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Ch. 13 (8th Edition) Ch. 14 (7th Edition) -- Restoration to Romanticism

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Ch. 13 (8th Edition) Ch. 14 (7th Edition) -- Restoration to Romanticism

  1. 1. Chapter 13
  2. 2.  Background: England in the Seventeenth Century  The Restoration: from 1660 to 1700  Charles II assumed the throne at the invitation of the Parliament  Exiled English nobility returned from France, bringing with them French theatrical practices Actress Nell Gwynn with Charles II © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. 3.  Restoration Drama:  Theatres represented a fusion of Elizabethan, Italian, and French stage conventions  Gave a unique flavor to every aspect: texts, theatre buildings, and set designs © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. 4.  Restoration Drama: Comedies of Manners continued ▪ Comedies of manners – form of comic drama that became popular in 17th century France and English Restoration that poked fun at the social conventions of the upper class. They emphasized a cultivated or sophisticated atmosphere and witty dialogue ▪ Most of the upper-class characters were disreputable ▪ Emphasized witty dialogue ▪ Filled with sexual intrigue and innuendo ▪ Audiences: primarily the nobility and the upper class © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
  5. 5.  Restoration Drama: ▪ Dramatic structure combined features of Elizabethan theater and Neoclassical theater of Italy and France ▪ William Wycherley’s The Country Wife –  More unified in action than Shakespeare and less scene changes but does have subplots and multiple locales  Stock characters with names that describe their traits © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
  6. 6.  Restoration Drama: ▪ Comedies of Humors ▪ In tradition of Ben Jonson with one trait overshadowing all others ▪ Comedies of Intrigue ▪ daring exploits of romance and adventure with complicated plots ▪ Aphra Behn – most successful writer of this genre – a woman ▪ Female playwrights emerged ▪ 1695-96 – London saw productions by 7 female playwrights ▪ Three women very active during this time: Mary Pix, Delariviere Manley and Catherine Trotter © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
  7. 7.  Restoration Drama: ▪ William Congreve’s The Way of the World ▪ Considered bridge between Restoration comedy and the later, more traditional morality of 18th century English sentimental comedy ▪ Restoration comedies imply that audiences were quite spirited, not like audiences of today © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
  8. 8.  Theatre Production in the Restoration  Performers and Acting Companies ▪ Biggest difference between English Renaissance and Restoration was women appeared in plays ▪ Performers were hired for a specific period of time at a set salary, instead of sharing plans of before ▪ Yearly benefit: performance of a play from which he or she kept all the profits ▪ Theatrical entrepreneurs: often part owners of theatre buildings and companies © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
  9. 9.  Theatre continued Production in the Restoration  Government and Theatre ▪ 1660, Charles II issued patents to two entrepreneurs, and a monopoly on presenting theatre in London was established ▪ 1737, Parliament passed the Licensing Act, a new attempt to regulate theatre ▪ Only two theatres were authorized to present drama for “gain, hire, or reward” ▪ The lord chamberlain became responsible for licensing plays © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
  10. 10.  Theatre Production in the Restoration continued  Theatre Architecture ▪ Three theatres of note in London ▪ Drury Lane ▪ Dorset Garden ▪ Lincoln Inn Fields (converted tennis court) ▪ All three showed a unique fusion of Italian and Elizabethan features William and Mary Crowned © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
  11. 11.  Theatre continued Production in the Restoration  All Restoration Theaters: ▪ were indoor, proscenium-arch buildings ▪ divided audience into pit, boxes and galleries ▪ could seat about 650 ▪ had a raked pit with backless benches © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
  12. 12.  Theatre continued Production in the Restoration  Restoration Theaters unusual because: ▪ Divided proscenium-arch into two halves; one half behind the arch (like Italians) and other half in front (thrust stage) (like English) ▪ Entire stage was raked to improve sight lines ▪ Had proscenium doors to the side of the stage with balconies above them for “concealment” scenes © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
  13. 13.  Theatre Production in the Restoration continued  Scenery, Lighting, and Costumes also illustrate a fusion of Italian and English stage practices  Basic components ▪ Wings ▪ Shutters (sometimes replaced by rolled backdrops) ▪ Borders for masking  Groove system most often used for changing scenes (borrowed from Italians)  Lighting was natural and candle  Costumes were contemporary clothing © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13
