Cameras

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Cameras

  1. 1. VIDEO TECHNOLOGY Goldie Lui
  2. 2. WHAT IS A CAMERA?• A camera is an object that was designed to record still images that are transferred onto sheets or films• There are a many different types of cameras. Some cameras focus on taking good quality photographs whilst some focus on moving images• TRADITIONAL CAMERA: rolls of black and white or colored film• DIGITAL CAMERA: memory card
  3. 3. HOW DOES A CAMERA WORK?• Light reflects off the object being photographed• Light reflects off the object in different directions and hits the lens in different angles• Lens focus rays of light to a point behind the focus point which then forms a real image• The shutter temporarily moves from in front of the film and allows light to hit the film• Light hits the film causing some chemical reaction which expose the film• The shutter closes
  4. 4. CAMERA FUNCTIONS• EXPOSURE: Exposure is the amount of light being allowed into a camera, which then affects the film inside. The higher you set the exposure, the brighter the image and vice versa. Exposure is measured in lux seconds. There is something called the exposure triangle:Aperture: controls the area over where light enters the cameraShutter Speed: controls how long the film is exposed to lightISO Speed: controls the sensitivity of your camera‟s sensor when light is exposed
  5. 5. • Shutter speed: it can exaggerate or freeze the appearance of an image Slow shutter speed Fast shutter speedInformationabout shutterspeed:
  6. 6. HOW DO LENS AFFECT A PICTURE • There are many different types of lens for cameras. Lens normally costs way more than camera because images are affected by the quality of the lens not the camera. • There are the more popular lens like „normal lens‟ „wide angle lens‟ and „long focus lens‟ And then there are fancier lens like the fish eye lens which is also very popular nowadays which takes images like these:http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/camera-lenses.htm
  7. 7. ANALOG AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGYDigital technology is things that are converted into coding and analog issomething that has been physically made to work. Analog technology has beenhere for decades and normally are of higher quality as when using digitaltechnology, when converting things into coding, you bound to miss some bits outwhich may result in lacking the full original version
  8. 8. DIGITAL CAMERAS AND ANALOG CAMERASDIGITAL: The lens captures the light of the object you are aiming towards and when you pressthe shutter release, the shutter opens for 1/10000 of a second to allow the light to comethrough and hits the sensor/mirror and converts the image into binary code which then savesonto the cameraANALOG: When you press the shutter, the film inside the camera is exposed to the light andyour image is then burned onto the film and depending on how long the film is exposed to thelight, the image may be under or over exposed. When taking the film out, make sure you areunder dim light because bright lights may effect the image. Depending on how you want yourfilm to look, you will need to:B&W PHOTOS: soak in water which converts the latent image to metallic silver, a stop bathewith acetic or citric acid then a fixerCOLORED PHOTOS: color developers develop negative image and
  9. 9. QUALITY AND HIGH DEFINITIONNowadays, nearly all digital cameras are high definition and is of decent quality. Differenttypes of cameras capture different types of imagery. If you want to take a high quality video,choosing to invest on a high quality film camera is much better when making videos where asif you buy a camera, it can do both but was not originally made for video recording meaningquality of videos will not turn up as high quality.The common high definition video mode is 720p, 1080i and 1080p. The number representsthe number of horizontal or vertical lines that is displayed on the screen used to make up yourimage or video. The more lines, the better quality.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 1080i and 1080p?1080i is „interlaced‟ meaning it is not as high definition. This is because there are 2 sets oflines where it alternates between each other making the video not look as smooth1080p is „progressive‟ and is higher definition as all 1080 lines are displayed at the same time
  10. 10. HARD DRIVE RECORDINGS
  11. 11. SOLID STATE DISC RECORDING
  12. 12. CONNECTION LINE UP AND OPERATION
  13. 13. CABLES AND CORDS• WIRES/CORDS-• yellow- video• Composite signal- all video and audio is in one signal- one wire• component signal- when every things broken up to different signals- more than one wire• quality degrades the longer the cable
  14. 14. COMPONENT AND COMPOSITE
  15. 15. ASPECT RATIO
  16. 16. BROADCAST SYSTEMS
  17. 17. TERRESTRIAL
  18. 18. DIGITAL TV
  19. 19. CABLE TVCable television is a type of broadcasting using radio frequencyand through a coaxial cable where its directly connected to yourhome. Cable was first introduced in the 1920s but quickly spreadworldwide and till today, cable tv broadcasting is still used
  20. 20. SATELLITE TV
