SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 10
Download to read offline
Use of evaluation findings:
Types and influences
National Health Promotion Conference
Neuchâtel Switzerland
19 January 2017
Dr Glenn O’Neil
oneil@owlre.com
www.owlre.com
2
Types of use
Use
Instrumental
ConceptualSymbolic
Process
Misuse
Non-use
= most common types of use found
3
What influences use?
Quality
Influences
Credibility
Relevance
Comm.
quality
Timeliness
Findings
Decision
- making
Info.
needs
Political
climate
Competing
Info.
Receptiveness
Personal
characteristics
ContextStakeholder
involvement
Internal context
Organisational structure, culture and strategy
= stronger influences on use
4
“Engagement, interaction, and
communication between evaluation
clients and evaluators is critical to the
meaningful use of evaluations”
Johnson et al (2009)
What influences use?
5
– Assumption: what is used from an evaluation are
the recommendations
What is used from an evaluation?
– Yet in a study by this author, out of 28 instances of
use identified in two evaluations, 18 were not from
recommendations
– For example: Staff improve evaluation skills
Modify programme planning
Input into broad policy
6
How does evaluation use occur?
Individual Interpersonal Collective
Informal change
Formal change
Four
Years
7
How does evaluation use occur?
Use occurred: Unintended and direct Use occurred : Unintended and indirect
Use occurred : Intended and direct
Use occurred: Intended and indirect
Use did not occur: Intended and indirect Use did not occur: Intended and direct
More
Less
8
1. Use may not be instrumental and direct as expected
2. Stakeholder involvement is critical to use
3. Organisations can influence evaluation use
4. Use can be unpredictable, opportunistic & unexpected
Conclusions
9
Contact details
oneil@owlre.com
glennoneil
www.owlre.com
@glenn_oneil
www.intelligentmeasurement.com
Contacts:
Main references
• Ciarlo, J. A. (Ed.). (1981). Utilizing evaluation: Concepts and measurement techniques. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage
Publications.
• Contandriopoulos, D., & Brousselle, A. (2012). Evaluation models and evaluation use. Evaluation, 18(1), 61-77.
• Cousins, J. B., & Leithwood, K. A. (1986). Current empirical research in evaluation utilization. Review of
Educational Research, (536), 331-364.
• Højlund, S. (2014a). Evaluation use in the organizational context–changing focus to improve theory. Evaluation,
20(1), 26-43.
• Højlund, S. (2014b). Evaluation use in evaluation systems–the case of the European Commission. Evaluation,
20(4), 428-446.
• Johnson, K., Greenseid, L. O., Toal, S. A., King, J. A., Lawrenz, F., & Volkov, B. (2009). Research on Evaluation
Use A Review of the Empirical Literature From 1986 to 2005. American Journal of Evaluation, 30(3), 377-410.
• Loud, M. L., & Mayne, J. (Eds.). (2013). Enhancing evaluation use: insights from internal evaluation units. Beverly
Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
• Mark, M. M., & Henry, G. T. (2004). The mechanisms and outcomes of evaluation influence. Evaluation, 10(1), 35-
57.
• O’Neil, G. (2015) Communication evaluation in international organisations: methodology, influence and use. PhD
thesis, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).
10

More Related Content

What's hot

Real time evaluation in theory and practice
Real time evaluation in theory and practiceReal time evaluation in theory and practice
Real time evaluation in theory and practice
ALNAP
 
Strategic planning powerpoint
Strategic planning powerpointStrategic planning powerpoint
Strategic planning powerpoint
robdude9626
 

What's hot (20)

Capacity Building
Capacity BuildingCapacity Building
Capacity Building
 
Real time evaluation in theory and practice
Real time evaluation in theory and practiceReal time evaluation in theory and practice
Real time evaluation in theory and practice
 
Monitoring And Evaluation
Monitoring And EvaluationMonitoring And Evaluation
Monitoring And Evaluation
 
Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and EvaluationMonitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and Evaluation
 
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION POWERPOINT
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION POWERPOINTPERFORMANCE EVALUATION POWERPOINT
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION POWERPOINT
 
