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  1. 1. 1<br />E-government Challenges: A Socio-technical Perspective<br />Gohar Feroz Khan & Prof. Junghoon Moon <br />School of Management Science, ITTP, Korean Advance Institute of science & Technology.<br /> June 25, 2010<br />Prepared for Second Conference of Innovation and Development (CID) “Knowledge, Society and the Role of Government” June 24-25, 2010 Seoul National University, Korea. http://www.politicalenemy.com/main_v2/Worshop2.html<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />E-government Challenges: A Socio-technical Perspective<br />Introduction<br />Introduction<br /><ul><li>The practice of public service provision through ICTs is well known as E-government or paperless government.
  3. 3. Due to E-government Benefits (World Bank, 2001) and (Ndou, 2004) Developing countries are mimic e-gove.
  4. 4. However, e-government initiative is not always been successful in developing countries; 50% failed (Heeks, 2003).
  5. 5. Why?-- Challenges
  6. 6. What does literature say about the challenges?
  7. 7. Provides enough details BUT Static Picture
  8. 8. Does not concern socio-technical aspect </li></ul>Goal<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />
  9. 9. 3<br />Goal of the article<br />Introduction<br /><ul><li> Identify the critical success factors for e-government development crucial for developing countries.
  10. 10. Analyze the challenges in light of Socio-technical theory: technology, society, and human aspect based on e-government stage development.
  11. 11. Assign weights and priorities to the success factors based on their role and criticality</li></ul>Goal<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />
  12. 12. 4<br />Methodology<br /><ul><li>We will analyze current e-government literature dealing with the challenges of e-government taking into account:
  13. 13. Theories used,
  14. 14. Research methods employed and
  15. 15. Results that were obtained.
  16. 16. Each challenge will be analyzed from three dimensions:
  17. 17. Technology,
  18. 18. Organization, and
  19. 19. Human
  20. 20. using staged wised approach i.e. challenges will be analyzed with respect to the stages of e-government. As, challenges at each maybe different.
  21. 21. Based on the importance or criticality a weight will be assigned to each.</li></ul>Introduction<br />Goal<br />Method<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />
  22. 22. 5<br />Literature Review: Socio-technical Theory<br /><ul><li>System design based on Socio-technical Approach</li></ul>Introduction<br />Goal<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />(Bostorm and Heinen, 1977)<br />
  23. 23. 6<br />Literature Review: Socio-technical Theory<br />Introduction<br />Goal<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />
  24. 24. 7<br />Literature Review: E-government stages<br />Introduction<br />Goal<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Initial Stage<br />Transactional Stage<br />Integrated Stage<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br /><ul><li>One way communication
  25. 25. Website established
  26. 26. Email, Static information
  27. 27. Two way communication
  28. 28. online forms,
  29. 29. Payment of bills, fee etc
  30. 30. One stop shop</li></ul>Layne and Lee, 2001; Silcock, 2001 and Deloitte and Touche, 2002; UN, 2002; Reddick, 2004; Henriksen, 2006; Henriksen, 2006<br />
  31. 31. 8<br />Literature Review: e-government Challenges<br />Introduction<br />Goal<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />Carter and May, 2001; Heeks 2003; Ndou, 2004; Chen, Y.N et al, 2006; Gebremichael and Jackson, 2006.<br />
  32. 32. 9<br />Theoretical framework (TF)<br />Human<br />Organization<br />Introduction<br />Technology<br />Goal<br />Socio-technical Theory (Level of Analysis)<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />Challenges <br />Transactional<br />Initial<br />Integration<br />Stages of e-government Development<br />
  33. 33. 10<br />E-government Challenges: Human (users) <br /><ul><li>E-government services are provided to:
  34. 34. Citizens
  35. 35. Government Employees
  36. 36. Private sector Employees
  37. 37. Skills
  38. 38. Trust
  39. 39. Privacy
  40. 40. Cultural Issues
  41. 41. Awareness
  42. 42. Ethical responsibility
  43. 43. Affordability
  44. 44. Behavioral issues e.g. behavioral conflict
  45. 45. Environmental issues e.g. Civil Conflict
  46. 46. Demographic factors</li></ul>Introduction<br />Introduction<br />System<br />Design<br />Goal<br />Conclusion<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />
  47. 47. 11<br />E-government Challenges: Human (users) Skills <br />E-Skills: “The set of skills, knowledge, and concepts that are needed for effective consumption—access, locate, operate, manage, understand, and evaluate—of e-services provided in different stages of e-government.” (Khan et al, 2010, pp.8)<br />Method: Delphi study<br />Introduction<br />Introduction<br />System<br />Design<br />Goal<br />Conclusion<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />
  48. 48. 12<br />E-government Challenges: Human (users) Skills <br />Introduction<br />Introduction<br />System<br />Design<br />Goal<br />Conclusion<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />
  49. 49. 13<br />E-government Challenges: Human (users) Skills <br />Introduction<br />Introduction<br />Table 1E-government skills required by Citizens, public, and private sector employees<br />System<br />Design<br />Goal<br />Conclusion<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />G.Feoz Khan et al, 2010<br />
  50. 50. 14<br />E-government Challenges: Human Issues continue<br /><ul><li>Behavioral issues:
  51. 51. Behavioral conflict
  52. 52. Behavioral (or inner) conflict is “actual or perceived opposition of needs, values, and interests which is internal (within oneself) to individuals” Argyris,1957 (pp. 47-54), where one must choose whether or not to take a particular course of action (Thomas,1992).
