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1 Civil Conflict, Digital Divide, and E-government Service Adoption: A Conflict Theory Approach Department of Management Science, ITTP, Korea Advanced Institute of Technology and Science (KAIST), Daejeon, South Korea. Paper presented in the International Conference on e-Democracy, e-Government and e-Society, Paris, June 2010 organized by WASET. http://waset.org/programs/Paris10.pd
2 Introduction Civil Conflicts  & violence  Introduction Introduction ,[object Object],System Design RQ Conclusion Literature ,[object Object]
79 in Africa,
65 in Europe,
 47 in the Middle East and Maghreb, and
43 were located in the Americas.R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A Has However Psychological, Environmental, and Economical effects (Noel, 1976; UN, 1991; (Pedersen, 2002; Landrigan et al., 2004). E-government literature is silent on the issue  29-06-2010
3 Introduction Continue… ,[object Object],Introduction MIS Research Mainly  Deals with RQ Literature R. Model ,[object Object]
Interpersonal Conflicts (Barki & Hartwick, 2001) focused on:Method Results Focused on Implications ,[object Object]
task conflict (Trimmer et al., 2000) and
process conflict (Robey et al., 1989; Robey et al., 1993)Conclusion BUT NOT EXPLORED Q & A What about potential influence of Civil Conflicts and violence on online service use?? 29-06-2010
4 Research Questions (RQ) ,[object Object]
How behavioral conflict toward online service does affects e-government service use intention?
What components of digital divide will shape e-government service use intention in less developed countries having civil conflict, political instability, and a low level of ICT awareness?
Do demographics can explain e-government service use in digitally divided conflict zone?Introduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
5 Literature Review Conflict theory ,[object Object]
Conflict has been classified in several ways in the literature for Instance:
Affective and Substantive conflict (Guetzkow and Gyr, 1954).
Bargaining, Bureaucratic, and Systems conflict (Pondy, 1967).
“conflict arising from conditions” (Brett,1984).
relationship versus task, emotional versus intellectual, and compromise versus win (Pinkley, 1990).
However, the subject of this study is to test consequences of
Civil conflict (Wall and Callister, 1995)
Behavioral(inner) conflict (Argyris, 1957; Thomas 1992) and
Digital Divide (Norris, 2001; Harper, 2003)  On e-government use intentionIntroduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
6 Literature Review ,[object Object]
Behavioral (or inner) conflict is “actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests which is internal (within oneself) to individuals” [28] (pp. 47-54).

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Civil Conflict, Digital Divide Impact E-Government Adoption

  • 1. 1 Civil Conflict, Digital Divide, and E-government Service Adoption: A Conflict Theory Approach Department of Management Science, ITTP, Korea Advanced Institute of Technology and Science (KAIST), Daejeon, South Korea. Paper presented in the International Conference on e-Democracy, e-Government and e-Society, Paris, June 2010 organized by WASET. http://waset.org/programs/Paris10.pd
  • 2.
  • 5. 47 in the Middle East and Maghreb, and
  • 6. 43 were located in the Americas.R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A Has However Psychological, Environmental, and Economical effects (Noel, 1976; UN, 1991; (Pedersen, 2002; Landrigan et al., 2004). E-government literature is silent on the issue 29-06-2010
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. task conflict (Trimmer et al., 2000) and
  • 10. process conflict (Robey et al., 1989; Robey et al., 1993)Conclusion BUT NOT EXPLORED Q & A What about potential influence of Civil Conflicts and violence on online service use?? 29-06-2010
  • 11.
  • 12. How behavioral conflict toward online service does affects e-government service use intention?
  • 13. What components of digital divide will shape e-government service use intention in less developed countries having civil conflict, political instability, and a low level of ICT awareness?
  • 14. Do demographics can explain e-government service use in digitally divided conflict zone?Introduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 15.
  • 16. Conflict has been classified in several ways in the literature for Instance:
  • 17. Affective and Substantive conflict (Guetzkow and Gyr, 1954).
  • 18. Bargaining, Bureaucratic, and Systems conflict (Pondy, 1967).
  • 19. “conflict arising from conditions” (Brett,1984).
  • 20. relationship versus task, emotional versus intellectual, and compromise versus win (Pinkley, 1990).
  • 21. However, the subject of this study is to test consequences of
  • 22. Civil conflict (Wall and Callister, 1995)
  • 23. Behavioral(inner) conflict (Argyris, 1957; Thomas 1992) and
  • 24. Digital Divide (Norris, 2001; Harper, 2003) On e-government use intentionIntroduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 25.
  • 26. Behavioral (or inner) conflict is “actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests which is internal (within oneself) to individuals” [28] (pp. 47-54).
  • 27. Individuals with individualistic values assess the usefulness of the technology with respect to their own needs without taking into consideration the needs of others [45].
  • 28. [46] Studied the influence of values on technology adoption and found that technology use varies as a function of cultural values
  • 29. In their study, [47] showed that people’s usage of the Internet service is mainly based on interest and relevance.Introduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 30.
  • 31. Not much of research dealing with topic
  • 32. The issue is slightly touched in e-government literature[37] in form of political instability.
  • 33. Elsewhere, the effect of social conflicts on natural resources management (NRM) technology adoption has been studied [38] leading to positive association between technology adoption and conflicts among social entities.
  • 34. However, [39] pointed out that the level of civil conflict in a country may explain their new technology adoption behavior; countries engaged in civil conflicts are less likely to adopt new technology, as their recourses and efforts are diverted to winning the war instead of adopting new civilian technologiesIntroduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 39. Resource availability and convenience of access
  • 46. Knowledge of e-gov services availability
  • 48. Technical assistance and emotional reinforcement from friends and family
  • 50. National colors, pictures, and local languageIntroduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 51. 10 Proposed Research Model Introduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 52.