Introduction to monitoring and evaluation
Introduction to monitoring and evaluationIntroduction to monitoring and evaluation
Introduction to monitoring and evaluation
 
Monitoring & Evalution ...... Orientation PPT
Monitoring & Evalution ...... Orientation PPT Monitoring & Evalution ...... Orientation PPT
Monitoring & Evalution ...... Orientation PPT
 
Needs Assessment Presentation
Needs Assessment Presentation Needs Assessment Presentation
Needs Assessment Presentation
 
Impact assessment , monitoring and evaluation
Impact assessment , monitoring and evaluationImpact assessment , monitoring and evaluation
Impact assessment , monitoring and evaluation
 
Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and EvaluationMonitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and Evaluation
 
Components of a monitoring and evaluation system
Components of a monitoring and evaluation system  Components of a monitoring and evaluation system
Components of a monitoring and evaluation system
 
Evaluation report
Evaluation reportEvaluation report
Evaluation report
 
7 M&E: Indicators
7 M&E: Indicators7 M&E: Indicators
7 M&E: Indicators
 
Basics of Monitoring & Evaluation
Basics of Monitoring & EvaluationBasics of Monitoring & Evaluation
Basics of Monitoring & Evaluation
 
Step 9: Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning
Step 9: Monitoring, Evaluation and LearningStep 9: Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning
Step 9: Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning
 
Capacity Development For Monitoring And Evaluation
Capacity Development For Monitoring And EvaluationCapacity Development For Monitoring And Evaluation
Capacity Development For Monitoring And Evaluation
 
Monitoring and evaluation
Monitoring and evaluationMonitoring and evaluation
Monitoring and evaluation
 
Strategic planning powerpoint
Strategic planning powerpointStrategic planning powerpoint
Strategic planning powerpoint
 
Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and Evaluation
 
Research process
Research processResearch process
Research process
 

Viewers also liked

Observational Techniques
Observational TechniquesObservational Techniques
Observational Techniques
Habiba Khan
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Communication evaluation: Challenges and complexities
Communication evaluation: Challenges and complexities Communication evaluation: Challenges and complexities
Communication evaluation: Challenges and complexities
 
Tracking Use of Campaign Evaluation Findings of Two International Organisations
Tracking Use of Campaign Evaluation Findings of Two International OrganisationsTracking Use of Campaign Evaluation Findings of Two International Organisations
Tracking Use of Campaign Evaluation Findings of Two International Organisations
 
Evaluating Communication Programmes, Products and Campaigns: Training workshop
Evaluating Communication Programmes, Products and Campaigns: Training workshopEvaluating Communication Programmes, Products and Campaigns: Training workshop
Evaluating Communication Programmes, Products and Campaigns: Training workshop
 
Surveys for communicators
Surveys for communicatorsSurveys for communicators
Surveys for communicators
 
Seven new ways to present evaluation findings
Seven new ways to present evaluation findingsSeven new ways to present evaluation findings
Seven new ways to present evaluation findings
 
Communicating evaluation findings: challenges and opportunities
Communicating evaluation findings: challenges and opportunitiesCommunicating evaluation findings: challenges and opportunities
Communicating evaluation findings: challenges and opportunities
 
Crowdsourcing for #internalcomms. Creating shared insight through curious met...
Crowdsourcing for #internalcomms. Creating shared insight through curious met...Crowdsourcing for #internalcomms. Creating shared insight through curious met...
Crowdsourcing for #internalcomms. Creating shared insight through curious met...
 
Evaluation inforgraphics
Evaluation inforgraphicsEvaluation inforgraphics
Evaluation inforgraphics
 
The revolution will be televised internally: enterprise video for internal co...
The revolution will be televised internally: enterprise video for internal co...The revolution will be televised internally: enterprise video for internal co...
The revolution will be televised internally: enterprise video for internal co...
 