  21. 21. INTERNET TVInternet TV is classified as a type of television devicewhere you can watch TV programs as long as you haveaccess to the internet. You can download and streamvideos TV shows. This can mean videos and clips, moviesor any sort of video content that is available on theinternet
  22. 22. MULTIPLEX
  23. 23. FIRST MUSIC PLAYING DEVICEThe first ever music device that was invented was called the “gramophone”. This device allows youto play music using a disc where the needle is tracing sound waves that are engraved onto the disc.ANALOG-analog technology- record players- huge discs-actual sound waves cut into the plastic1 record can normally only store 1 album- inconvenient-when you make a copy of a record disc, you have to get another separate piece of tape and plug itinto the thing and then record it and normally loses a lot of quality in the musicDifference between an mp3 and record player:"Sample it"- changes to 48000 bits, each converted into some binary codeanalog normally sounds relatively better than digital- analog technology uses actual waves whilstdigital is playing something that was converted- something bounds to be lost when converting-sampling parts of it not ALL of it
  24. 24. COMPRESSION- LOSSLESS AND LOSSYCOMPRESSION-lose quality- LOSSLESS AND LOSSYtorrenting- MP3(lossy) FILES OR WAV FILES- difference-mp3 quality is not as good as wav files e.g. mp3 171MB wav 766MBmp3 is compressedlaptops dare not music playing devices- really bad quality- you can hear hums because itgives of sounds the laptop gives off as well- speakersRAW- uncomppressed- best quality massive size used for archiving- if youre gonna editheavily, shoot in raw because it is uncompressed and you can do a lot to it can still maintaingood qualityTIFF- big high quality good for editingJPG- small compressed extremely versatile good for home useGIF- Very compressed low quality good for web use
  25. 25. BINARY CODESBinary codes is a type of computer language which only consists ofthe digits 0 and 1. It is a way for computers to read text andimages. Every 8 digits makes a letter for example „01010111‟makes the letter W.
  26. 26. PAL SECAM AND NTSC
  27. 27. HDMI AND DVI
  28. 28. BRORADCAST WAVE FORMAT
  29. 29. DATA TRANSFER
  30. 30. NETWORK
  31. 31. DIGITAL CAMERASThere are a few types of cameras. Each of them are good at different things.ANALOG DISADVANTAGE:-its massive-have to develop the film to see if the footage is okPROSUMER- DSLR (digital single lens reflex)advantages- can be uses for photography and video- swapping lens can zoom further, but its actually made for photography-chip inside camera- cropped, but you can get full frame camerasDSLR- disadvantage- movement is bad, do not use handheld camera- capture a lot of light, works from the top to the bottom,image capture speed is too slow, bad at recording soundin terms of capturing videos, canon 5d and canon 7d is the samePANASONIC video camera- good at shooting videoshoots in full hd50 frames per second- good for slow motion-cant change lens-shoot 3d movie with it
  32. 32. DSLRDSLR stands for digital single lens reflex camera. In a dslr camera, there is amirror inside used to reflect the image you are pointing at in the view finder ofthe camera. There are many different dslr cameras but most of them do thesame things. It is the lens that control how the photograph will look like and thetechniques you use when taking pictures.HOW DOES IT WORK?When you want to take a picture, you may look through the view finder and whenyou press the shutter, the mirror flips out of the way to allow the light to passthrough the lens diaphragm which then hits the “CCD” or the “CMOS” sensorwhich then captures the image and is immediately converted into a binary codethat then makes up an image
  33. 33. VIDEO CAMERAS• It can shoot 3D• Good for movement• Better sound quality then a dslr
  34. 34. ANALOG MUSIC PLAYERS• ANALOG-• analog technology- record players- huge discs• -actual sound waves cut into the plastic• 1 record can normally only store 1 album- inconvenient• -when you make a copy of a record disc, you have to get another separate piece of tape and plug it into the thing and then record it and normally loses a lot of quality in the music• Difference between an mp3 and record player:• "Sample it"- changes to 48000 bits, each converted into some binary code• analog normally sounds relatively better than digital- analog technology uses actual waves whilst digital is playing something that was converted- something bounds to be lost when converting- sampling parts of it not ALL of it
  35. 35. THE RED ONEThe red digital cinema camera company is a company that made the “red one”. The red one ispopular camera used in the professional industry which can shoot in 3D. The quality of theimage it captures is outstanding as it has a measurement of 4520x2540 pixels where asnormal HD footage that is of 1080p shoots of way lower HD quality.This camera is a very expensive camera itself and including lens, the price is extremely high.A movie that was shot with this camera was “the hobbit” where the frame rate was very high,48 frames per second, 4000 lines of HD, resulting in images that were extremely realistic andhigh quality. Normal movies have 24 frames per second and this is to let the audience have asense of what is real life and what is not.