  • 53. We surveyed websites of 14 government bodies and examined the online services provided to the citizens.
  • 54. initial stage of development—one way information flow.
  • 56. Around 360 citizens Afghanistan in two provinces: Kabul and Nangrahar (see table 1 for sample characteristics)
  • 58. An instrument consisting of 33 items was developed based previous research.
  • 59.
  • 60. Furthermore, back translation method (Brislin, 1970) was used for translating an English version of the original survey items to:
  • 61. Pashtu and Dari—two major languages in Afghanistan;
  • 63. Later, the questionnaire was distributed to 60 citizens of Afghanistan for a pre-test.
  • 64. Respondents consisted of 45% female and 55% male.
  • 65. Problematic Items revisedIntroduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 66. 12 Results: Sample Characteristics Table 1 Sample Characteristics Introduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 67.
  • 68. Construct Validity TestIntroduction RQ Table 2 Composite Reliability and Average Varian extracted Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Table 3 Discriminant Validity (Inter-correlation) of Latent Variables Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 69. 14 Reliability of measurement scale: Convergent validity Introduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 70. 15 Assessment of the structural model using HMR Table 5 HLM Model Predicting E-government Service Use Intention Introduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 71. 16 Structure Model Results: Access Divide Introduction E-service Access RQ β =-0.163*** Literature Use Intention R² =0.13 R. Model E-service access Quality β =0.224*** Method Results E-service Usage Skills Implications β =0. 0.216*** Conclusion Q & A *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001 29-06-2010
  • 72. 17 Structure Model Results: Social Divide Introduction E-service Awareness RQ β = 0.249*** Literature Use Intention R² =0.18 ΔR²=0.05 R. Model E-service Social Support β = 0.094*** Method Results β = ns E-service Culturability Implications Conclusion Q & A *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001 29-06-2010
  • 73. 18 Structure Model Results: Control Variables Introduction Gender RQ β = -0.170** Literature Age β = ns R. Model Use Intention R² =0.27 ΔR²=0.09 Method Internet Use β = 0.139* Results β = 0.130* Implications Income Conclusion β = ns Q & A Educ. *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001 29-06-2010
  • 74. 19 Structure Model Results: Access Divide X Civil Conflict Civil Conflict Introduction E-service Access RQ β = -0.418** Literature R. Model Use Intention R² =0.32 ΔR²=0.05 E-service access Quality β = -0.417* Method Results β = 0.491* Implications E-service Usage Skills Conclusion Q & A *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001 29-06-2010
  • 75. 20 Structure Model Results: Access Divide X Civil Conflict Civil Conflict Introduction RQ E-service Awareness β = ns Literature R. Model Use Intention R² =0.32 ΔR²=0.05 Method β = ns E-service Social Support Results β = 0.526** Implications E-service Culturability Conclusion Q & A *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001 29-06-2010
  • 76. 21 Structure Model Results: Access Divide X BC Behavioral Conflict Introduction RQ E-service Access β = ns Literature R. Model Use Intention R² =0.36 ΔR²=0.09 Method β = ns E-service access Quality Results Implications β = -0.181** Conclusion E-service Usage Skills Q & A *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001 29-06-2010
  • 77. 22 Structure Model Results: Social Divide X BC Behavioral Conflict Introduction RQ E-service Awareness β = 0.211* Literature R. Model Use Intention R² =0.36 ΔR²=0.09 β = ns E-service Social Support Method Results β = ns Implications E-service Culturability Conclusion Q & A significance level:*p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001 29-06-2010
  • 78.
  • 80. Civil and behavioral conflicts as moderators
  • 81. Agenda setting for researchers working in the fields of conflict, and their effects on technology adoption.
  • 82. Reliable measures for digital divide: access divide and social divide
  • 84. The study will help policy makers in formulating policies in conflict zones.
  • 85. E-service Access can have negative effect on use under influence of civil conflict; policies for secure access needed
  • 86. Providing access doesn’t quarantine use: Access Quality and e-skills are crucial.
  • 87. Equipping citizens with high e-skills may offset side effects of conflict
  • 88. Culturability of e-government website: colors, pictures, and local language is more crucial in conflict zones
  • 89. Need for providing high quality access as it increase use intention; but in conflict zone high Q has negative effect on use.
  • 90. The more the website according to the needs, desires, and feelings of citizens the more they will be aware of it and may use it.
  • 91. Special polices for motivating citizens with the help of peers to use e-serviceIntroduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 92.
  • 93. Secondly, the study looked only into the e-government services provided in the first stage of e-government development, since e-government in the target country was in an initial stage.
  • 95. Fourth, present research investigated only G2C side of e-government service, whereas the influence of civil and behavioral conflicts on G2E, G2B, and G2G services can be the subjects of future studies.
  • 96. Future research may also focus on consequences of different forms of civil conflicts on users’ intention toward online services.
  • 97. Another area opened for future research is to look into cross-cultural effects of civil conflict and violence on e-government service use behavior.Introduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 98.
  • 99. Results suggest that civil and behavioral conflict play moderating roles between the relationship of some of the access divide, social divide components and e-service use intention.
  • 100. The study will server as agenda setting for IS researchers to look into the issues of conflict and violence on e-government.
  • 101. More research is need to explore the issue under considerationIntroduction RQ Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010
  • 102. 26 Introduction RQ Thank You! Comments and Suggestions Literature R. Model Method Results Implications Conclusion Q & A 29-06-2010