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- 1. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF QPSK MODULATOR USING DIGITAL SUBCARRIER1
- 2. AGENDA Overview of Satellite Communication Overview of Digital Modulation Description of QPSK Modulator Steps of Project Implementation Matlab Simulation of QPSK Modulator Hardware Implementation of QPSK Modulator Results Conclusion Future Scope 2
- 3. OVERVIEW OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Digital Modulation schemes are used in Satellite Communication Systems. 3
- 4. DIGITAL MODULATION Digital Modulation The aim of digital modulation is to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog bandpass channel, for example over the public switched telephone network (where a bandpass filter limits the frequency range to between 300 and 3400 Hz), or over a limited radio frequency band. The purpose of digital modulation is to convert an information- bearing discrete-time symbol into a continuous-time waveform. The objective of a digital communication system is to transport digital data between two or more nodes. 4
- 5. DIGITAL MODULATION In communications, the analog signal shape, by pre-agreed convention, stands for a certain number of bits and is called a symbol. 5 Digital information travels on analog carrier.
- 6. DIGITAL MODULATION Bit Error Rate (BER): Better accuracy of the transmitted digital signal is measured by BER. Simply put Bit Error Rate is: The number of Error Bits BER= ---------------------------- The total number of Bits A lower Bit Error Rate implies that the signal has been more accurately transmitted and demodulated. A Bit Error Rate of one error in 10,000 Bits transmitted is quite normal for modulated signals. After error correction is applied, the Error further falls down to one part in 100,000 Million Bits. 6
- 7. DESCRIPTION OF QPSK MODULATION DataPhase Shift Keying : BPSK An M-phase PSK modulator puts the phase of carrier into one of M - states according to the value of a input . QPSK By increasing states , it can transmit more data in same 8PSK bandwidth 7
- 8. DESCRIPTION OF QPSK MODULATION Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) is effectively two independent BPSK systems (I-In phase and Q-Out of phase) and therefore exhibits the same performance but twice the bandwidth efficiency. Sometimes this is known as quaternary PSK, quadriphase PSK, 4-PSK, or 4-QAM (although the root concepts of QPSK and QAM are different, the resulting modulated radio wave are exactly the same.) QPSK uses four points on the constellation diagram, equispaced around a circle. With 4 phases, QPSK can encode two bits per symbol to minimize the BER – sometimes misperceived as twice the BER of BPSK. 8
- 9. DESCRIPTION OF QPSK MODULATION More advanced modulation techniques convey multiple bits of information simultaneously by providing multiple states in each symbol of transmitted information. This helps transmit more digital data. Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) conveys 2 bits per symbol and is prevalent in satellite communication. Digital (DVB-S) satellite broadcasts universally use Phase Modulation-actually QPSK Satellite transmissions have a few unique characteristics 9 The signal has to travel an extremely large distance (36000 km) from the ground to the satellite and then another similar distance back to the earth.