  36. 36. TYPES OF VIDEO AND IMAGE FILESThere are over 50 types of file formats and there‟s quite a few different video fileformats:VIDEO FILES: .AVI, WMV, 3GP, MP4, FLV, MOV, MKV, ASF, ASX,IMAGE FILES: JPEG, GIF, SVG, PNG, BITMAP, 3DM, AI, BMP, DXF, JPG, PSD,TIF, QXDmp3 quality is not as good as wav files e.g. mp3 171MB wav 766MBmp3 is compressedlaptops dare not music playing devices- really bad quality- you can hear hums because it gives of sounds the laptop gives off as well-speakersRAW- uncomppressed- best quality massive size used for archiving- if youre gonna edit heavily, shoot in raw because it is uncompressed andyou can do a lot to it can still maintain good qualityTIFF- big high quality good for editingJPG- small compressed extremely versatile good for home useGIF- Very compressed low quality good for web use
  37. 37. MP3 AND WAV AND SOUND FILES• -mp3 quality is not as good as wav files e.g. mp3 171MB wav 766MB• mp3 is compressed• laptops dare not music playing devices- really bad quality- you can hear hums because it gives of sounds the laptop gives off as well- speakers• RAW- uncomppressed- best quality massive size used for archiving- if youre gonna edit heavily, shoot in raw because it is uncompressed and you can do a lot to it can still maintain good quality• TIFF- big high quality good for editing• JPG- small compressed extremely versatile good for home use• GIF- Very compressed low quality good for web use
  38. 38. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE• HARDWARE SOFTWARE• - first thing you ask? mac or pc? media, they train on macs, its the standard• -industry standard is mostly mac• -never been a mac virus- safer to work with• - software compatibility- e.g final cut pro only runs on macs- first program to have an all in one package- reason why a lot of people use final cut pro• -adobe premiere pro- too many steps, different program for music, sound etc.- to much converting, a lot of file types etc.• MAC-tends to make your work flow more convenient• Mac compared to laptop or pc• -screen is much bigger• -speed if processor• -space• -only one company makes mac whilst many different companies make pcs- MACS- good thing because if you move things around, it will work the same- disadvantage- you will always have to go back to mac to fix, you always have to go to them to change, fix, upgrad e e.g you cant take battery out of iPhone• Professionals- additional hardware-• capture deck and multiple monitors• -non linear and non destructive editing applications- final cut pro and adobe software
  39. 39. MACSApple technology carries macs. Their company is one of the biggest companies in the worldand is very popular amongst the professional industry.ADVANTAGES:• There is less chance of getting viruses DISADVANTAGES:• High quality operating system, primary • It is overpriced soft ware and third party operator • Many softwares won‟t work on a mac• Macs normally last way longer unless it is sold by apple• Very easy to update soft wares • When your mac needs repairing, you• Very easy to transfer files to other mac have to go back to apple to fix it computers • You cannot take batteries out of• Work flow is more convenient things meaning if the battery dies,• Speed of processor is very fast you will have to go to mac• A lot of internal space
  40. 40. PCPC stands for personal computer. The first pc was produced by IBM and most brands todaylike sony, samsung fujitsu etc. make PCs. ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: • You won‟t need to go to your • A lot of the time, you will brand store to buy extras or need to buy a microphone, replacements for your webcams, usb flash drives, computer as many places keyboards, monitors, routers would sell the same things etc. • Memory storage can easily • The industry uses mostly be added on macs
  41. 41. EDITING SOFT WARES
  42. 42. FINAL CUT PROFinal cut pro is a very popular editing program amongst the industry. The finalcut pro (pre x) was mainly targeted towards professionals as it could do a lotwith special effects and editing in general. This version took time to get use toand you would have to learn how to use it. The newer final cut pro x is a wayeasier to use version of the final cut pro (pre x) as it is more similar to imovie.This program is no longer targeted towards professionals as you couldn‟t do asmuch compared to the final cut pro (pre x) and more towards everyone.
  43. 43. ADOBE PREMIEREAdobe premiere and adobe premiere pro are really good editing soft wares for both mac osxand windows. It is the equivalent of final cut pro

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