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Reading Aloud Part 2 - Syllables and Word Stress (O' Level Oral Examination)

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These slides are used to explain the syllables and word stress for Reading Aloud (Section A under Paper 3) and provides the fundamentals to read rhythmically as well as to know when to emphasize or stress during reading for O Level English Language Examination in Singapore.

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Reading Aloud Part 2 - Syllables and Word Stress (O' Level Oral Examination)

  1. 1. READING ALOUD
  2. 2. SYLLABLE SECTION 1
  3. 3. To understand WORD STRESS it helps to understand SYLLABLES.
  4. 4. Every WORD is made from SYLLABLES.
  5. 5. Every WORD has 1, 2, 3 or more SYLLABLES.
  6. 6. 1-syllable words Dog Sun Shoes
  7. 7. CHALLENGE Think of three 1-syllable words and share it with your partner.
  8. 8. 2-syllable words Advise ad -vise Compete com - pete Discuss dis - cuss Quiet qui-et Orange o -range Table ta - ble
  9. 9. Every SYLLABLE contains at least one VOWEL (a, e, i, o or u) or VOWEL SOUND.
  10. 10. 3-syllable words Gratitude Gra-ti-tude
  11. 11. CHALLENGE Please separate the following words into 3-syllable pattern. 1. Official 2. Elastic 3. Expensive
  12. 12. 4-syllable words Calculator Cal-cu-la-tor
  13. 13. CHALLENGE Please separate the following words into 4-syllable pattern. 1. Economics 2. Geography 3. Secondary
  14. 14. 5-syllable words Electricity E-lec-tri-ci-ty
  15. 15. CHALLENGE Please separate the following words into 5-syllable pattern. 1. Incompatible 2. Technological 3. Organization
  16. 16. WORD STRESS SECTION 2
  17. 17. What is WORD STRESS ?
  18. 18. WORD STRESS is the EMPHASIS on one syllable.
  19. 19. What is EMPHASIS then?
  20. 20. EMPHASIS is to stress the important syllable LOUDLYand all the other syllables QUIETLY .
  21. 21. Let's take 3 words Photograph Photographer Photographic
  22. 22. Do they sound the same when spoken? NO.
  23. 23. Word Stress Total syllables Stressed syllable Photograph 3 #1 Photography 4 #2 Photographic 4 #3
  24. 24. We stress ONE syllable in EACH word.
  25. 25. It is NOT always the SAME syllable.
  26. 26. WORD STRESS happens in ALL words with 2 OR MORE syllables.
  27. 27. FOR EXAMPLE TEACHer imPORtant converSAtion
  28. 28. CONCLUSION
  29. 29. ONE word, ONE stress.
  30. 30. The STRESS is always ON a vowel.
  31. 31. WORD STRESS PATTERN RULES SECTION 3
  32. 32. 2 RULES TO PREDICT STRESS 1. Suffixes 2. Parts of Speech
  33. 33. Use SUFFIXES to predict STRESS.
  34. 34. What is a SUFFIX ?
  35. 35. A SUFFIX is a few letters attached to the END OF THE WORD to change its meaning.
  36. 36. EXAMPLES -ed -er -ing -s -ing
  37. 37. STRESS the SUFFIX itself..1
  38. 38. -EE Employee Refugee Trainee -EER Engineer Career Volunteer -ESE Chinese Japanese Portuguese -IQUE Unique Antique Technique
  39. 39. STRESS the syllable BEFORE the suffix..2
  40. 40. -IAL Memorial Financial Artificial -UAL Visual Unusual Intellectual -IAN Canadian Vegetarian Pedestrian -SION Explosion Occasion Conclusion -TION Definition Production Situation
  41. 41. -IENT Ancient Sufficient Efficient -CIOUS Delicious Conscious Suspicious -TIOUS Ambitious Cautious Superstitious -IC Academic Energetic Fantastic -IBLE Edible Flexible Incredible
  42. 42. -ITY Ability Necessity Publicity -IFY Classify Terrify Humidify -LOGY Biology Sociology Anthropology -GRAPHY Geography Autobiography Photography -METER Kilometer Parameter Speedometer
  43. 43. STRESS the SECONDsyllable BEFORE the suffix..3
  44. 44. -ATE Operate Exaggerate Associate -IZE Apologize Criticize Recognize -ARY Secretary Necessary Contemporary -OUS Dangerous Mysterious Spontaneous
  45. 45. Use PARTSof SPEECH to predict STRESS.
  46. 46. 1. STRESS the FIRST syllable for NOUNS. 2. STRESSthe SECOND syllable for VERBS. .1
  47. 47. NOUN VERB EXAMPLE record record The bank recorded a new record yesterday. present present He presented his wife with a beautiful present. conduct conduct They're conducting a study into his conduct.
  48. 48. Stress the FIRSTpart/ word for COMPOUND NOUNS. .2
  49. 49. Deadline Classroom Software Typewriter Policeman Airplane
  50. 50. Stress the SECOND word for TWO-WORD VERBS, but the FIRSTpart for NOUN equivalents..3
  51. 51. NOUN VERB Here's the printout. He printed it out. She's a dropout. She dropped out. Where's the checkout counter? Can I check it out?
  52. 52. CONCLUSION
  53. 53. 1.Suffixes 1.1 Stress the suffix itself 1.2 Stress the syllable before the suffix 1.3 Stress the second syllable the suffix 2.PartsofSpeech 2.1 Stress the first syllable for nouns. Stress the second syllable for verbs. 2.2 Stress the first part/ word for compound nouns. 2.3 Stress the second word for two-word verbs, but the first part for noun equivalents.
  54. 54. LISTENING EXERCISES LISTEN to the recording. FIND which sentence in each pair you hear CHOOSE the correct response.
  55. 55. E.g. “Does Mary like HISTORY?” or “Does Mary like his STORY?” 1. Yes, that's her favorite subject. 2. No, she's heard it hundreds of times. If you hear the stress is on HISTORY, you choose the answer (1). If you hear the stress is on STORY, you choose the answer (2).
  56. 56. 1 “Why doesn't he like the DESERT?” or “Why doesn't he like the DESSERT?” 1. It's too dry. 2. It's too sweet.
  57. 57. 2 “What does he think of EUROPE?” or “What does he think of YOUR ROPE?” 1. It's a wonderful place to go. 2. It's not strong enough.
  58. 58. 3 “Is it ELEMENTARY?” or “Is it a LEMON TREE?” 1. No, it's very advanced. 2. No, it's an orange tree.
  59. 59. PRACTICES 1. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress- quiz.htm 2. http://www.roadtogrammar.com/wordstress/ 3. http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/multi/stress.htm 4. http://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/Pron/stress_exB.htm
  60. 60. Created by Goh Bang Rui Follow me on @slideshare. @gohbangrui bit.ly/gohbangrui

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