Suivi et évaluation - projet de communauté
Suivi et évaluation -  projet de communautéSuivi et évaluation -  projet de communauté
Suivi et évaluation - projet de communauté
 
The Shorter COMMS Plan - Basic
The Shorter COMMS Plan - BasicThe Shorter COMMS Plan - Basic
The Shorter COMMS Plan - Basic
 
The End of the Story - Transmedia Storytelling for Corporate Communication
The End of the Story - Transmedia Storytelling for Corporate CommunicationThe End of the Story - Transmedia Storytelling for Corporate Communication
The End of the Story - Transmedia Storytelling for Corporate Communication
 
Making the most of the long tail of content affiliates
Making the most of the long tail of content affiliatesMaking the most of the long tail of content affiliates
Making the most of the long tail of content affiliates
 
Excel Elbow Grease: How to Fool Excel into Making (Pretty Much) Any Chart You...
Excel Elbow Grease: How to Fool Excel into Making (Pretty Much) Any Chart You...Excel Elbow Grease: How to Fool Excel into Making (Pretty Much) Any Chart You...
Excel Elbow Grease: How to Fool Excel into Making (Pretty Much) Any Chart You...
 
Observational Techniques
Observational TechniquesObservational Techniques
Observational Techniques
 
Kevin Ruck, PR Academy, Measurement. #makinganimpact15
Kevin Ruck, PR Academy, Measurement. #makinganimpact15Kevin Ruck, PR Academy, Measurement. #makinganimpact15
Kevin Ruck, PR Academy, Measurement. #makinganimpact15
 
Has Off-Grid Electrification Come of Age?
Has Off-Grid Electrification Come of Age? Has Off-Grid Electrification Come of Age?
Has Off-Grid Electrification Come of Age?
 
Lessons-learned from embedding design into a developmental evaluation: The si...
Lessons-learned from embedding design into a developmental evaluation: The si...Lessons-learned from embedding design into a developmental evaluation: The si...
Lessons-learned from embedding design into a developmental evaluation: The si...
 
Types of evaluation
Types of evaluationTypes of evaluation
Types of evaluation
 
Tools for evaluating the effectiveness of your teaching technique 1
Tools for evaluating the effectiveness of your teaching technique 1Tools for evaluating the effectiveness of your teaching technique 1
Tools for evaluating the effectiveness of your teaching technique 1
 

Similar to Use of evaluation findings; types and influences

Response 1 Relationship Between Purpose of Study and Data Analysis .docx
Response 1 Relationship Between Purpose of Study and Data Analysis .docxResponse 1 Relationship Between Purpose of Study and Data Analysis .docx
Response 1 Relationship Between Purpose of Study and Data Analysis .docx
infantkimber
 
Quantitativeresearch final
Quantitativeresearch finalQuantitativeresearch final
Quantitativeresearch final
Claudia
 
Levels evaluation models
Levels evaluation modelsLevels evaluation models
Levels evaluation models
TULASI08
 
Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness
Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness
Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness
Innocent Karugota Muhumuza
 

Similar to Use of evaluation findings; types and influences (20)

Quality issues in mixed methods research (with an emphasis on teaching) - Ala...
Quality issues in mixed methods research (with an emphasis on teaching) - Ala...Quality issues in mixed methods research (with an emphasis on teaching) - Ala...
Quality issues in mixed methods research (with an emphasis on teaching) - Ala...
 
Evaluating Program Impacts: An Annotated Bibliography Feb 2019
Evaluating Program Impacts: An Annotated Bibliography Feb 2019Evaluating Program Impacts: An Annotated Bibliography Feb 2019
Evaluating Program Impacts: An Annotated Bibliography Feb 2019
 
PPWNov13- Day 2 keynote- S.Sridharan- U Toronto
PPWNov13- Day 2 keynote- S.Sridharan- U TorontoPPWNov13- Day 2 keynote- S.Sridharan- U Toronto
PPWNov13- Day 2 keynote- S.Sridharan- U Toronto
 
Evaluating e reference
Evaluating e referenceEvaluating e reference
Evaluating e reference
 
Template Research Proposal Presentation-1.pptx
Template Research Proposal Presentation-1.pptxTemplate Research Proposal Presentation-1.pptx
Template Research Proposal Presentation-1.pptx
 