  14. 14.  Background: A More Complex World  The 18th century was a time of transition  Western Europe prospered more than ever before  Called the Age of Enlightenment  Complexity of society mirrored in an extremely complex theatre  The arts dominated by the baroque style © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
  15. 15.  Eighteenth-Century Drama: New Dramatic Forms GOLDONI VERSUS GOZZI In the middle of the 18 th century, two Italian dramatists, Carol Goldoni and Carlo Gozzi, took different approaches in adapting Italian commedia dell’arte to a more modern form. Goldoni wanted drama to be more realistic. Gozzi wanted it to more fanciful. Seen here is a scene from Goldoni’s La Locandiera (the Mistress of the Inn) presented in Lyon, France. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
  16. 16.  Eighteenth-Century Drama: New Dramatic Forms continued  Drame – 18th century French term usually denoting aserious drama that dealt with middle-class characters ▪ A new French form ▪ Examples: Bourgeois tragedy and domestic tragedy ▪ The virtuous were rewarded and the wicked punished ▪ By the end of the century, was being written in France, Germany, and England © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
  17. 17.  Eighteenth-Century Drama: New Dramatic Forms continued  Satirical ballad opera –18th century English dramatic form that burlesqued (satirized) opera  Sentimental comedy – 18th century from that was like Restoration comedy, in that it was a comedy of manners, except reaffirmed middle class morality and focused on morality rather than laughter © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
  18. 18.  Eighteenth-Century Drama: New Dramatic Forms continued  In late 18th century, many German playwrights revolted against the neoclassical ideals  Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was a leader in storm and stress – an antineoclassical 18th century German movement that was a forerunner of romanticism; in German Sturm and Drang © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
  19. 19.  Theatre Production in the Eighteenth Century  Government and Theatre ▪ Government attempted to regulate theatre ▪ England: the Licensing Act ▪ France: restricted what types of plays could be produced, and granted monopolies to certain theatres ▪ Germany: more positive intervention; subsidized theatres in several German states © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19
  20. 20.  Theatre Production in the Eighteenth Century continued  Eighteenth-Century Theatre Architecture ▪ Theatres became larger to accommodate the new middle-class audiences ▪ Egg-shaped interiors improved sight lines ▪ Theatre building proliferated throughout Europe © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
  21. 21.  Theatre Production in the Eighteenth Century continued  Scenery, Lighting, and Costumes ▪ Italy produced many scenic innovations ▪ Bibiena family—for nearly 100 years, the most influential Italian designers and theatre architects ▪ Angular or multipoint perspective ▪ Designs were grandiose, lavish, and ornate © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21
  22. 22. THE THEATRE AT DROTTNINGHOLM, SWEDEN This theatre still has the sets and stage machinery that were used when it was built as a court playhouse in the 18th century. It is an excellent example of an Italian proscenium theatre with the pole and chariot system for changing scenery. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22
  23. 23. Multi-point scenic perspective by By Giuseppe Galli Bibiena (1690 - 1756) © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23
  24. 24.  Theatre Production in the Eighteenth Century continued  Additional elements sometimes seen in scenic design: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Borders at the top Ground rows (cut-outs along stage floor) Large scenic cut-outs (like painted trees) Rolled back drops Act drops (curtains at the front of the stage) © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24
  25. 25.  Theatre Production in the Eighteenth Century continued  18th century Italian designers are also said to have introduced the box set – interior setting using flats to form the back and side walls and often the ceilings of a room © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25
  26. 26.  Theatre Production in the Eighteenth Century continued  In late 17th century innovations and experiments in lighting including: ▪ Masking the lighting source ▪ Using silk screens for coloring ▪ Replacing candles with oil lamps  Unlike scenery and lighting, theatrical costuming remained underdeveloped through most of the 18th century © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26
  27. 27.  Theatre Production in the Eighteenth Century continued  Acting in the Eighteenth Century  Glorification of star performers  Bombastic approach predominant ▪ Emphasis on the performer’s oratorical skills ▪ Lines often addressed to audience rather than other characters ▪ Limited rehearsal time; thus, standardized patterns of movement © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27
