Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Turkish infinitives and english gerunds or infinitives

Turkish infinitives and English infinitives or gerunds.

  • Be the first to comment

Turkish infinitives and english gerunds or infinitives

  1. 1. 2015 TURKISH INFINITIVES and ENGLISH INFINITIVES or ENGLISH GERUNDS Yüksel Göknel ygoknel@outlook.com
  2. 2. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 2 TURKISH INFINITIVES and ENGLISH INFINITIVES or GERUNDS Before we begin with the English and Turkish grammars, it may be useful to start with the Turkish infinitives, and either English infinitives or gerunds. In Turkish, there are only infinitives that are formed of a verb and various noun-producing allomorphs attached to a verb, such as: verb-[mek, mak] verb-[me, ma] verb-[iş, ış, üş, uş] verb-[dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk] The allomorphs above written black are the noun-producing allomorphs that turn verbs into infinitives when they are attached to them. Turkish infinitives generally function as nouns in Turkish sentences. However, the English infinitives may function either as nouns, as adverbs or as adjectives in sentences. “To verb” is an infinitive, and “verb-ing” is a gerund, but “verb-ing” is a present participle (adjective). The “ing” noun-producing suffix may turn a verb into a nominal gerund, but the same “ing” may also change a verb into an adjective “verb-ing”, which is called present participle. English nominal gerunds may be used as subjects, objects, objects of prepositions or as subject complements in sentences. English gerunds and their Turkish infinitive equivalents are underlined as follows: Read-ing helps us improve our knowledge. (The nominal gerund is subject.) Oku-mak bilgi-im-iz-i geliştir-me-/y/e yardım et-er. (The infinitive is subject.) Jack enjoys listen-ing to pop music. (The gerund is object.) Jack pop müzik dinle-mek-ten hoşlan-ır. (“Infinitive-ten” is adverbial.) My sister is interested in annoy-ing me. (The gerund is the object of “in”.) Kız kardeş-im can-ım-ı sık-mak-la ilgilen-ir. (“Sık-mak-la” is adverbial.) See-ing is believ-ing. Gör-mek inan-mak-tır. gerund verb gerund infinitive infinitive verb Some English present participles “verb- ing” can be used as adjectives in sentences whose Turkish equivalents are formed by attaching [en, an] adjective-producing allomorphs to verbs. For instance:
  3. 3. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 3 fly-ing → uç-an, talk-ing → konuş-an, shin-ing → ışılda-/y/an, smil-ing → gülümse-/y/en, rise-ing → yüksel-en, cry-ing → ağla-/y/an, sing-ing → ötüş-en, fall-ing → düş-en, roar-ing → kükre-/y/en. fly-ing birds → Uç-an kuşlar; talk-ing parrots → konuş-an papağanlar; shin-ing lights → ışılda-/y/an ışıklar; smil-ing baby → gülümse-/y/en bebek; rise-ing prices → yüksel-en fiyatlar; fall-ing leaves → düş-en yapraklar; roar-ing lions → kükre-/y/en arslanlar. Turkish infinitives “verb-[mek, mak]”, “verb-[me, ma]” and the others are always nominal infinitives. They always function as nouns in sentences. However, the English “to verb” infinitives may either function as nouns, as adjectives or adverbs without changing their forms. For instance: Mary Türkçe öğren-mek iste-i.yor. (The infinitive is nominal.) Mary wants to learn Turkish. (The infinitive is nominal.) Mary benim-le konuş-ma-/y/ı reddet-ti. (The infinitive is nominal.) Mary refused to talk to me. (The infinitive is nominal.) Mary bir araba al-mak için para biriktir-i.yor. (“Infinitive + için” is adverbial.) Mary is saving money to buy a car. (The infinitive is adverbial.) Balık tut-mak için göl-e git-ti-im. (Infinitive + postposition) (Adverbial) I went to the lake to fish. (The infinitive is adverbial.) Jack okul-dan çık-an ilk çocuk-tu. (“Çık-an” is an adjective.) Jack was the first boy to leave the school. (“To leave” is an adjective.) (The infinitive modifies the noun “boy”; so it is an adjective.) Yürü-/y/e.cek uzun bir yol-um-uz var. (“Yürü-/y/e.cek” is an adjective.) We have a long way to walk. (“To walk” is an adjective.) Öğren-e.cek çok şey-in.iz var. (“Öğren-e.cek” is an adjective.) You have a lot of things to learn. (“To learn” is an adjective.) Bitir-e.cek bir iş-im var. (“Bitir-e.cek” is an adjective.) I have a work to finish. (“To finish” is an adjective.) Note: The blue underlines show the subjects, but the blue subject allo- morphs are not underlined. The black underlines show the objects, noun clauses, and nouns. The red underlines show the verbs. The green underlines show the adverbs, adverbial phrases or clauses. The purple underlines show the adjectives and the noun modifiers.