Response 1 Relationship Between Purpose of Study and Data Analysis .docx
Response 1 Relationship Between Purpose of Study and Data Analysis .docxResponse 1 Relationship Between Purpose of Study and Data Analysis .docx
Response 1 Relationship Between Purpose of Study and Data Analysis .docx
 
Program Evaluation Method Comparison
Program Evaluation Method ComparisonProgram Evaluation Method Comparison
Program Evaluation Method Comparison
 
Evaluation Of A Research Method
Evaluation Of A Research MethodEvaluation Of A Research Method
Evaluation Of A Research Method
 
Quantitativeresearch final
Quantitativeresearch finalQuantitativeresearch final
Quantitativeresearch final
 
Do evaluations enhance organisational effectiveness?
Do evaluations enhance organisational effectiveness?Do evaluations enhance organisational effectiveness?
Do evaluations enhance organisational effectiveness?
 
Assess This!
Assess This!Assess This!
Assess This!
 
Nie RSD8 Design for psychological well being
Nie RSD8  Design for psychological well beingNie RSD8  Design for psychological well being
Nie RSD8 Design for psychological well being
 
Levels evaluation models
Levels evaluation modelsLevels evaluation models
Levels evaluation models
 
Bolouri qualitative method
Bolouri qualitative methodBolouri qualitative method
Bolouri qualitative method
 
Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness
Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness
Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness
 
Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness
Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness
Do evaluations improve organisational effectiveness
 
West-Vanderbilt-Talk--Revised-22March2017.ppt
West-Vanderbilt-Talk--Revised-22March2017.pptWest-Vanderbilt-Talk--Revised-22March2017.ppt
West-Vanderbilt-Talk--Revised-22March2017.ppt
 
Multivariate Analysis.ppt
Multivariate Analysis.pptMultivariate Analysis.ppt
Multivariate Analysis.ppt
 
How to boost policy and program agencies’ use of research
How to boost policy and program agencies’ use of researchHow to boost policy and program agencies’ use of research
How to boost policy and program agencies’ use of research
 
Measuring Impact Qualitatively
Measuring Impact QualitativelyMeasuring Impact Qualitatively
Measuring Impact Qualitatively
 

More from Glenn O'Neil

More from Glenn O'Neil (12)

Case study on evaluating a smoking cessation campaign
Case study on evaluating a smoking cessation campaign Case study on evaluating a smoking cessation campaign
Case study on evaluating a smoking cessation campaign
 
Evaluating Advocacy: Challenges, Methodologies and Solutions
Evaluating Advocacy:  Challenges, Methodologies and SolutionsEvaluating Advocacy:  Challenges, Methodologies and Solutions
Evaluating Advocacy: Challenges, Methodologies and Solutions
 
Integrating communications in evaluation
Integrating communications in evaluationIntegrating communications in evaluation
Integrating communications in evaluation
 
Humanitarian advocacy
Humanitarian advocacyHumanitarian advocacy
Humanitarian advocacy
 
Insights into global advocacy: Oxfam's GROW campaign
Insights into global advocacy: Oxfam's GROW campaign Insights into global advocacy: Oxfam's GROW campaign
Insights into global advocacy: Oxfam's GROW campaign
 
Evaluating conferences and events: new approaches and initiatives
Evaluating conferences and events: new approaches and initiativesEvaluating conferences and events: new approaches and initiatives
Evaluating conferences and events: new approaches and initiatives
 
Evaluation of communication activities of international and non-governmental ...
Evaluation of communication activities of international and non-governmental ...Evaluation of communication activities of international and non-governmental ...
Evaluation of communication activities of international and non-governmental ...
 
