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O que é isto, a Interação? (Design de Interação e Interação Humano-Computador)

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Slides sobre Design de Interação e a questão da interação, o conceito de interagir em uma perspectiva histórica de suas "ondas", paradigmas e abordagens. Trata do conceito de interação e a compreensão do computador como pela Ergonomia, Interação Humano-Computador (IHC), Design de Interação (DxI), Experiência do Usuário (UX), apontando também a área atualmente. Utilizei estes slides na palestra sobre DxI na Semana de Informática 2014 da UTFPR-Curitiba, e venho atualizando eles desde então. Última atualização em abril de 2017.

Published in: Design
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O que é isto, a Interação? (Design de Interação e Interação Humano-Computador)

  1. 1. o que é isto, a interação? 
 rodrigo@gonzatto.com rodrigo gonzatto introdução a história design de interação, gonzatto.com conceitos de interação
  2. 2. O que não é Design de Interação? • Não é Computação, mas também é. • É Interação Humano-Computador (IHC),
 mas também é outra coisa. • É diferente de Design de Interfaces (GUI)
 (ou de Webdesign, etc).
  3. 3. O que faz / estuda ? • O designer de interação debate, pesquisa, projeta, adapta, testa e avalia artefatos como websites, softwares, celulares, tablets, painéis, videogames, etc. • Seu objeto é o projeto das interações humanas mediadas por artefatos interativos, ou seja, coisas digitais que participam ativamente da ação humana • O profissional em designer de interação: 
 de avaliador de telas e criador de interfaces até pesquisador de nichos de mercado
  4. 4. O que é Design de Interação? (é Disciplina?) • Campo de pesquisa interdisciplinar • Exemplos de campos influentes: ‣ Interação Humano Computador (Computação) ‣ Design Participativo (Sistemas de Informação) ‣ Design Gráfico + Design de Produto (Design) ‣ Cognição e Comportamento (Psicologia) ‣ entre outros…
  5. 5. Dan Saffer
  6. 6. Fazer “DESIGN” em Design de Interação • Prototipação: pensar com materiais • Iteração: processo não-linear • Colaboração e Participação: co-construção • Pesquisa: com equipe, usuários, stakeholders, contexto, artefatos, etc. “Pensar artefatos de 'fora' para ‘dentro'."
 “Um sistema não funciona 
 se quem o manuseia não dá sentido à ele.”
  7. 7. asinterações ainteração
  8. 8. o que é isto? imagem de Wittgeinstein (via. Matias Arvola)
  9. 9. “O significado de algo não depende apenas da 
 própria coisa. Se dá na interação. 
 E a interação não está somente no sistema ou 
 somente em quem usa. É mediação entre estes” Pato! Coelho!
  10. 10. adaptado de Alex Primo Interação reativa Interação mútua Marketing onde se dá a interação?
  11. 11. imagem de Matias Arvola múltiplos interagires
  12. 12. A “INTERAÇÃO” como encontro de ações • Quando a ação de A e ação de B se encontram A BAção Ação
  13. 13. A “INTERAÇÃO” como todo maior que as partes • A +B = C • Na interação, os limites entre ações se confundem. 
 A ação é conjunta (C), não apenas duas ações isoladas EntreAção Ação C
  14. 14. “Quanta" interação? “Qual" interação? • Existe “mais" ou “menos" interação? • “Interativo” pode ser uma ‘qualidade’ de algo? Podemos falar de tipos de interação? • A interatividade não tem fim em si mesma! (Interação por interação,“adicionar interatividade num produto como se fosse uma feature")
  15. 15. interação com computadores na história
  16. 16. Breve histórico: as 3 "momentos" Fatores Humanos 
 
