History Chapter 7 Part 1- Life after the World War II

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These slides introduce the first part of Lower Secondary History Chapter 7: Life after World War II to the Secondary 2 students who are studying for the Singapore syllabus.

These slides are the first of the series of slides for Chapter 7: Life after World War II.
1. Post-war Living Conditions after World War II
2. Maria Hertogh and Anti-National Service Riots
3. The Rendel Constitution and 1955 Elections

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History Chapter 7 Part 1- Life after the World War II

  1. 1. How did The Local People Respond to British Rule After World War II? Chapter 7 Part 1
  2. 2. Overview of Chapter 7 Part 1 Living Conditions after the War Part 2 Maria Hertogh and Anti-NS riots Part 3 Rendel Constitution & 1955 Election
  3. 3. Living Conditions after the War Q1 What was post- war conditions like in Singapore? Q2 How did post-war conditions affect the response of the local people under British rule? Q3 How did the British respond to the strikes and changing attitudes of the local people?
  4. 4. 12th Sept 1945 Singapore
  5. 5. Surrender of Japan Welcome of British
  6. 6. What was post-war conditions like in Singapore?
  7. 7. Here are rows and rows of back-to-back houses crammed to the physical limit. Conditions are bad. Rooms contained several separate families. Those who cannot share rooms live underneath stairways or in cubicles which are in complete darkness at all hours of the day and without direct contact with sunlight. “ ”
  8. 8. Here are rows and rows of back-to-back houses crammed to the physical limit. Conditions are bad. Rooms contained several separate families. Those who cannot share rooms live underneath stairways or in cubicles which are in complete darkness at all hours of the day and without direct contact with sunlight. “ ”
  9. 9. Post-War Living Conditions Shortage of food Shortage of Housing Shortage of Water and Utilities Unemployment
  10. 10. “Many houses have but one water-tap for the whole house and all the inmates share one bucket- type latrine. The dirt and stench are appalling.”
  11. 11. How did post-war conditions affect the response of the local people under British rule?
  12. 12. With the Japanese Occupation, the people no longer regarded the British as superior. Felt that it was time for local people to run the country. Many countries around Singapore that were under colonial rule had gained independence. Change in People’s Attitude
  13. 13. Change in People’s attitude Textbook, pg 134 … who went through the Second World War…and came out determined that no one – neither the Japanese nor the British – had the right to push and kick us around … we saw for ourselves that the local people could run the country .
  14. 14. India, a former British colony, gained independence in 1947. Change in People’s attitude Mahatma Gandhi
  15. 15. Strikes & Riots
  16. 16. The difficult living conditions explained why there were waves of strikes and work stoppages by thousands of workers from the port, factories, transport and business companies after 1945 Strikes
  17. 17. Strikes took place so often in 1947 that it was remembered as ‘The Year of Strikes’ More than 300 strikes were organized by 70,000 people in that year alone.
  18. 18. These strikes became worse with the involvement of the MCP- Malayan Communist Party. The communists stirred up people’s feelings by blaming the British for all the post-war problems.
  19. 19. The communists formed trade unions and encouraged people to join They are able to influence people to go on strikes.
  20. 20. A riot is a form of civil disorder characterised often by what is thought of as disorganised groups lashing out in a sudden against authority, property or people. Riots To be continued in Part 2 Two major riots in the 1950s 1. The Maria Hertogh riots 2. Anti-National Service riots
  21. 21. How did the British respond to the strikes and the changing attitudes of the local people?
  22. 22. Initially The British had no intention to give up complete control over Singapore However, they knew some powers would have to be transferred to the people To win the support of the people, the British decided to introduce changes gradually • First minor change: The first elections was introduced in 1948
  23. 23. Elections were introduced for the first time. British allowed a few locals to be elected into the Legislative council. 1948 The 1948 elections was the first step towards democracy.
  24. 24. A Problem It was a low-key event. Not all eligible voters took part in the election.
  25. 25. Why did the 1948 election have poor attendance?
  26. 26. Many people were not eligible to vote as only those born in Singapore could vote. It was not compulsory.
  27. 27. Singapore Progressive Party (SPP) The Singapore Progressive Party (SPP) was the only party which took part in the 1948 election.
  28. 28. Out of a total of 6 seats in the Legislative Council Won by the Singapore Progressive Party Won by the Independents The SPP worked closely with the British in the Legislative Council. refer to TB pg 136, 137.
  29. 29. Singapore Progressive Party (SPP) Equal treatment for both local and European civil servants. Proposed a financial security scheme for retired workers (CPF).
  30. 30. BUT SPP was not popular among the Chinese educated locals. Why?
  31. 31. SPP was made up of English- educated members. They are pro- British and believed in gradual self- government. SPP failed to put pressure on the British government for more changes.
  32. 32. The British realised that the MCP was the main culprit in organising strikes through the trade unions and created disorder in the society. 1947 Thus, they passed laws to control the activities of trade unions.
  33. 33. These laws required all the trade unions to register with the government from 1947 onwards. With this measure, the British could ensure that the unions did not support the communists. Singapore Shell Employees Union United Worker of Petroleum Industry National Trades Union Congress
  34. 34. Summary Q1 What was post-war conditions like in Singapore? Living conditions were difficult. Part 1 – Living Conditions after the War Q2 How did post-war conditions affect the response of the local people under British rule? Change in People’s attitude towards the British Strikes and Riots
  35. 35. Q3 How did the British respond to the strikes and changing attitudes of the local people? First election introduced in 1948 • British allowed a few locals to be elected into the Legislative council Passed law to control the activities of trade unions • Ensure that the unions did not support the communists
  36. 36. But, have the problems been solved?
  37. 37. Though the British allowed a small degree of self- government with the introduction of the 1948 elections, people still faced social & economic problems in the 1950s.
  38. 38. In the 1950s, two major riots took place in Singapore that clearly expressed anti-British feelings. 1. The Maria Hertogh riots 2. Anti-National Service riots
  39. 39. Created by Goh Bang Rui Follow me on @slideshare. @gohbangrui bit.ly/gohbangrui

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