  28. 28.  Theatre Production in the Eighteenth Century continued  The Emergence of the Director ▪ Playwrights and leading performers doubled as directors ▪ Forerunners of the modern stage director ▪ English actor David Garrick ▪ German playwright Johann Wolfgang von Goethe © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28
  29. 29.  Theatre Production in the Eighteenth Century continued  The Emergence of the Director cont’d ▪ David Garrick  Management partner at Drury Lane  Responsible for all artistic decisions  Championed more natural style of acting  Argued for careful development of character’s individual traits, thorough research and preparation  Rehearsals were extended  Actors must be on time, know their lines and act in rehearsal © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29
  30. 30.  The Emergence of the Director cont’d ▪ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe  Famous author and asked to oversee Court Theater Weimar in Germany  A regisseur – European director; often denotes a dictatorial director  Long rehearsal period; actors work as an ensemble  Rules for stage movement and vocal technique  Rules for actors personal lives and audience  Did not advocate natural acting style; actors should speak facing audience and had routine blocking patterns  Believed in historical accuracy in costumes and sets © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30
  31. 31.  Background: A Time of Social Change  Major social changes between 1800 and 1875 ▪ The Industrial Revolution ▪ The rise of nationalism ▪ Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (1859) ▪ Karl Marx’s Das Kapital (1867) © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31
  32. 32.  Theatre in Nineteenth-Century Life  Working and middle-class urban people demanded theatre  Theatre was a true popular entertainment that attracted huge numbers of spectators © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32
  33. 33.  Theatre in Nineteenth-Century Life continued  Other popular nonliterary forms of entertainment: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Minstrel show Burlesque Variety Circus Wild west shows Medicine shows During the 19th century, a number of highly theatrical popular entertainments developed. Among those was the circus. The American entrepreneur P.T. Barnum was a significant innovator in developing the circus as we know it today. Seen here are females trapeze artists performing in 1890. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33
  34. 34.  Theatre in Nineteenth-Century Life continued  More and larger playhouses were constructed  Theatre riots ▪ “Old Price Riots” in London’s Covent Garden Theatre ▪ New York’s Astor Place Theatre in Manhattan © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 34
  35. 35.  Nineteenth-Century Dramatic Forms  Romanticism – movement of the 19th century that sought to free the artist from rules and considered unfettered inspiration the source of all creativity ▪ A revolutionary literary trend ▪ Influenced by the German “storm and stress” movement ▪ Most noted dramas: ▪ Goethe’s Faust ▪ Victor Hugo’s Hernani © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 35
  36. 36.  Nineteenth-Century Dramatic Forms  Romanticism ▪ Rejected all artistic rules; genius creates its own rules ▪ Plays were episodic and epic in scope ▪ Often interested in creating mood and atmosphere © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 36
  37. 37.  Nineteenth-Century Dramatic Forms continued  Melodrama – dramatic form, made popular in the 19th century, which emphasized action and spectacular effects and also used music; it had stock characters and clearly defined villains and heroes ▪ Means “song drama” or “music drama” ▪ Emphasis was on surface effects to evoke suspense, fear, nostalgia, and other strong emotions ▪ Conflict clearly established, as was the contrast between heroes and villains; virtuous was always victorious ▪ Suspenseful plots, with climactic moment at the end of each act © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 37
  38. 38.  Nineteenth-Century Dramatic Forms continued  The Well-Made Play – dramatic form popular in the 19th century and early 20th century that combined apparent plausibility of incident (could possibly happen) and surface realism with a tightly constructed plot © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 38
  39. 39.  Nineteenth-Century Dramatic Forms continued  The Well-Made Play continued ▪ Tightly constructed cause-and-effect development ▪ Action revolves around a secret known to the audience but not to the characters (dramatic irony) ▪ Opening scene includes exposition – imparting of information necessary for an understanding of the story but not covered by the action onstage; events or knowledge from the past, or occurring outside the play, which must be introduced so that the audience will understand the characters or plot ▪ Clear foreshadowing, and each act builds to a climax ▪ Opposing characters confront each other in a showdown in a major scene known as the “obligatory scene” ▪ Plot carefully resolved; no loose ends © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 39
