Chapter 4: Northern Ireland - Causes and Impacts


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These slides explain Chapter 4 of Social Studies syllabus which is Norther Ireland and aim to explain the causes and impacts.

These slides have been adapted from Adeline Fam and these slides can be located at

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Chapter 4: Northern Ireland - Causes and Impacts

  1. 1. Chapter 4Conflict in Multi-ethnicSocietiesCASE STUDY OF NORTHERN IRELANDAdapted from Adeline Fam, adefam
  2. 2. ChapterBreakdownIntroduction on Northern Ireland and Conflict4.1Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland4.2Consequences of Conflict in Northern Ireland
  3. 3. In the case-study of N. Ireland, you will be looking atanother example of conflicts between two groups ofpeopleIntroduction
  4. 4. They were inconflict for over30 years due tothe differences inreligious beliefs.
  5. 5. The war in Northern Ireland isanother example of a civilwar that lasted for over 30years.A civil war is a war betweengroups of people within acountry.
  6. 6. > 3 600 died> 40 000 injured
  7. 7. Where isNorthern Ireland?
  8. 8. History ofNorthern Ireland
  9. 9. Before 12th Century1 country – Ireland12th CenturyIreland conquered byEngland - EnglishProtestant settlerspush out IrishCatholicsEnglish ProtestantIrish Catholics
  10. 10. Northern part ofIreland - mainlyProtestantMovement of BritishProtestants into N.Ireland, 1654-1801English ProtestantIrish Catholics
  11. 11. Protestantsimplemented penallaws against CatholicsCannot buy landCannot voteCannot join the armyNo access to highereducation
  12. 12. 1800Ireland became part ofUKLocal Irish Catholics sought limited self-government did not want to bepart of UK
  13. 13.  1900sBritish government lostcontrol of Southern Ireland 1921Ireland divided in 2 South – Irish Free state –largely Catholic North – largely Protestant –Catholics still treatedunfairly 1949Irish Free State  Republic ofIreland
  14. 14. Key Traits ofNorthern Ireland
  15. 15. Capital at BelfastProtestants 58.8%Catholics 41.2%Part of the UK
  16. 16. Britain Foreign Affairs &Defence MattersNorthern Ireland Commerce, Health &EducationMajority of ministers areProtestants
  17. 17. Conflict inNorthern Ireland
  18. 18. V.S.ProtestantsScottish and EnglishCatholicsDescendants of localIrish inhabitants
  19. 19. Lack of common identityXunderstandingX cooperationReligious differences create tension between them.V.S.ProtestantsScottish and EnglishCatholicsDescendants of localIrish inhabitants
  20. 20. Causes of Conflict inNorthern Ireland
  21. 21. 1. Divided Loyalties2. Unequal allocation of housing3. Unequal employment opportunities4. Lack of voting rights5. Lack of opportunities for socialinteraction
  22. 22. DividedLoyalties
  23. 23. The Difference inPolitical
  24. 24. Most Protestants• see themselves as British• wish to see the country remainas part of UK.
  25. 25. Most Protestants• do not want a union with theRepublic of Ireland, a Catholiccountry.• fear that a Catholicgovernment may not betolerant of their Protestantbeliefs
  26. 26. The Catholicssee themselves as Irishwant to be reunited with theRepublic of Ireland.
  27. 27. The Catholicsresent the history of Englishconquest where Catholicswere either killed or treatedharshly.
  28. 28. This loyalty todifferent countries makesthe Protestants andCatholics intolerantof each other.
  29. 29. UnequalAllocationof Housing
  30. 30. Unfair Allocation ofPublic HousingbyThe City Councils(largely Protestants)
  31. 31. The Catholics findthe allocation ofpublic housing bythe governmentto be unfair.
  32. 32. Very often, the largeCatholics families inneed of housinghave to wait a longtime to get thehouse.In some towns, morehouses would begiven to theProtestants than theCatholics.
  33. 33. UnequalEmploymentOpportunities
  34. 34. More difficult forCatholics in N.Ireland to findjobs, especially inthe governmentsector.
  35. 35. CatholicsSameQualificationUnequalOpportunities
  36. 36. Lackof Voting Rights
  37. 37. Before 1969, votingrights was an issuebetween theProtestants and theCatholic.At that time, onlythose who ownedhouses andbusinesses wereentitled to vote in thelocal governmentelections.Each household isentitled 2 votes whilecompanies wereentitled to morevotes depending ontheir size. Since manycompanies wereowned by the richerProtestants, theyended up with morevotes.
  38. 38. UNFAIR!PoorerCatholics
  39. 39. Everyone is entitled to one vote as long ashe/ she is a British citizen above 18 yearsold.He/ she has to be born in N. Ireland or haslived in the UK for 7 years.Since 1969
  40. 40. Lackof Opportunities forSocial Interactions
  41. 41. In the educationsystem of N.Ireland, theProtestants andCatholics do notstudy together inthe sameschools.
  42. 42. In the educationsystem of N. Ireland,Protestants attendthe fully-fundedpublic schools whilethe Catholics attendthe private schools.The private schoolsfor the Catholics arepartly funded by thegovernment.
