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Reading Aloud Part 3 - Sentence Stress (O' Level Oral Examination)

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These slides are used to explain the sentence stress for Reading Aloud (Section A under Paper 3) and provides the fundamentals to read rhythmically as well as to know which word to emphasize or stress in a sentence during reading for O Level English Language Examination in Singapore.

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Reading Aloud Part 3 - Sentence Stress (O' Level Oral Examination)

  2. 2. There are 2rules for SENTENCE STRESS.
  3. 3. 1 CONTENT WORDS are stressed. 2 FUNCTION WORDS are unstressed.
  4. 4. IMAGINE
  6. 6. The sentence is INCOMPLETE and UNGRAMMATICAL.
  7. 7. BUT
  8. 8. You probably UNDERSTAND it.
  9. 9. Somebody wants you to SELLtheir CAR for them because they have GONEto FRANCE.
  11. 11. Let us ADD a few words. Will You My Because I’ve To
  12. 12. Will you SELLmy CAR because I've GONEto FRANCE?
  13. 13. NEW words do not add NEW information.
  14. 14. NEW words create a GRAMMATICAL sentence.
  15. 15. INFORMATION remains the SAME.
  16. 16. RECAP CONTENTwords FUNCTIONwords 1. Will 2. You 3. My 4. Because 5. I’ve 6. To 1. Sell 2. Car 3. Gone 4. France
  17. 17. What is a CONTENT WORD ?
  18. 18. A CONTENT WORD is a word that conveys MEANING.
  19. 19. CONTENT WORDS EXAMPLES Main Verbs Sell, Give, Employ Nouns Car, Music, Mary Adjectives Red, Big, Interesting Adverbs Quickly, Loudly, Never Negative Auxiliaries Don't, Aren't, Can't
  20. 20. STRESSED
  21. 21. What is a FUNCTION WORD ?
  22. 22. A FUNCTION WORD is a word that expresses GRAMMATICAL RELATIONSHIP with other words.
  23. 23. FUNCTION WORDS EXAMPLES Pronouns He, We, They Prepositions On, At, Into Articles A, An, The Conjunctions And, But, Because Auxiliary Verbs Do, Be, Have, Can, Must
  24. 24. UNSTRESSED
  25. 25. EXCEPTION The above rules are for what is called “neutral” or normal stress. Sometimes, we can stress a word that would normally be only a function word, for example, to correct information.
  26. 26. Look at the following dialogue. "They've been to Mongolia, haven't they?" "No, THEYhaven't, but WEhave.
  27. 27. What is SENTENCE STRESS ?
  28. 28. SENTENCE STRESS mainly provides RHYTHM in speech.
  29. 29. What is RHYTHM then?
  30. 30. RHYTHM is the key to FLUENT English speech.
  31. 31. Imagine a metronome beating the rhythm. The stressed syllables are like the beats of the metronome: regular, loud, and clear. The unstressed syllables between the beats are shortened, obscured and joined together.
  32. 32. Let us HIGHLIGHT the STRESSED syllables.
  33. 33. A SHORT SENTENCE Kevin sent a letter. After marking the stressed syllables, KEVin SENT a LETter. KEV in SENT a LET ter. stressed - unstressed - stressed - unstressed - stressed - unstressed with equal number of alternating stressed and unstressed syllables
  34. 34. A LONG SENTENCE Kevin decided to send a letter to his relatives in the village. After marking the stressed syllables, KEVin deCIDed to SEND a LETter to his RELatives in the VILlage.
  35. 35. The STRESSED syllables, like the BEATSof the metronome, have to occur REGULARLY.
  36. 36. QUESTION How do we fit all the unstressed syllables in the intervals between the stressed syllables without breaking the rhythm in “Kevin sent a letter”?
  37. 37. The rules of REDUCTION and LINKING
  38. 38. What are the rules REDUCTION and LINKING then?
  39. 39. The rules REDUCT the pitch of unstressed syllables and LINK the stream of less distinct sounds.
  40. 40. CONCLUSION
  41. 41. STRESS content word, UNSTRESS function words.
  42. 42. RECAP CONTENTwords FUNCTIONwords 1. Be obscure 2. Use low pitch 3. Shorten syllables 1. Be clear 2. Use high pitch 3. Lengthen syllables
  43. 43. Read the sentence RHYTHMICALLY 2 JAMthe UNSTRESSED syllables between the stressed syllables 1 STRESS the stressed syllables at REGULARintervals
  44. 44. PRACTICES 1. ords1.htm
  45. 45. Created by Goh Bang Rui Follow me on @slideshare. @gohbangrui