  4. 4. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 4 TURKISH INFINITIVES (MASTARLAR) In Turkish, the grammar term infinitive (mastar) covers both the gerunds and the infinitives of the English language. Therefore, we always talk about infinitives in Turkish. When you see a “verb-mek, mak”, a “verb-me, ma“, a “verb-iş, ış, üş, uş” or a “verb-dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk” inflectional allomorphs attached to verbs, they turn them into infinitives. All infinitives are nouns, and they are timeless. There are four kinds of infinitives in Turkish: 1. The ♫ [mek, mak] allomorphs attached to verb roots, stems or frames: oku-mak (reding, to read); yüz-mek (swimming, to swim); yardım et-mek (helping, to help); konuş-mak (talking, to talk); temizle-mek (cleaning, to clean); oyna-mak (playing, to play); tart-mak; tart-ıl-mak (tar*tıl*mak); tart- ış-mak (tar*tış*mak); kaç-mak; kaç-ın-mak (ka*çın*mak); kaç-ış-mak (ka*- çış*mak); sürt-mek; sürt-ül-mek (sür*tül*mek); sürt-ün-mek (sür*tün*- mek); sürt-üş-mek (sür*tüş*mek); döv-mek; döv-ül-mek (dö*vül*mek); döv-ün-mek (dö*vün*mek); döv-üş-mek; çek-mek; çek-il-mek; çek-in- mek; çek-iş-mek; at-mak; at-ıl-mak; at-ış-mak; sev-mek; sev-il-mek; sev-in-mek; sev-iş-mek; değ-mek; değ-in-mek; değ-il-mek. 2. The ♫ [me, ma] allomorphs attached to verb roots, stems and frames: git-me (going, to go); gel-me (coming, to come); çalış-ma (working, to work); eleştir-me (criticizing, to criticize); anla-ma (understanding, to under- stand); ezberle-me (memorizing, to memorize); tart-ma, tart-ıl-ma (tar*tıl*- ma), tart-ış-ma (tar*tış*ma); gör-me, gör-ül-me (gö*rül*me), gör-ün-me (gö*rün*me), gör-üş-me; kaç-ma; kaç-ın-ma; kaç-ış-ma. 3. The ♫ [iş, ış, üş, uş, eş, aş] allomorphs attached to verb roots or stems: gül-üş (gü*lüş) (way of smiling); bak-ış (ba*kış) (way of looking); anla- /y/ış (an*la*yış) (ability of understanding), gel-iş (ge*liş) (way of) coming); dav-ran-ış (dav*ra*nuş) (way of behaving). 4. The ♫ [dik. dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk] allomorphs attached to verb roots, stems and frames: yüz-dük, gel-dik, oku-duk, temizle-dik, bekle-dik, çalış-tık; soy-un-duk (so*yun*duk), anla-aş-tık (an*laş*tık), kes-iş-tik, sev-il-dik, yüz-leş-tik, bek-le-eş-tik (bek*leş*tik) tart-ış-tık (tar*tış*tık).
  5. 5. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 5 The Nr. 4 infinitives are used in transforming sentences into “possessive + owned” (noun + infinitive) compounds such as: “ben-im gör-dük-üm” (be*nim / gör*dü*ğüm); “Hasan’ın çalış-tık-ı” (ha*sa*nın / ça*lış*tı*ğı); “biz-im bekle-eş-tik-im.iz” (bi*zim / bek*leş*ti*ği*miz). In the examples above, the ♫ [dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk] allo- morphs are not the allomorphs used in "Futbol oyna-dı-ık." For instance, when the sentence "O futbol oynuyor" is transformed into a nominal phrase (noun + infinitive compound), it becomes "onun futbol oyna-dık-ı". This transformed phrase can be used as the object of "görüyorum". "Onun futbol oyna-dık-ı/n/ı (oynuyor olduğunu) görüyorum." In this sentence, the allo- morph [dık] does not convey a past time concept as the other infinitives. Consequently, "oynuyor”, “oynar”, “oynardı”, “oynadı”, “oynuyordu" tenses are all transformed into a “noun + infinitive” compound as "oyna-dık-ı" (oy*na*dı*ğı): O futbol oynuyor. ↻ “onun futbol oyna-dık-ı” (oy*na*dı*ğı) O futbol oynar. ↻ “onun futbol oyna-dık-ı” O futbol oynadı. ↻ “onun futbol oyna-dık-ı” O futbol oynuyordu. ↻ “onun futbol oyna-dık-ı” When all the four sentences above are transformed and nominalized, they can be used in the following sentences as definite objects: Onun futbol oyna-dık-ı-/n/ı görüyor-um. I can see that he is playing football. Onun her gün futbol oyna-dık-ı-/n/ı biliyor-um. I know that he plays football every day. Onun dün futbol oyna-dık-ı-/n/ı gördü-üm. I saw that he was playing football yesterday. These examples clearly prove that the [DİK] morpheme is not the past time [di-ik] morpheme. It is a morpheme attached to a verb to produce an infini- tive: “Onun araba-/y/ı çal-dık-ı” is a “noun + infinitive” compound like “onun araba-/y/ı çal-ma-/s/ı”. Generally speaking, "ben-im al-ma-am", "ben-im al-ış-ım", "ben-im al-dık-ım" expressions are all “possessive + owned” noun compounds like "ben-im kapı-ım". The "verb-[mek, mak]" infinitives are timeless as the other in- finitives are, but they are not used in compounds. For instance *“onun git- mek-i” is not used in Turkish; the “verb-[me, ma]” infinitives are used ins- tead.