Pres sawi goneil_2012
Pres sawi goneil_2012Pres sawi goneil_2012
Pres sawi goneil_2012
 
Conference evaluation at a glance
Conference evaluation at a glanceConference evaluation at a glance
Conference evaluation at a glance
 
Lift10 Geneva - Survey results
Lift10 Geneva - Survey resultsLift10 Geneva - Survey results
Lift10 Geneva - Survey results
 
Lift09 Asia Feedback Survey Results
Lift09 Asia Feedback Survey ResultsLift09 Asia Feedback Survey Results
Lift09 Asia Feedback Survey Results
 
Measuring Communications
Measuring CommunicationsMeasuring Communications
Measuring Communications
 

Recently uploaded

Securing the Future | Public Good App House
Securing the Future | Public Good App HouseSecuring the Future | Public Good App House
Securing the Future | Public Good App House
TechSoup
 
Dawson City Rolling Ads for May 15 2024 Yukon
Dawson City Rolling Ads for May 15 2024 YukonDawson City Rolling Ads for May 15 2024 Yukon
Dawson City Rolling Ads for May 15 2024 Yukon
pmenzies
 

Recently uploaded (20)

World Wildlife Crime Report 2024 - Introduction
World Wildlife Crime Report 2024 - IntroductionWorld Wildlife Crime Report 2024 - Introduction
World Wildlife Crime Report 2024 - Introduction
 
Item # 7-8 - 6900 Broadway P&Z Case # 438
Item # 7-8 - 6900 Broadway P&Z Case # 438Item # 7-8 - 6900 Broadway P&Z Case # 438
Item # 7-8 - 6900 Broadway P&Z Case # 438
 
EDI Executive Education MasterClass- 15thMay 2024 (updated).pdf
EDI Executive Education MasterClass- 15thMay 2024 (updated).pdfEDI Executive Education MasterClass- 15thMay 2024 (updated).pdf
EDI Executive Education MasterClass- 15thMay 2024 (updated).pdf
 
Securing the Future | Public Good App House
Securing the Future | Public Good App HouseSecuring the Future | Public Good App House
Securing the Future | Public Good App House
 
World Migratory Bird Day 2024 "Protect insects, Protect Birds"
World Migratory Bird Day  2024 "Protect insects, Protect Birds"World Migratory Bird Day  2024 "Protect insects, Protect Birds"
World Migratory Bird Day 2024 "Protect insects, Protect Birds"
 
PPT Item # 9 2ndQTR Financial & Inv. Report
PPT Item # 9 2ndQTR Financial & Inv. ReportPPT Item # 9 2ndQTR Financial & Inv. Report
PPT Item # 9 2ndQTR Financial & Inv. Report
 
Introduction to The Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Spac...
Introduction to The Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Spac...Introduction to The Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Spac...
Introduction to The Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Spac...
 
The Outlook for the Budget and the Economy
The Outlook for the Budget and the EconomyThe Outlook for the Budget and the Economy
The Outlook for the Budget and the Economy
 
Topical Guide for RID 3830 Public Image Training Series.ppsx
Topical Guide for RID 3830 Public Image Training Series.ppsxTopical Guide for RID 3830 Public Image Training Series.ppsx
Topical Guide for RID 3830 Public Image Training Series.ppsx
 
Everything you need to know about your Parish or Town council website & .gov....
Everything you need to know about your Parish or Town council website & .gov....Everything you need to know about your Parish or Town council website & .gov....
Everything you need to know about your Parish or Town council website & .gov....
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 32
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 322024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 32
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 32
 
Dawson City Rolling Ads for May 15 2024 Yukon
Dawson City Rolling Ads for May 15 2024 YukonDawson City Rolling Ads for May 15 2024 Yukon
Dawson City Rolling Ads for May 15 2024 Yukon
 
Electric vehicle infrastructure in rural areas
Electric vehicle infrastructure in rural areasElectric vehicle infrastructure in rural areas
Electric vehicle infrastructure in rural areas
 
Finland's mental health policy and its implementation: a CSO perspective
Finland's mental health policy and its implementation: a CSO perspectiveFinland's mental health policy and its implementation: a CSO perspective
Finland's mental health policy and its implementation: a CSO perspective
 
Characterizing wildlife trafficking and associated crime.
Characterizing wildlife trafficking and associated crime.Characterizing wildlife trafficking and associated crime.
Characterizing wildlife trafficking and associated crime.
 
