landfill and helping to curb climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping energy affordable </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving water and protecting wildlife </li></ul>
What is a Carbon Footprint? <ul><li>Your carbon footprint is the amount of CO 2 that enters the atmosphere because of the electricity and fuel you use and the products you buy. </li></ul><ul><li>It is measured in tonnes of CO 2 . </li></ul>
What is a Carbon Footprint? <ul><li>Your carbon footprint mostly depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>how much energy you use to heat your home </li></ul><ul><li>the electronics and appliances you use </li></ul><ul><li>what kind of transport you use day-to-day </li></ul><ul><li>(Energy Saving Trust, 2008) </li></ul>
Heating your Home <ul><li>Boilers account for around 60% of the CO 2 emissions in a gas heated home </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Renewable Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Ground source heat pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Solar water heating </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuel </li></ul>
Heating your Home Tips to Reduce your Carbon Footprint <ul><li>Condensing boilers </li></ul><ul><li>Insulate your hot water tank </li></ul><ul><li>Double Glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Turn your thermostat down </li></ul><ul><li>Radiators </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Draught Proofing </li></ul>
Electronics and Appliances <ul><li>CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) free appliances </li></ul><ul><li>DAB radios & Eco-kettles </li></ul><ul><li>Look out for the Logo </li></ul><ul><li>Energy saving light bulbs </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to a renewable electricity supplier. </li></ul>
Location <ul><li>Proximity to services/amenities </li></ul><ul><li>Access to public transport </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sustainability is not a matter of fashion, it has become a matter of survival. </li></ul>