  6. 6. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 6 WHERE TURKISH INFINITIVES AND ENGLISH INFINITIVES OR GERUNDS ARE USED Watch carefully where infinitives or gerunds are used in place of Turkish infinitives in the following sentences: 1 (a). The [mek, mak] allomorphs, which turn verbs into infinitives (nouns), can be used in the subject position in a sentence. They are timeless and have no personal possessive allomorphs attached to them. Yürü-mek sağlık için yararlı-dır. (“Yürü-mek” is an infinitive “subject”.) (yü*rü*mek / sağ*lık / i*çin / ya*rar*lı*dır ↷) Walk-ing is good for health. (“Walk-ing is a gerund “subject”.) Sigara iç-mek zararlı-dır. (The subject is an Infinitive.) (si*ga*ra / iç*mek / za*rar*lı*dır ↷) Smok-ing is harmful. (The subject is a gerund.) Gün-de sekiz saat uyu-mak sağlıklı bir kişi için yeterli-dir. (Infinitive) (gün*de / se*kiz / sa*at / u*yu*mak / sağ*lık*lı / bir / ki*şi / i*çin / ye*ter*li*dir↷) Sleep-ing eight hours a day is enough for a healthy person. (Gerund) Bütün gün televizyon seyret-mek zaman kaybı-dır. (Infinitive) (bü*tün / gün / te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*mek / za*man / kay*bı*dır ↷) Watch-ing television all day long is a waste of time. (Gerund) O-/n/u ikna et-mek kolay-dır. (Infinitive) (o*nu / ik*na: / et*mek / ko*lay*dır ↷) To convince him is easy. (Infinitive) 1 (b).The same [mek, mak] infinitives are used before “yerine” and “için” postpositions: Televizyon seyret-mek yerine iş-in-i yap. (Postpositional adverbial phrase.) (te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*mek / ye*ri*ne / i*şi*ni / yap ↷) Do your work instead of watch-ing television. (Prepositional adverb phrase.) The gerunds “watch-ing”, “work-ing ”, and “go-ing” are the objects of the pre- position “instead of”. However, when the gerunds are used together with the preposition “istead of”, their function becomes adverbial. Bahçe-de çalış-mak yerine tenis oyna-dı-ık. infinitive (noun) postp postp phrs (adverbial) (bah*çe*de / ça*lış*mak / ye*ri*ne / te*nis / oy*na*dık ↷) We played tennis in the garden instead of work-ing.
  7. 7. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 7 Okul-a git-mek yerine sinema-/y/a git-ti-ler (o*ku*la / git*mek / ye*ri*ne~/ si*ne*ma*ya / git*ti*ler ↷) They went to the cinema instead of go-ing to school. The same [mek, mak] allomorphs are also used before “için” postpositions to express purpose: Ev ödev-im-i tamamla-mak için sabah-le.yin erken kalk-tı-ım. (e*vö*de*vi*mi / ta*mam*la*mak / i*çin~/ sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kalk* tım ↷) I got up early to complete my homework. (“To complete” is an infinitive that functions as an adverb.) (The functions of English infinitives are of three kinds; some of them are adverbal, some others are nominal, and some others are adjectival.) Yepyeni bir araba al-mak için para biriktir-i.yor-uz. (Adverbial) (yep*ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / al*mak / i*çin / pa*ra / bi*rik*ti*ri*yo*ruz ↷) We are saving money to buy a brand new car. (Adverbial) Onlar-ı gör-mek için pencere-den bak-tı-ım. (Adverbial) (on*la*rı / gör*mek / i*çin ~/ pen*ce*re*den / bak*tım ↷) I looked out of the window to see them. (Adverbial) O/n/u bitir-mek için zaman-a ihtiyaç-ım.ız var. (Adverbial) (o*nu / bi*tir*mek / i*çin ~/ za*ma:*na / ih*ti*ya:*cı*mız / var ↷) We need time to finish it. (Adverbial) Cumhurbaşkanı-/n/ı gör-mek için herkes ayak-a kalk-tı. (Adverbial) Everybody stood up to see the president. (Adverbial) Yabancı dil öğren-mek için çok çalış-mak zorunda-sın. (Adverbial; nominal) (ya*ban*cı / dil / öğ*ren*mek / i*çin~ / çok / ça*lış*mak / zo*run*da*sın ↷) You have to study hard to learn a foreign language. (Nominal and adverbial) Ben-i anla-mak için dikkat-le dinle. (Adverbial) (be*ni / an*la*mak / i*çin ~/ dik*kat*le / din*le ↷) Listen carefully to understand me. (Adverbial) Islan-ma-mak için şemsiye-/s/i-/n/i al-dı. (Adverbial) (ıs*lan*ma*mak / i*çin / şem*si*ye*si*ni / al*dı ↷) She took her umbrella not to get wet. (Adverbial) Ben-i daha iyi gör-mek için gözlük-ler-i-/n/i tak-tı. (Adverbial) (be*ni / da*ha / i*yi / gör*mek / i*çin / göz*lük*le*ri*ni / tak*tı ↷) She put on her glasses to see me better. (Adverbial)
  8. 8. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 8 Biz-e yardım et-mek için israr et-ti. (Adverbial) (bi*ze / yar*dım / et*mek / i*çin / is*ra:r / et*ti ↷) (is*ra:*ret*ti) He insisted on help-ing us. (Adverbial) Otobüs-e yetiş-mek için koş-tu-uk. (Adverbial) (o*to*bü*se / ye*tiş*mek / i*çin / koş*tuk↷) We ran to catch the bus. (Adverbial) 1 (c). The infinitives with ♫ [mek, mak] are used as objects of the verb “iste" and "zorunda" ("want”, “wish" and "have to") Türkçe öğren-mek iste-i.yor-um. (Nominal) (türk*çe / öğ*ren*mek / is*ti*yo*rum ↷) I want to learn Turkish. (Nominal) Türkçe öğren-mek zorunda-/y/ım. (Nominal) (türk*çe / öğ*ren*mek / zo*run*da*yım ↷) I have to learn Turkish. (Nominal) Bulaşık-lar-ı yıka-mak iste-me-i.yor-um. (Nominal) (bu*la*şık*la*rı / yı*ka*mak / is*te*mi*yo*rum ↷) I don’t want to wash the dishes. (Nominal) Bu kitap-ı oku-mak iste-i.yor mu-sun? (Nominal) (bu / ki*ta*bı / o*ku*mak / is*ti*yor / mu*sun ↷) Do you want to read this book? (Nominal) Canım okul-a git-mek iste-me-i.yor. (Nominal) (ca*nım / o*ku*la / git*mek / is*te*mi*yor ↷) I don’t feel like go-ing to school. (Adverbial) 1 (d). The ♫ [mek, mak] allomorphs attached to [ten, tan] allomorphs: The ♫ [mek, mak] allomorphs can also be used attached to ♫ [ten, tan] allomorphs as all nouns can. The other two allomorphs of the phoneme [DEN] are not used here because the ♫ [mek, mak] allomorphs end with unvoiced consonants: Yanlış-lık yap-mak-tan kaçın-ma.lı-sın. (“Yap-mak-tan” is an adverb.) (yan*lış*lık / yap*mak*tan / ka*çın*ma*lı*sın ↷) You must avoid mak-ing mistakes. (The “ing” suffix turns the verb “make” into a nominal gerund. Gece-le.yin yalnız dışarı-/y/a çık-mak-tan kork-u.yor-um. (Adverbial) (ge*ce*le*yin / yal*nız / dı*şa*rı / çık*mak*tan / kor*ku*yo*rım ↷) I am afraid of go-ing out alone at night. (Adverbial)