- 10. Description of QPSK Modulator Block Diagram Constellation sin ωct Q - Signal 0 bit = 90 oI data 01 bit =135 o 00 bit = 45 o Modulator Output +Q data 1 bit = 180 o 11 bit = 225 o 10 bit = 315 o Cos ωct 10 1 bit = 270 o
- 11. Description of QPSK Modulator Equations Phasor DiagramI Q I Mod Q Mod QPSK O/P QPSKData data O/P O/P O/P Q - Signal Phase +cos ωct0 0 sin ωct cos ωct sin ωct + cos ωct 45˚ = sin ( wct + 45 ) sin (ωct + 135 ) sin (ωct + 45 )0 1 sin ωct -cos ωct sin ωct - cos ωct 135˚ = sin (ωct + 135) I - Signal1 0 - sin ωct cos ωct - sin ωct + cos ωct 315˚ -sin ωct +sin ωct = sin (ω ct - 45 )1 1 - sin ωct -cos ωct - sin ωct - cos ωct 225˚ sin (ωct - 135 ) = sin (ωct - 135 ) -cos ωct 11
- 12. Description of QPSK ModulatorTime Domain 12
- 13. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF QPSKMODULATOR 13
- 14. LVDS DATA WITH LINE RECEIVER LVDS is the abbreviation of Low Voltage Differential Signaling. It is an electrically digital signaling standard that can run at very high speed over inexpensive twisted pair copper cables. It is a dual wire system which can running at 180°of each other. In our project we use DS90C032 3V LVDS Quad CMOS Differential Line receiver. 14
- 15. FPGA Here our motive is to provide complete digital system and miniaturization of circuit so this can be done using FPGA. Here we provide only two Inputs, one is our information and second is the sample clock We get the Digital QPSK signal from the FPGA The internal functions of FPGA is Data scrambling, Differential coding,Convolutional encoding, Carrier generation, mixing the data with carriers and finally generate complete QPSK signal. In this project we concentrate to use the ProASIC3E FPGA devices part no:A3PE600 15
- 16. DAC(DIGITAL TO ANALOGCONVERTER) The output of FPGA is Digital QPSK signal. To construct analog signal from this we must use Digital to analog converter. we use 10-bit current type DAC. In our project we use 10-bit, 170 MSPS, AD9731 DAC. 16
- 17. SMOOTHING FILTER Digitally modulated QPSK samples out from DAC is a stair case type. There need to be smoothened by a smoothing filter to have a analog look of the modulated signal. The center frequency is 1.024 MHz with symbol rate 512 K bits/s, in order to preserve the main lobe while smoothing. For our application we develop fifth order Butterworth low pass filter 17
- 18. BIPOLAR CONVERTER The DAC output is current type with an offset in the -ve direction because the DAC output is ECL type. PSK or QPSK is suppressed carrier modulated system. Carrier suppression is possible only if there is no DC in the data, this requires conversion of QPSK samples to be converted into bipolar type so that there is no overall DC so bipolar converter circuit serve this purpose 18
- 19. SUB CARRIER GENERATION USINGFPGA The main part is generation of carriers means sine and cosine signals. These signals are generated at 1.024 MHz. These signals are generated inside the FPGA using the quantized value of samples of both signals. There are several techniques to generate sine and cosine wave digitally. Its called NCO (Numerically Controlled Oscillator) 19
- 20. SUB CARRIER GENERATION USINGFPGA There are several techniques to implement NCO 1. LUT Based NCO 2. CORDIC Based NCO 3. Xilinx ROM Based NCO Among all these we implement LUT based NCO for our application. In this technique a NCO consists of a lookup table made up of quantized sinusoidal sample values(usually implemented as a read only memory, ROM), a binary counter for addressing the ROM, and a clock signal to drive the counter. 20
- 21. SIMULATION RESULTS 21
- 22. FLOW DIAGRAM OF MATLABSIMULATION 22
- 23. MATLAB SIMULATION RESULTS As per flow diagram COSINE and SINE carriers for I and Q data respectively are generated. The sub carriers with frequency 1.024 MHz and 24 samples per cycle are generated. There are 4 cycles per symbols are necessary to modulate incoming data. These carriers are first multiplex with the I and Q data and than added together in single FPGA. 23
- 24. HARDWARE REALIZATION In hardware realization we use Actel kit with ProASIC3000 FPGA. In this kit we load our program which is written in verilog. The Actel Kit is shown below: 24
- 25. RESULT The output of kit is shown in logic analyzer. Here in Actel kit Scrambler, Differential encoder, Convolutional coder and subcarrier generator are implemented. The setup of this implementation with results are shown below. And as per output which is shown in figure there is no phase and amplitude imbalance between sin and cosine subcarriers. 25
- 26. CONCLUSION In this modulator , analog components like local oscillator and mixer are completely eliminated which are frequency and temperature sensitive. Here all the functions are performed by single FPGA. So the limitations of modulator are completely removed for satellite communication. For the satellite communication PCB size is also important parameter and using this new approach number of component count is less and ultimately size of PCB is become small. 26

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