  43. 43. Since the 17th century,the Protestants andCatholics have beenliving in separateresidential areas.
  44. 44. 63%66%62%62%63%63%64%64%65%65%66%66%67%1991 2001Percentage of Population living in areas thatare either mainly Protestants or Catholics3%
  45. 45. Social SegregationLack of Social InteractionLack of Understanding between theTwo Groups
  46. 46. HowConflictsViolencelead to
  47. 47. N. Ireland Civil RightsAssociation (NICRA)Set up by a group of well-educated, middle-classCatholics in N. Ireland who wanted to enddiscrimination against Catholics.Adopts non-violent methods toprotest against discriminationagainst Catholics.Set up in 1967 to bringabout changes within N.Ireland.
  48. 48. Civil RightsMarches toViolence
  49. 49. 1968 markedthe beginningof a periodknown as‘TheTroubles’in N.Ireland.It was duringthese peacefulmarches thatfighting firstbroke outbetween theProtestants,Catholics andpolice.In 1969, theBritishgovernmentsent troops tokeep order,welcome byCatholicsinitially.
  50. 50. In 1971, the N.Ireland governmentintroduced theInternment Laws.
  51. 51. This gave theBritish armythe power toarrest,interrogateand detainanyonewithout trial.
  52. 52. The Catholicslost faith in theBritish Armywhen the armybegan searchingtheir homes andarresting thosesuspected ofterroristactivities.
  53. 53. Sunday30th January 1972
  54. 54. 15 000 peopleparticipated in an illegal,peaceful civil rightsmarch in the Catholic-dominated area ofLondonderry.The march was organized byNICRA and was a protest againstInternment Laws & the ban onthe right to march.The British soldiersshot at protestors.13 civilians dead and many wounded
  55. 55. The deaths on BloodySunday led to a greatoutburst of Catholicanger.More Violence
  56. 56. After 1972, the country saw moreviolence between Protestants, Catholicsand British Army.Catholic homes & businesses weretargeted by Protestants & British army.
  57. 57. The Catholics turnedto Irish RepublicanArmy (IRA) for help.The IRA attackedBritish soldiers andbombedProtestants’properties.
  58. 58. Between 1969 and 1993More than 3500 people werekilled in the conflict in thecountry.The IRA was responsible for 2/3of the deaths.
  59. 59. Consequences of ConflictinNorthern Ireland
  60. 60. Beside human casualties, there are also1. Social Consequences Social Segregation2. Economic Consequences Declining Economy3. Political Consequences Political Reform
  61. 61. SocialConsequences:Social Segregation
  62. 62. The Protestants and Catholics havebeen segregated socially, in the waythey live, work and play.Lack of understanding between thetwo groups
  63. 63. In the educationsystem of N. Ireland,Protestants attendthe fully-fundedpublic schools whilethe Catholics attendthe private schools.
  64. 64. Since the 17th century,the Protestants andCatholics have beenliving in separateresidential areas.
  65. 65. 63%66%62%62%63%63%64%64%65%65%66%66%67%1991 2001Percentage of Population living in areas thatare either mainly Protestants or Catholics3%
  66. 66. Social SegregationLack of Social InteractionLack of Understanding between theTwo Groups
  67. 67. EconomicConsequences:Declining Economy
  68. 68. The economy of N.Ireland has beenaffected by theconflict.It has alsodiscourageddomestic andforeigninvestments in thecountry. Theforeign ownedfactories closeddown whenviolence increasedthe operatingcosts in N. Ireland.The constant threat ofbombings and highcost of security droveaway largemanufacturers ingreat numbers.
  69. 69. Result
  70. 70. 1.The civil rights marches put pressure on theN. Ireland government to pass anti-discrimination measures in N. Ireland.2.Following further civil rightsdemonstrations and pressure from Britain,the government announced sweepingreforms of local government in N. Ireland.
  71. 71. PoliticalConsequences:Political Reform
  72. 72. 1972: Following Bloody Sundayin January, the N. Irelandgovernment was suspended inMarch.1973: An agreement wasreached to introducepower sharing (spreadingof power to govern thecountry) between theProtestants andCatholics.1974: The agreement on power sharingwas removed through a Protestantworkers’strike.
  73. 73. 1988: Another agreement was reached to re-introducepower sharing but has not been fully implemented asthe different political parties refused to share power.
  74. 74. HopeforPeace
  75. 75. 1970s to 1990sThe British governmenthad made attempts tobring peace back to N.Ireland.However, the Protestantsand Catholics failed tocome to an agreement.
  76. 76. In the late 1990sThe British government, the government ofthe Irish Republic of Ireland and NorthernIreland community leaders actively discussedthe Northern Ireland peace process.
  77. 77. The Good Friday Peace Agreement was reached in1998.
  78. 78. the peace agreementwasunsuccessful.However,
  79. 79. Since the 1998 GoodFriday Agreement,many problems stillremain.Violence has flaredup again and again.
  80. 80. However, steps towards armsdecommissioning and increasedsensitivity are positive developments.It seems clear that the majority ofpeople are ready to take on thechallenge in return for peace.However,