  9. 9. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 9 Tüm kadın-lar yaşlan-mak-tan kork-ar. (Adverbial) (tüm / ka*dın*lar / yaş*lan*mak*tan / kor*kar ↷) All women are afraid of grow-ing old. (Adverbial) Bütün gün ev-de otur-mak-tan bık-tı-ım (sıkıl-dı-ım). (Adverbial) (bü*tün / gün / ev*de / o*tur*mak*tan / bık*tım ↷) I am tired (bored) of stay-ing at home all day long. (Adverbial) Yalan söyle-mek-ten utan-ma-ı.yor mu-sun? (Adverbial) (ya*lan / söy*le*mek*ten / u*tan*mı*yor / mu*sun ↷) Aren’t you ashamed of tell-ing lies? (Adverbial) Üzül-mek-ten kendim-i al-a.ma-ı.yor-um. (Adverbial) (ü*zül*mek*ten / ken*di*mi / a*la*mı*yo*rum ↷) I can’t help be-ing sorry. (Nominal) Bekle-mek-ten neftet et-er-im. (“Nefret et” is intransitive.) (Adverbial) (bek*le*mek*ten / nef*ret / e*de*rim ↷) I hate wait-ing. (The verb “hate” is transitive.) (Object) (Nomibal) Çoğu öğrenciler ev ödev-i yap-mak-tan hoşlan-maz. (“Hoşlan” is intransitive.) (ço*ğu / öğ*ren*ci*ler / e*vö*de*vi / yap*mak*tan / hoş*lan*maz ↷) Most students dislike do-ing homework. (“Dislike” is transitive.) (Nominal) Pervasız-ca araba sür-mek-ten kaçın-ma.lı-sın. (Adverbial) (per*va:*sız*ca / a*ra*ba / sür*mek*ten / ka*çın*ma*lı*sın ↷) You must avoid driv-ing reckless-ly. (Nominal) Gül-mek-ten kendi-im-i al-a.ma-dı-ım. (Adverbial) (gül*mek*ten / ken*di*mi / a*la*ma*dım ↷) I couldn’t help laugh-ing. (Nominal; object of “help”.) Kızkardeş-im ev iş-i yap-mak-tan nefret et-er. (“Nefret et” is intransitive.) (kız*kar*de*şim / e*vi*şi / yap*mak*tan / nef*re*te*der ↷) (Adverbial) My sister hates do-ing housework. (“Hate” is transitive) (Nominal) Aldat-ıl-mak-tan nefret et-er-im. (Passive infinitive) (Adverbial) (al*da*tıl*mak*tan / nef*re*te*de*rim ↷) I hate be-ing cheated. (“Hate” is transitive.) (Nominal) Yardım iste-mek-ten çekin-me. (“Çekin” is intransitive.) (Adverbial) (yar*dım / is*te*mek*ten / çe*kin*me↷) Don’t avoid ask-ing for help. (“Avoid” is transitive.) (Nominal)
  10. 10. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 10 Tavla oyna-mak-tan söz et-ti-ik. (Adverbial) (tav*la / oy*na*mak*tan / sö*zet*tik↷) We talked about play-ing backgammon. (Object of “about”) (Nominal) 2 (a). The ♫ [me, ma] infinitives are used in the second parts of the “possessive + owned” noun compounds. They are timeless, but they have possessive personal allomorphs attached to them. Compare the following: Kitap-ın kapak-ı (ki*ta*bın / ka*pa*ğı) (the cover of the book) ben-im pencere-em (be*nim / pen*ce*rem) (my window) ben-im git-me-em (be*nim / git*mem) (my go-ing, me to go) Gerçek-i söyle-me-en-i iste-i.yor-um. (Nominal) (ger*çe*ği / söy*le*me*ni / is*ti*yo*rum↷) I want you to tell the truth. (Nominal) “sen-in gerçek-i söyle-me-en” is a transformed nominal phrase: (Sen) gerçeği söyler-sin. ↻ “(sen-in) gerçek-i söyle-me-en” (Sen) gerçeği söylüyor-sun ↻ “(sen-in) gerçek-i söyle-me-en” (Sen) gerçeği söyledi-in. ↻ “(senin) gerçek-i söyle-me-en” (Sen) gerçeği söylerdi-in. ↻ “(senin) gerçek-i söyle-me-en” (Sen) gerçeği söyleyecek-sin. ↻ “(sen-in) gerçek-i söyle-/y/e.cek ol-ma-an” (Sen) gerçeği söylemişti-in. ↻ "(sen-in) gerçek-i söyle-miş ol-ma-an" As the possessive pronouns with the possessive personal allomorphs, and the possessive allomorphs attached to the second parts of the noun compounds mean the same person, the possessive pronouns used in the beginning of the sentences can be ignored: (ben-“im”) git-me-“em”, (ben-“im”) al-ma-“am”, (ben-“im”) bekle-me-“em” (sen-“in”) git-me-“en”, (sen-“in”) al-ma-“an”, (sen-“in”) bekle-me-“en” (o-“/n/un”) git-me-“/s/i”, (o-“/n/un”) al-ma-“/s/ı”, (o-“/n/un”) bekle-me-“/s/i” (biz-“im”) git-me-“em.iz”, (biz-“im”) al-ma-“am.ız”,(biz-“im”) bekle-me-“em.iz” (siz-“in”) git-me-“en.iz”, (siz-“in”) al-ma-“an.ız”, (siz-“in”) bekle-me-“en.iz” (onlar-“ın”) git-me-“/s/i”, (onlar-“ın”) al-ma-“/s/ı”, (onlar-“ın”) bekle-me-“/s/i” All the shared identical “e-e”, “a-a” vowels combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs. Note: All the owned personal allomorphs written in purple above mean the possessive pronouns in brackets. Therefore, only the possessive allo- morphs written in purple can be used in all Turkish sentences. For
