COUNCIL OF CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS (CCSSO) & NATIONAL GOVERNORS ASSOCIATION CENTER FOR BEST PRACTICES (NGA CENTER) JUNE 2010
Standards Development Process College and career readiness standards developed in summer 2009 Based on the college and career readiness standards, K‐12 learning progressions developed Mul=ple rounds of feedback from states, teachers, researchers, higher educa=on, and the general public Final Common Core State Standards released on June 2, 2010
What are the Common Core State Standards? Aligned with college and work expecta=ons Focused and coherent Include rigorous content and applica=on of knowledge through high‐order skills Build upon strengths and lessons of current state standards Interna=onally benchmarked so that all students are prepared to succeed in our global economy and society Based on evidence and research State led – coordinated by NGA Center and CCSSO
Why is this important? Currently, every state has its own set of academic standards, meaning public educa=on students in each state are learning to diﬀerent levels All students must be prepared to compete with not only their American peers in the next state, but with students from around the world
More Informationwww.corestandards.org For more informa=on and to post a video of support
STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS &LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS JUNE 2010
Design and OrganizationMajor design goals Align with best evidence on college and career readiness expecta=ons Build on the best standards work of the states Maintain focus on what maOers most for readiness
Design and OrganizationThree main sec2ons K−5 (cross‐disciplinary) 6−12 English Language Arts 6−12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical SubjectsShared responsibility for students’ literacy developmentThree appendices• A: Research and evidence; glossary of key terms• B: Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasks• C: Annotated student wri=ng samples
Design and OrganizationFour strands Reading (including Reading Founda=onal Skills) Wri=ng Speaking and Listening LanguageAn integrated model of literacyMedia requirements blended throughout
Design and OrganizationCollege and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards Broad expecta=ons consistent across grades and content areas Based on evidence about college and workforce training expecta=ons Range and content
Design and OrganizationK−12 standards Grade‐speciﬁc end‐of‐year expecta=ons Developmentally appropriate, cumula=ve progression of skills and understandings One‐to‐one correspondence with CCR standards
ReadingComprehension (standards 1−9) Standards for reading literature and informa=onal texts Strong and growing across‐the‐curriculum emphasis on students’ ability to read and comprehend informa=onal texts Aligned with NAEP Reading frameworkRange of reading and level of text complexity(standard 10, Appendices A and B) “Staircase” of growing text complexity across grades High‐quality literature and informa=onal texts in a range of genres and subgenres
Reading Foundational SkillsFour categories (standards 1−4) Print concepts (K−1) Phonological awareness (K−1) Phonics and word recogni=on (K−5) Fluency (K−5)• Not an end in and of themselves• Diﬀeren=ated instruc=on
WritingWri2ng types/purposes (standards 1−3) Wri=ng arguments Wri=ng informa=ve/explanatory texts Wri=ng narra=ves Strong and growing across‐the‐curriculum emphasis on students wri=ng arguments and informa=ve/explanatory texts Aligned with NAEP Wri=ng framework
WritingProduc2on and distribu2on of wri2ng (standards 4−6) Developing and strengthening wri=ng Using technology to produce and enhance wri=ngResearch (standards 7−9) Engaging in research and wri=ng about sourcesRange of wri2ng (standard 10) Wri=ng rou=nely over various =me frames
Speaking and ListeningComprehension and collabora2on (standards 1−3) Day‐to‐day, purposeful academic talk in one‐on‐one, small‐group, and large‐group segngsPresenta2on of knowledge and ideas (standards 4−6) Formal sharing of informa=on and concepts, including through the use of technology
LanguageConven2ons of standard EnglishKnowledge of language (standards 1−3) Using standard English in formal wri=ng and speaking Using language eﬀec=vely and recognizing language varie=esVocabulary (standards 4−6) Determining word meanings and word nuances Acquiring general academic and domain‐speciﬁc words and phrases
Key AdvancesReading• Balance of literature and informa=onal texts• Text complexityWri2ng• Emphasis on argument and informa=ve/explanatory wri=ng• Wri=ng about sourcesSpeaking and Listening• Inclusion of formal and informal talkLanguage• Stress on general academic and domain‐speciﬁc vocabulary
Key AdvancesStandards for reading and wri2ng in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects• Complement rather than replace content standards in those subjects• Responsibility of teachers in those subjectsAlignment with college and career readinessexpecta2ons
Intentional Design LimitationsWhat the Standards do NOT deﬁne: How teachers should teach All that can or should be taught The nature of advanced work beyond the core The interven=ons needed for students well below grade level The full range of support for English language learners and students with special needs Everything needed to be college and career ready
ConclusionStandards: Important but insuﬃcient To be eﬀec=ve in improving educa=on and gegng all students ready for college, workforce training, and life, the Standards must be partnered with a content‐rich curriculum and robust assessments, both aligned to the Standards.