  40. 40.  Theatre Production in the Nineteenth Century  Performers and Acting ▪ An era of great stars idolized by audiences ▪ Some were not only national but global figures ▪ Traditional repertory company gradually disappeared ▪ Combination companies began to tour widely ▪ Long runs became more common © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 40
  41. 41. EDWIN BOOTH An outstanding actor of the 19th century was Edwin Booth, famous for his portrayal of Hamlet, shown here, and other Shakespearean characters, as well as for building his own theatre. As a performer, he was renowned for depth of character, grace and freedom from mannerisms. In an age of stage posturing, he took a more natural approach to his roles. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 41
  42. 42.  Theatre Production in the Nineteenth Century continued  Nineteenth-Century Developments in Directing ▪ More emphasis on: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Creating a unified stage picture More time for rehearsal More attention to production details Historical accuracy in scenery and costuming ▪ Key figures: ▪ Richard Wagner ▪ George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 42
  43. 43.  Theatre Production in the Nineteenth Century continued ▪ Richard Wagner ▪ Gesamtkunstwerk – Wagner’s theory of a unified work of theatrical art, controlled by one person ▪ His innovations for increasing stage illusion are important:  Musicians forbidden to tune their instruments in the orchestra pit  Audiences not to applaud during the presentation ▪ Credited with being the first director to extinguish house lights © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 43
  44. 44.  Theatre Production in the Nineteenth Century continued ▪ George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen ▪ Between 1871-1890 made the Meiningen Players the most renowned company in the world ▪ Revolutionized stage production:  Rehearsed for extensive periods of time, refusing to opn a show until he believed it was ready  Opposed to the star system and hired young actors  Famous for intricately planned crowd scenes  Admired for his historically accurate sets and costumes  Because his company toured frequently, his innovations became well know throughout Europe © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 44
  45. 45.  Theatre Production in the Nineteenth Century continued  Nineteenth-Century Theatre Architecture ▪ First half of century: many playhouses enlarged to meet demand of lower-class urban audiences ▪ Second half of century: less construction of huge theatres © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 45
  46. 46.  Theatre Production in the Nineteenth Century continued  Nineteenth-Century Theatre Architecture ▪ The Booth Theatre: ▪ completed in 1869 for Edwin Booth (renowned Shakespearean actor) ▪ Cited as being the 1st modern theater in NY ▪ Instead of pit and gallery, had a modern orchestra area, balconies, and individual armchairs as seats ▪ Stage was revolutionary:  Scenery could be raised from basement or lowered from above (“flown in”) © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 46
  47. 47.  Theatre Production in the Nineteenth Century continued  Nineteenth-Century Theatre Architecture ▪ Bayreuth Festspielhaus: ▪ Built for Richard Wagner, opened in 1876 ▪ 1300 individual seats in thirty raked rows © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 47
  48. 48. NINETEENTH CENTURY THEATRE ARCHITECTURE Significant changes took place in theatre architecture during the 1800s. This illustration of Covent Garden in London shows a typical “pit, box, and gallery theatre of the era. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 48
  49. 49. This photograph of Wagner’s Bayreuth Festspielhaus, shows that by 1876 significant transformations were occurring. Wagner’s theatre is much more like a modern proscenium theatre, with comfortable seating in the orchestra area, a small balcony and a sunken orchestra pit. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 49
  50. 50.  Theatre Production in the Nineteenth Century continued  Scenery, Costumes, and Lighting  More emphasis on historically accurate productions  Box set: flats are cleated together at angles to form walls of a three-dimensional room  Elevator stage: allows sections of a stage floor, or even an entire floor, to be raised or lowered  Revolving stage: a large turntable on which scenery is placed; as it turns, one set turns out of sight and another is brought into view © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 50
  51. 51. 1 million dollar revolving stage from “Lord of the Rings” musical in England. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 51
  52. 52.  Theatre Production in the Nineteenth Century continued  Scenery, Costumes, and Lighting  Stage Lighting Revolutionized in 19th Century  1816, Philadelphia’s Chestnut Street Theater (my home town!) became world’s first playhouse to be entirely gaslit  Gaslight allowed intensity of light to be controlled in all parts of the theater  By 1850, “gas table” invented (like modern day dimmer board)  1879, Thomas Edison’s incandescent lamp © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 52

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