  11. 11. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 11 instance, all the possessive allomorphs written in purple can be used instead of the possessive pronouns that they represent. In other words, as the owned personal allomorphs used in the owned parts of a compound are enough to express the possessive pronouns (ben-im, sen-in, etc.), these possessive pronouns may be ignored unless they are thought to be necessary to attract the listener’s attention. Since the compounds like “ben-im söyle-me-em” are noun compounds, they are nominal phrases, and so the [i, ı], [e, a], [de, da], [den, dan] and [le, la] suffixes can be attached to the infinitive (owned) parts of the compounds: “söyle-me-en-i”, “söyle-me-en-e”, “söyle-me-en-de”, “söyle-me-en- den”, “söyle-me-en-le”. All the allomorphs written in purple mean the pronoun “sen-in”. Baba-am (ben-im) daha çok “çalış-ma-am-ı” iste-i.yor. (is*ti*yor) subject (definite noun + infinitive comp) object verb My father wants me to study harder. (“Me” and “to study” are the objects of “want”) A final rule to add to the previous explanations is that in Turkish, certain verbs need certain morphemes such as [İ], [E], [DE], [DEN] or [LE] attached to nouns or pronouns. The allomorphs of these morphemes can also be at- tached to infinitives, or “noun + infinitive” (or “infinitive + noun”) com- pounds, which might be named as syntactic nouns or nominal phrases. 2 (b). The verbs that take “noun + infinitive” compounds as ob- jects: “noun + infinitive” - [İ] Yağmur, (biz-im) zaman-ın-da tiyatro-/y/a git-me-em.iz-i engelle-di. subject possessive pronoun adverbial adverbial owned verb (definite noun + infinitive compound) definite object (yağ*mur / bi*zim / za*ma:*nın*da / ti*yat*ro*ya / git*me*mi*zi / en*gel*le*di ↷) The rain prevented us from go-ing to the theatre in time. subject verb object prep phrs prep phrs prep phrs adverbial adverbial adverbial (Ben) (sen-in) böyle davran-ma-an-ı anla-ma-ı.yor-um. subj possessive pron adverb owned-ı verb noun compound) definite object I don’t understand your behave-ing like that.
  12. 12. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 12 (Ben) (o/n/-dan) (Ben-im) siyah pantolon-um-u (o-/n/un) ütüle-me-/s/i-/n/i rica et-ti-im. subj adverbial possessive owned-u possessive owned indef obj verb definite noun comp (obj of “ütüle”) def noun comp (obj of “rica et”) definite object definite object (chain noun compound) definite object The mental development of this last sentence contains two simple senten- ces: 1 . O ben-im siyah pantolon-um-u ütüle-sin. 2. Ben ondan bu-/n/u rica ettim. The first simple sentence is transformed and nominalized as “o/n/un ben-im siyah pantolon-um-u ütüle-me-/s/i”, and then it is embedded and used in place of the object “bu-/n/u” in the second sentence: (Ben) o/n/-dan (benim) siyah pantolon-um-u (onun) ütüle-me-/s/i-/n/i rica et-ti-im (si*yah / pan*to*lo*nu*mu / ü*tü*le*me*si*ni / ri*ca: / et*tim ↷) I asked her to iron my black trousers. “Ben”, “benim” and “onun” words are optional because they are understood from the suffixes in “etti-/im/", "pantolon-um” and “ütüle-me-/s/i. (Ben) Mary’/n/in piyano çal-ma-/s/ı-/n/ı seyret-ti-im. subject possessive owned | (noun compound) definite object verb predicate (ma*ri*nin / pi*ya*no / çal*ma*sı*nı / sey*ret*tim ↷) I watched Mary play-ing the piano. (The /n/, /s/ and /n/ glides are respectively used.) (Ben) (Sen-in) ev-e dön-me-en-i bekle-i.yor-um. (e*ve / dön*me*ni) subj possessive adverb owned-i | (noun compound) definite object verb predicate I am waiting for your com-ing back home. Konuş-ma-/s/ı-/n/ı anla-ma-ı.yor-um. (o*nun / ko*nuş*ma*sı*nı / an*la*mı*yo*rum ↷) I don’t understand his way of speak-ing. (The /n/, /s/ and /n/ glides are respectively used.) Sana kahve getir-me-em-i iste-er mi-sin? (sa*na / kah*ve / ge*tir*me*mi / is*ter / mi*sin ↷) Would you like me to serve you coffee? (“to serve” is a nominal infinitive.)
  13. 13. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 13 (Ben-im) onun-la evlen-me-em imkânsız. (“Benim” is optional.) possessive adverbial owned subject complement (noun compound) subject (o*nun*la / ev*len*mem / im*kân*sız ↷) My marry-ing her is impossible. It is impossible for me to marry her. (Ben) onu, (o-nun) bize yardım et-me-/s/i için ikna et-ti-im. subj def obj noun + inf comp (object of “için”) postp. verb postpositional adverbial phrase of purpose I convinced him to help us. (“To help” is an adverbial infinitive.) In the sentence above, the /s/ is a glide; “onun” is not necessary, it is put there to show the reader the deleted "possessive pronoun" of the compound. Mektub-u tekrar yaz-ma-am-ı rica et-ti. He asked me to write the letter again. (“to write” is a nominal infinitive.) Tüm erkekler tüm kadın-lar-ın güzel gör-ün-me-/s/i-/n/i iste-er. (tüm / er*kek*ler / tüm / ka*dın*la*rın / gü*zel / gö*rün*me*si*ni / is*ter ↷) All men want all women to look beautiful. In the sentences above, “bizim git-me-em.iz”, “senin davran-ma-an”, “onun ütüle-me-/s/i”, “bekle-me-/n/in fayda-/s/ı”, “Mary’/n/in piyano çal-ma-/s/ı”, “(senin) ev-e dön-me-en”, “(benim) getir-me-em”, “onun konuş-ma-/s/ı”, “(benim) evlen-me-em”, “onun yardım et-me-/s/i”, and “tüm kadınların güzel görün-me-/s/i” are all “noun + infinitive” compounds that have been transformed from the simple sentences by the transformational component in order to be used in phrase structure