Design and OrganizationStandards for Mathema2cal Prac2ce Carry across all grade levels Describe habits of mind of a mathema=cally expert studentStandards for Mathema2cal Content K‐8 standards presented by grade level Organized into domains that progress over several grades Grade introduc=ons give 2–4 focal points at each grade level High school standards presented by conceptual theme (Number & Quan=ty, Algebra, Func=ons, Modeling, Geometry, Sta=s=cs & Probability)
Design and Organization Content standards deﬁne what students should understand and be able to do Clusters are groups of related standards Domains are larger groups that progress across grades
Design and Organization Focal points at each grade level
Number and Operations, Grade 1Number and Opera2ons Opera2ons and Algebraic in Base Ten Thinking Extend the coun=ng Represent and solve sequence. problems involving addi=on Understand place value. and subtrac=on. Use place value Understand and apply understanding and proper=es proper=es of opera=ons and of opera=ons to add and the rela=onship between subtract. addi=on and subtrac=on. Add and subtract within 20. Work with addi=on and subtrac=on equa=ons.
Fractions, Grades 3–6 3. Develop an understanding of frac=ons as numbers. 4. Extend understanding of frac=on equivalence and ordering. 4. Build frac=ons from unit frac=ons by applying and extending previous understandings of opera=ons on whole numbers. 4. Understand decimal nota=on for frac=ons, and compare decimal frac=ons. 5. Use equivalent frac=ons as a strategy to add and subtract frac=ons. 5. Apply and extend previous understandings of mul=plica=on and division to mul=ply and divide frac=ons. 6. Apply and extend previous understandings of mul=plica=on and division to divide frac=ons by frac=ons.
Statistics and Probability, Grade 6Develop understanding of sta2s2cal variability Recognize a sta=s=cal ques=on as one that an=cipates variability in the data related to the ques=on and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a sta=s=cal ques=on, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a sta=s=cal ques=on because one an=cipates variability in students’ ages. Understand that a set of data collected to answer a sta=s=cal ques=on has a distribu=on which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape. Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of varia=on describes how its values vary with a single number.
Algebra, Grade 8Graded ramp up to Algebra in Grade 8 Proper=es of opera=ons, similarity, ra=o and propor=onal rela=onships, ra=onal number system.Focus on linear equa2ons and func2ons in Grade 8 Expressions and Equa=ons Work with radicals and integer exponents. Understand the connec=ons between propor=onal rela=onships, lines, and linear equa=ons. Analyze and solve linear equa=ons and pairs of simultaneous linear equa=ons. Func=ons Deﬁne, evaluate, and compare func=ons. Use func=ons to model rela=onships between quan==es.
High SchoolConceptual themes in high school Number and Quan=ty Algebra Func=ons Modeling Geometry Sta=s=cs and ProbabilityCollege and career readiness threshold (+) standards indicate material beyond the threshold; can be in courses required for all students.
Geometry, High SchoolMiddle school founda2ons Hands‐on experience with transforma=ons. Low tech (transparencies) or high tech (dynamic geometry sooware).High school rigor and applica2ons Proper=es of rota=ons, reﬂec=ons, transla=ons, and dila=ons are assumed, proofs start from there. Connec=ons with algebra and modeling
Key AdvancesFocus and coherence• Focus on key topics at each grade level.• Coherent progressions across grade levels.Balance of concepts and skills• Content standards require both conceptual understanding and procedural ﬂuency.Mathema2cal prac2ces• Foster reasoning and sense‐making in mathema=cs.College and career readiness• Level is ambi=ous but achievable.
ConclusionThe promise of standards These Standards are not intended to be new names for old ways of doing business. They are a call to take the next step. It is =me for states to work together to build on lessons learned from two decades of standards based reforms. It is =me to recognize that standards are not just promises to our children, but promises we intend to keep.
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