  53. 53. People use a technology based on their needs, interest, relevance (Srite & Karahanna, 2006; Selwyn et al, 2005).
  54. 54. Citizens use intention increase as behavioral conflict decrease; If an e-government service provided online is according to needs , values, and interest citizens would be more aware of it (khan et al, 2010).
  55. 55. Method: Survey Method, 360 Subjects, PLS statistical tool</li></ul>Introduction<br />Introduction<br />System<br />Design<br />Goal<br />Conclusion<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />
  56. 56. 15<br />E-government Challenges: Human Issues continue<br /><ul><li>Environmental issues: For example civil conflict, Violence, and political instability
  57. 57. Civil Conflict:
  58. 58. Civil conflicts are clashes of interest and expressed struggle between groups for political dominance who have mismatched goals and interests (Dmitriy and Herschel, 2000)
  59. 59. Civil conflict Negatively affect the relationship between e-service access and use intention.
  60. 60. Civil conflict Negatively affect the relationship between e-service access quality and use intention.
  61. 61. In conflict zones government website high on cultural contents (e.g. Color, photos, and local language) positively affect use intention
  62. 62. Under the influence of civil conflict e-service use intention increases for the people having high e-skills </li></ul>Introduction<br />Introduction<br />System<br />Design<br />Goal<br />Conclusion<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />(Khan et al, 2010)<br />
  63. 63. 16<br />E-government Challenges: Technological Issues <br /><ul><li>Digital divide: Access Divide and Social Divide </li></ul> (Norris, 2001; Harper,2003)<br /><ul><li>Access Divide:
  64. 64. E-service access
  65. 65. Resource availability and convenience of access
  66. 66. E-service access quality
  67. 67. Timeliness (speed), Trust, and Stability
  68. 68. E-service access Skills
  69. 69. Technical and applied e-skills
  70. 70. Social Divide:
  71. 71. E-service Awareness
  72. 72. Knowledge of e-gov services availability
  73. 73. E-service Social Support
  74. 74. Technical assistance and emotional reinforcement from friends and family
  75. 75. E-service Culturability
  76. 76. National colors, pictures, and local language</li></ul>Introduction<br />Introduction<br />System<br />Design<br />Goal<br />Conclusion<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />Khan, et al, 2010)<br />
  77. 77. 17<br />E-government Challenges: Organization<br /><ul><li>Leadership: Vision, motivation, initiative, ........
  78. 78. Change management: Organizational skills to deal with migration from paper based government to paper less government.
  79. 79. Changing mind set
  80. 80. Changing processes
  81. 81. Changing routines
  82. 82. These issues are crucial for public organization to possess due to:
  83. 83. Lack of leadership
  84. 84. Resistance to change
  85. 85. Lack of knowledge about e-government
  86. 86. Beaurocracy</li></ul>Introduction<br />Introduction<br />System<br />Design<br />Goal<br />Conclusion<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />
  87. 87. Time table<br />Introduction<br />Goal<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Time Table<br />Conclusion<br />18<br />
  88. 88. Discussion and Conclusion <br /><ul><li>E-government is a complex system that need to be understand from different aspects: technology, human, and organization.
  89. 89. Every country faces certain unique challenges while most of the challenges are universal.
  90. 90. Most part of challenges of e-government is social and not technological.
  91. 91. Conflict regions Negative effect on Access and Quality
  92. 92. Culturability of e-gov. website issues
  93. 93. E-skills crucial</li></ul>Introduction<br />Goal<br />Literature<br />TF<br />Challenges<br />Time Table<br />Conclusion<br />19<br />
  94. 94. 20<br />Thank You!<br />Comments and Suggestions<br />