Tennessee DOT- TEVI Plan coordination & EV
Tennessee DOT- TEVI Plan coordination & EVTennessee DOT- TEVI Plan coordination & EV
Tennessee DOT- TEVI Plan coordination & EV
 
International Day of Families - 15 May 2024 - UNDESA.
International Day of Families - 15 May 2024 - UNDESA.International Day of Families - 15 May 2024 - UNDESA.
International Day of Families - 15 May 2024 - UNDESA.
 
Managing large-scale outbreaks at Farrow-to-Weaner Farms
Managing large-scale outbreaks at Farrow-to-Weaner FarmsManaging large-scale outbreaks at Farrow-to-Weaner Farms
Managing large-scale outbreaks at Farrow-to-Weaner Farms
 
PPT Item # 5 -- Announcements Powerpoint
PPT Item # 5 -- Announcements PowerpointPPT Item # 5 -- Announcements Powerpoint
PPT Item # 5 -- Announcements Powerpoint
 
BioandPicforRepKendrick_LastUpdatedMay2024
BioandPicforRepKendrick_LastUpdatedMay2024BioandPicforRepKendrick_LastUpdatedMay2024
BioandPicforRepKendrick_LastUpdatedMay2024
 

Use of evaluation findings; types and influences

  • 1. Use of evaluation findings: Types and influences National Health Promotion Conference Neuchâtel Switzerland 19 January 2017 Dr Glenn O’Neil oneil@owlre.com www.owlre.com
  • 3. 3 What influences use? Quality Influences Credibility Relevance Comm. quality Timeliness Findings Decision - making Info. needs Political climate Competing Info. Receptiveness Personal characteristics ContextStakeholder involvement Internal context Organisational structure, culture and strategy = stronger influences on use
  • 4. 4 “Engagement, interaction, and communication between evaluation clients and evaluators is critical to the meaningful use of evaluations” Johnson et al (2009) What influences use?
  • 5. 5 – Assumption: what is used from an evaluation are the recommendations What is used from an evaluation? – Yet in a study by this author, out of 28 instances of use identified in two evaluations, 18 were not from recommendations – For example: Staff improve evaluation skills Modify programme planning Input into broad policy
  • 6. 6 How does evaluation use occur? Individual Interpersonal Collective Informal change Formal change Four Years
  • 7. 7 How does evaluation use occur? Use occurred: Unintended and direct Use occurred : Unintended and indirect Use occurred : Intended and direct Use occurred: Intended and indirect Use did not occur: Intended and indirect Use did not occur: Intended and direct More Less
  • 8. 8 1. Use may not be instrumental and direct as expected 2. Stakeholder involvement is critical to use 3. Organisations can influence evaluation use 4. Use can be unpredictable, opportunistic & unexpected Conclusions
  • 10. Main references • Ciarlo, J. A. (Ed.). (1981). Utilizing evaluation: Concepts and measurement techniques. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. • Contandriopoulos, D., & Brousselle, A. (2012). Evaluation models and evaluation use. Evaluation, 18(1), 61-77. • Cousins, J. B., & Leithwood, K. A. (1986). Current empirical research in evaluation utilization. Review of Educational Research, (536), 331-364. • Højlund, S. (2014a). Evaluation use in the organizational context–changing focus to improve theory. Evaluation, 20(1), 26-43. • Højlund, S. (2014b). Evaluation use in evaluation systems–the case of the European Commission. Evaluation, 20(4), 428-446. • Johnson, K., Greenseid, L. O., Toal, S. A., King, J. A., Lawrenz, F., & Volkov, B. (2009). Research on Evaluation Use A Review of the Empirical Literature From 1986 to 2005. American Journal of Evaluation, 30(3), 377-410. • Loud, M. L., & Mayne, J. (Eds.). (2013). Enhancing evaluation use: insights from internal evaluation units. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. • Mark, M. M., & Henry, G. T. (2004). The mechanisms and outcomes of evaluation influence. Evaluation, 10(1), 35- 57. • O’Neil, G. (2015) Communication evaluation in international organisations: methodology, influence and use. PhD thesis, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). 10