patterns. The transformational component performs this mental activity to shape and use the simple sentences in phrase structure patterns. As the aim of this activity of the mind is to build up infinite oral sentences out of simple sentences, it may be reasonable to call such phrases as “syntactic”, which means that such oral nominal phrases have been built up for syntactic purposes. As important information, we have to assert that all the allomorphs used in transforming simple sentences are inflectional allomorphs because these allomorphs help simple sentences to be used in longer sentences without changing their simple sentence concepts. In the following lines, the simple sentences are printed in italics, and the transformed “noun + infinitive” compounds are printed in bold face, which have been produced for syntactic purposes. By the way, it is necessary to remember that the meaning of an oral sentence is always hidden in the
  14. 14. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 14 simple sentence underlying the oral sentence production. Listeners and readers can understand an oral sequence so long as they realize the morphemic sequence underlying the oral sequence. Read the simple sentences, and the “syntactic nominal phrases” pro- duced by the transformational rules of the Turkish language: Biz tiyatroya gidecektik. ↻ “bizim tiyatroya git-e.cek ol-ma-am.ız” Sen böyle davranıyorsun. ↻ “senin böyle davran-ma-an, davran-dık-ın" (O) siyah pantolon-um-u ütülesin. ↻ “siyah pantolon-um-u ütüle-me-si, ütüle-dik-i" Mary piyano çalıyordu. ↻ “Mary’nin piyano çal-ma-/s/ı, çal-dık-ı" Sen eve dön-dü-ün. ↻ “senin eve dön-me-en, dön-dük-ün" O konuşur. ↻ “onun konuş-ma-/s/ı, konuş-tuk-u" Ben kahve getiririm. ↻ “benim kahve getir-me-em, getir-dik-im” Ben onunla evlenirim. ↻ “benim onunla evlen-me-em, evlen-dik-im” O bize yardım eder. ↻ “onun bize yardım et-me-/s/i, et-tik-i” Ben mektubu tekrar yazayım. ↻ “benim mektubu tekrar yaz-ma-am” Ben bir mektup yazmıştım.↻ “benim bir mektup yaz-mış ol-ma-am” As it is seen in the noun compounds above, when sentences are trans- formed and nominalized, they lose their time concepts like all infinitives. The “benim”, “senin” parts of the compounds may be ignored, and so, only “tiyat-ro-/y/a git-me-e.miz” or “mektup-u tekrar yaz-ma-am” can be used as noun compounds without the possessive pronouns. Bekle-me-/n/in fayda-/s/ı yok. Wait-ing is of no use. (Literally: "There is not the use of wait-ing") (“beklemenin faydası” is an “infinitive + noun” compound used as the subject of the sentence. Şemsiye-em-i geri getir-me-/y/i unut-ma. (“Getir-me” is an infinitive.) (şem*si*ye*mi / ge*ri / ge*tir*me*yi / u*nut*ma ↷) Don’t forget to bring my umbrella back. (“To bring” is a nominal infinitive.) In the example above, the /y/ glide is used between the /e/ phoneme and the [i] defining allomorph. Biz-im takım kazan-ma-/y/ı hak et-ti. (“kazan-ma” is an infinitive.) (bi*zim / ta*kım / ka*zan*ma*yı / ha*ket*ti ↷) Our team deserved to win. (“to win” is a nominal infinitive.)
  15. 15. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 15 Eski araba-am.ız-ı sat-ma-/y/ı ertele-di-ik. (es*ki / a*ra*ba*mı*zı / sat*ma*yı / er*te*le*dik ↷) We postponed sell-ing our old car. (“Sell-ing” is a nominal gerund.) “Araba-am.ız-ı” is the definite object of “sat-ma”; “eski araba-am.ız-ı sat- ma-/y/ı” is the definite object of “ertele”. Yüz-me-/y/i bana baba-am öğret-ti. (yüz*me*yi / ba*na / ba*bam / öğ*ret*ti ↷) My father taught me to swim. (“to swim” is a nominal infinitive.) Biz-im-le Bursa’/y/a git-me-/y/i kabul et-ti. (Liaison) (bi*zim*le / bur*sa*ya / git*me*yi / ka*bu:*let*ti ↷) He agreed to go to Bursa with us. (“To go” is a nominal infinitive.) Hırsız kasa-/y/ı aç-ma-/y/ı dene-di. (hır*sız / ka*sa*yı / aç*ma*yı / de*ne*di ↷) The thief tried open-ing the safe. (“Open-ing” is a nominal gerund.) Yeni bir araba al-ma-/y/ı düşün-ü.yor-uz. (ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / al*ma*yı / dü*şü*nü*yo*ruz ↷) We are considering buy-ing a new car. Note: The Turkish underlined words are all infinitives. 2 (c). The verbs that need “noun + infinitive” compounds followed by [e], or [a] allomorphs: Baba-am, futbol maç-ı-/n/a git-me-em-e izin ver-di. subject (noun compound - [e]) adverbial phrs verb My father allowed me to go to the football match. Baba-am, kızkardeş-im-in gece yalnız sinema-/y/a git-me-/s/i-/n/e kız-dı. subject possessive noun adv adv adverbial owned-/n/e verb (noun + infinitive compound + [e]) adverbial phrase My father got angry about my sister’s go-ing to the cinema alone at night. Baba-am, araba-/s/ı-/n/ı kullan-ma-am-a hiç izin ver-me-i.yor. (ba*bam / a*ra*ba*sı*nı / kul*lan*ma*ma / hiç / i*zin / ver*mi*yor ↷) My father is never allowing me to use his car. Baba-am balık tut-ma-/y/a git-me-em-e itiraz et-ti. (ba*bam / ba*lık / tut*ma*ya / git*me*me / i:*ti*ra:z / et*ti ↷) My father objected to my go-ing fish-ing. 2 (d). “noun + infinitive” compounds can also be followed by [den, dan] allomorphs:
  16. 16. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 16 Anne-em (ben-im) ev-e geç gel-me-em-den hoşlan-ma-ı.yor. subject possessive adv adv owned-den verb noun + infinitive comp - [den] adverbial phrase My mother dislikes my com-ing home late. There are two basic simpe sentences in the oral sentence above: 1. Ben eve geç geliyorum. 2. Annem bundan hoşlanmıyor. Sentence Nr.1 is transformed and nominalized as "ben-im ev-e geç gel-me- em". When this transformed-nominal phrase is put in the place of "bundan" in the second sentence, the new synonymous sentence "Anne-em ben-im ev-e geç gel-me-em-den hoşlan-ma-ı.yor" sentence structure is produced. In this transformed phrase, "ev-e" is an adverbial, and "geç" is an adverb modifying the infinitive “gel-me”. “Ben-im ev-e geç gel-me-em” is a noun compound (nominal phrase). If the allomorph [den] is attached to this nominal phrase, it turns it into an adverbial phrase. (Ben) (o-/n/un) her şey-i anla-ma-/s/ı/n/-dan kork-u.yor-um. subj possessive def obj of “anla” owned-dan verb noun + infinitive compound nominal phrase-[dan] adverbial I am afraid of her understand-ing everything. The [me, ma] infinitives attached to [e or a] allomorphs: “main verb-[me/y/e, ma/y/a] (Ben) klasik müzik dinle-me-/y/e düşkün-üm. subj indef obj of “dinle” infinitive-[e] subj complement adverbial phrs I am fond of listen-ing to classical music. İş-im-i tamamla-ma-/y/a çalış-ı.yor-um. (i*şi*mi / ta*mam*la*ma*ya / ça*lı*şı*yo*rum ↷) I am trying to complete my work. “To complete” is a nominal infinitive.) Dert et-me-/y/e değ-mez. (der*det*me*ye / değ*mez ↷) (Liaison) It is not worth trouble-ing about.
  17. 17. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 17 Çalış-ma-/y/a devam et-ti. (Liaison) (ça*lış*ma*ya / de*va:*met*ti ↷) He went on work-ing. (“work-ing” is a nominal gerund; object of “on”.) Yağmur yağ-ma-/y/a başla-dı. (yağ*mur / yağ*ma*ya / baş*la*dı ↷) It began to rain or (rain-ing). 3 (a). The third kind of “noun + infinitive” compounds are made by adding [iş, ış, üş, uş] allomorphs to verb roots, stems or frames such as: “ben-im gül-üş-üm”, “sen-in bak-ış-ın”, which means “my way of smiling”, “your way of looking”, etc. When these compounds take [E], [DE] or [DEN] morphemes, they become adverbials: Gül-üş-üm-e (gü*lü*şü*me) hayran-dır. She adores my way of smil-ing. Bana bak-ış-ın-ı özle-di-im. (ba*kı*şı*nı) I missed your way of look-ing at me. Gitar çal-ış-ım-ı sev-er. (ça*lı*şı*mı) He likes my way of play-ing the guitar. Ev-e dön-üş-üm-den mutlu ol-du-lar. They became happy about my com-ing back home. 4 (a). The following “noun + infinitive” compound is widely used in trans- forming simple sentences into “syntactic nominal phrases” or "modifiers". The following example shows how a simple sentence is transformed into a “noun + infinitive” compound, and then how it is used as a syntactic nom- inal phrase in a sentence: possessive pronoun + verb - [dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk]- [possessive personal allomorph] (ben-im) yüz-dük-üm possessive owned (Ben) deniz-de yüz-ü.yor-du-um.  “deniz-de yüz-dük-üm” simple sentence (noun compound) nominal phrase (O) deniz-de yüz-dük-üm-ü gör-dü. (yüz*dü*ğü*mü) subj (noun comp) definite object verb predicate
  18. 18. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 18 He saw that I was swimming in the sea. subj verb (object of “see”) noun clause adverbial predicate Note: In the Turkish sentence above, the /k/ phoneme changes into the voiced /ğ/, and the last [ü] is the definer that changes the compound into a definite object. The same “noun + infinitive” compound can also be used as a modifier: (Ben) okul-a git-i.yor-um.  git-tik-im okul modifier noun nominal phrase ben-im git-tik-im okul the school that I go to modifier noun noun modfier Ben-im git-tik-im okul çok kalabalık. The school that I go to is very crowded. subject subj complement (nominal phrs) subject verb subj complement The owned parts of the “noun + infinitive” compounds are also used as objects of postpositions (English “prepositions”): (Ben-im) her zaman okul-a geç gel-dik-im için İngilizce ögretmeni-im ben-i azarla-dı. noun infinitive comp (object of “için”) postp subject object verb postpositional adverbial phrase of cause My English teacher shouted at me because of my always come-ing to school late. subject verb adverb preposition nominal phrs (object of ”because of”) prepositional adverbial phrase of cause A final note that should be added to the above explanations is that as the infinitives are made up of verbs, they can take objects like verbs when they are transitive, but if they are intransitive, they can take only adverbs or adverbials. The sentences that contain infinitives are produced as follows: 1. O ben-i bekle-sin. ↻ “o-/n/un ben-i bekle-me-/s/i” 2. Ben bu-/n/u istiyor-um. If the first nominalized phrase is used in the place of “bunu” in the second sentence, we produce the following sentence containing a noun compound: Ben-i bekle-me-/s/i-/n/i iste-i.yor-um. (be*ni / bek*le*me*si*ni / is*ti*yo*rum ↷) I want him to wait for me. (“to wait” is a nominal infinitive.)