 linha de comando 
 
 um computador para muitos
 Ergonomia IHC 
 
 interface gráfica 
 
 um computador,uma pessoa
 Psicologia Design de Interação / UX
 
 interfaces tangíveis, dispositivos móveis, afetividade... 
 uma pessoa,
 vários computadores Design
 Ciências Sociais Antropologia Filosofia Computação Ciências Cognitivas Arquitetura Arte ComunicaçãoSistemas de Informação 70’s
  17. 17. modelo de Luiz Ernesto Merkle
  18. 18. abordagens históricas • Sistema • Parceiro de discurso • Ferramenta • Mídia • Mediação
  19. 19. Sistema // @ # & * % usuário como computador
  20. 20. ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer Computador e Integrador Numérico Eletrônico 1943: começou a ser desenvolvido 1947: começou a funcionar ocupava 180 m² pesava 30 toneladas construção foi requisitada pelo exército EUA custo de U$ 500 mil (+ ou - U$6 milhões hoje)
  21. 21. “bug” de computador Grace Hopper em 1945 trabalhando no Mark II (Harvard)
  22. 22. ENIAC “girls” (década de 40)
  23. 23. usar = operar = programar operadora = programadora
  24. 24. programando com a mão: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P12r8DKHsak
  25. 25. Parceiro de discurso computador
 como pessoa I.A.
  26. 26. IBM PC Teclados!
  27. 27. ordene: mem(ória) e como resposta terá informações sobre a memória do computador
  28. 28. peça: dir(etório) e como resposta terá informações sobre o diretório peça: CD (Change Directory, ou CHDIR) e o computador obedece
  29. 29. CD PASTA (C)hange (D)irectory para PASTA C:/ _Você está em C:/ C:/PASTA _Você esta em C:/PASTA/
  30. 30. filme: 2001 - Uma Odisséia no Espaço noção de inteligência artificial
  31. 31. teste de turing, de Alan Turing “Há como imaginar um computador digital que faria bem o jogo da imitação?”
  32. 32. crítica: quarto chinês de Searle computadores podem entender a sintaxe mas não a semântica não-chinês preso na China utilizando uma tabela para traduzir não entende Chines mas consegue se comunicar
  33. 33. cartesianismo humanos (sistema) = máquinas (sistema)
  34. 34. CB2 - Osaka University
  35. 35. uncanny valley
  36. 36. Será que a memória e a lógica humana funciona como a memória e lógica computacional? adaptado de slides de Frederick van Amstel
  37. 37. + retroalimentação (feedback) meio exterior
  38. 38. Flak 18 era um canhão antiaéreo ilustração de Tartaglia (Nova scientia inventa) 1537
  39. 39. tabelas de tiro do exército dos EUA para canhões de 3 polegadas na 1ª Guerra Mundial:
  40. 40. Ferramenta trabalho
 ou produto + = =
=

  41. 41. ferramenta-mouse: outra interação
  42. 42. Sistema STAR da Xerox
  43. 43. mother of all demos, 1968 Douglas Engelbart GUI - graphic user interface + mouse + teclado
  44. 44. ferramentaVisiCalc e planilhas eletrônicas
  45. 45. sketchpad, 1963 Ivan Sutherland
  46. 46. Mídia / Linguagem DxI
  47. 47. Navegadores
  48. 48. QUAL O 1º SITE? homepages site de provedor e portais e-mail e buscadores redes sociais notificação push
  49. 49. Comunicadores e conversa on-line
  50. 50. Web 2.0 Redes sociais, comunidades, blogs user-generated content ajax Brasil: fulano.com beltrano.com videolog.com flogao.com
  51. 51. p2p
  52. 52. League of Legends Intel Extreme Masters 2010
  53. 53. League of Legends season 2014
  54. 54. Mediações Significado, Valores, Discursos, Ideologia Cultura e
  55. 55. Curious Rituals, 2012 Media Design Program Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, California.
  56. 56. Nipple Chair, Anthony Dunne Prazeres complicados
  57. 57. Press X to make a Sanduich Anjin
  58. 58. 
 rodrigo@gonzatto.com rodrigo gonzatto gonzatto.com

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