  19. 19. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 19 THE PASSIVE INFINITIVE Only the transitive verbs can be put into the passive voice in English, but in Turkish, both transitive and intransitive verbs can be changed into the pas- sive form. Therefore, the passive making allomorphs can be attached to all kinds of verb roots, stems or frames. If the passive making allomorphs are attached to transitive verbs, these verbs are put into the passive voice, but if the intransitive ones are put into the passive form, only their forms are changed; they are not put into the passive voice. For instance, if “Bu hapishane-den kaç-ıl-maz” sentence is said, it can be literally written in English as "*This prison can’t be escaped", which means, “It is impossible to escape from this prison”. In this book, such verbs are called “passive shaped intransitive verbs”. The passive making allomorphs are as follows: 1. The verbs ending with both vowels and /L/ and /r/ consonants are put into the passive form by using [in, ın, ün, un, en, an] passive making allomorphs such as “bekle-en”, “dene-en”, “baş-la-an”, “yakala-an”, “yürü- ün”, “oku-un”, “al-ın”, “çal-ın”, “gel-in”, “del-in”, “koru-un”. 2. The verbs ending with consonants take [il, ıl, ül, ul] passive making allomorphs such as “çek-il”, seç-il”, “geç-il”, sür-ül”, “gör-ül”. When some of these verbs take [in, ın, ün, un, en, an] allomorphs, they also become reflexive verbs such as “çek-in”, “geç-in”, “sür-ün”, “gör-ün”, “besle-en”, “yala-an”. All the verb frames above can take [me, ma] or [mek, mak] allomorphs to be used as passive infinitives: başla-an-ma(k), topla-an-ma(k), besle-en-me(k), temizle-en-me(k), ekle-en- me(k), yürü-ün-me(k), doku-un-ma(k) (weave), oku-un-ma(k), oyala-an- ma(k), geç-il-me(k), geç-in-me(k), sür-ül-me(k), sür-ün-me(k), gör-ül-me(k), gör-ün-me(k), bak-ıl-ma(k), bak-ın-ma(k), aç-ıl-ma(k), seç-il-me(k), yen-il- me(k), ed-il-me(k), ed-in-me(k), tap-ıl-ma(k), tap-ın-ma(k), yap-ıl-ma(k), uy- ul-ma(k), konuş-ul-ma(k), sür-ül-me(k), sür-ün-me(k). The shared identical vowels above combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllablers and attach to the first vowels of the following inflectional morphemes.
  20. 20. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 20 Consider the following: Kendi-/s/i/y/-le alay et-il-me-/s/i/n/-den nefret et-er. (ken*di*siy*le / a*lay / e*dil*me*sin*den / nef*ret / e*der ↷). She hates being made fun of her. In the sentence above, the /t/ is replaced by the voiced /d/; and the /s/ and /n/ consonants are used as glides. Kendi-/s/i-/n/e kaba davran-ıl-ma-/s/ı/n/-dan hoşlan-maz. (ken*di*si*ne / ka*ba / dav*ra*nıl*ma*sın*dan / hoş*lan*maz ↷) She dislikes be-ing rudely treated. Takım-ı-/n/ın yen-il-me-/s/i/n/-den nefret eder. (ta*kı*mı*nın / ye*nil*me*sin*den / nef*ret / e*der ↷) He hates his team be-ing beaten. Bütün kadın-lar kendi-ler-i-/n/e yumuşak davran-ıl-ma-/s/ı/n/-dan hoşlan-ır. (bü*tün / ka*dın*lar / ken*di*le*ri*ne / yu*mu*şak / dav*ra*nıl*ma*sın*dan / hoş*la*nır ↷) All women like be-ing tenderly treated. Rahatsız et-il-mek iste-me-i.yor-um. (ra*hat*sız / e*dil*mek / is*te*mi*yo*rum ↷) I don’t want to be disturbed. Herkes kendi-/s/i-/n/e eşit davran-ıl-ma-/s/ı-/n/ı iste-er. (her*kes / ken*di*si*ne / e*şit / dav*ra*nıl*ma*sı*nı / is*ter ↷) Everybody wants to be equally treated. Bu cümle-ler dikkat-le oku-un-ma.lı-dır. (bu / cüm*le*ler / dik*kat*le / o*kun*ma*lı*dır ↷) These sentences should be read carefully. English verbs that take only infinitives as verbal direct objects: attempt, decide, expect, hesitate, hope, ıntend, learn, need, neglect, plan, predend, promise, propose. want. For instance: We hope to finish our work in time. subj verb nominal inf obj of “finish” adverbial İş-im-iz-i zaman-ın-da bitir-me-/y/i um-u.yor-uz. obj of “bitir” adverbial nominal infinitive verb
  21. 21. INFINITIVES or GERUNDS 21 You must learn to be polite. subj verb nominal inf adjective Nazik ol-ma-/y/ı öğren-me.li-sin. adjective nominal inf verb We plan to rent a car to go to Bursa. subj verb nominal infinitive obj of “rent” adverbial infinitive adverbial Bursa-/y/a git-mek için bir araba kirala-ma-/y/ı planla-ı.yor-uz. adverbial adverbial infinitive object of “kirala” nominal infinitive verb Jack always neglects to do his homework. subj adverb verb nominal inf object of “do” Jack her zaman ev ödev-i-/n/i yap-ma-/y/ı ihmal et-er. subj adverb object of “yap” nominal infinitive verb

    Be the first to comment

    Login to see the comments

  • MaryGavin8

    May. 16, 2021

Turkish infinitives and English infinitives or gerunds.

Views

Total views

611

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

7

Actions

Downloads

8

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

1

×