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Migration and Remittances


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Some findings based on CRRC DI Surveys

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Migration and Remittances

  1. 1. Caucasus Research Resource Centers (CRRC) -Armenia Migration and Remittances: Some findings based on CRRC DI Surveys Yerevan-Washington May 18, 2008 [email_address] Heghine Manasyan Arsen Aslanyan
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Caucasus Research Resource Centers (CRRC) </li></ul><ul><li>CRRC Data Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Migration data: General overview </li></ul><ul><li>Remittances: who, how often, for what, etc. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is CRRC? <ul><li>Resource and training centers’ network established in Baku, Tbilisi, and Yerevan to strengthen Social Sciences in the South Caucasus </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership between the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Eurasia Partnership Foundation, and the local Universities </li></ul><ul><li>and …. one of AIPRG strong partners </li></ul>
  4. 4. What does CRRC aim to achieve? <ul><li>Increase accessibility of high-quality research resources; </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen domestic capacity; </li></ul><ul><li>Increase dialogue and collaboration between researchers and policy practitioners. </li></ul><ul><li>What does CRRC offer ? </li></ul><ul><li>Library and reading room, IT Lab, statistical software and databases; </li></ul><ul><li>Data Initiative surveys; </li></ul><ul><li>Methodological trainings and lectures, conferences, roundtables; </li></ul><ul><li>Fellowship program, mentorship program; </li></ul><ul><li>New incentives for research-policy dialogue, networking and collaboration. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CRRC Data Initiative : Introduction <ul><li>Annual household surveys starting from year 2004 to collect data on the developments in South Caucasus Countries; </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire content: Demography, Education, Employment, Migration , Health, Social Institutions, Social Capital, Politics, Crime, and Economic Condition ; </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling: Multistage cluster sampling with three disaggregated populations: capital city, other cities, and rural ; </li></ul><ul><li>DI 2007 survey: </li></ul><ul><li>8,053 households (and approximately the same number of individuals) were surveyed in the South Caucasus countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,514 in Armenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,148 in Azerbaijan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3,391 in Georgia </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The DI 2004-2007 Survey Samples
  7. 7. CRRC Data Initiative: Survey Instrument <ul><li>The questionnaire was developed by the teams of researchers from three SC countries, and it has been revised year after year; </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007 the questionnaire had significant changes with the introduction of new questions and elimination of some ineffective questions, and it was split into two parts - individual and household questionnaires; </li></ul><ul><li>The survey gathers information about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HH characteristics (HH size, socio-demographics of household members, economic status/conditions, as well information on current/past migrant members ), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals sampled within those households (their employment, education, health, political views, social capital, etc.). </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Main changes made in the “Migration” block of Questions in 2004-2007 <ul><li>The term “Migration” refered to both external and internal migration during DI 2007 survey; </li></ul><ul><li>The period of migration under the study was changed from “during past 3 years” to “since 1991;” </li></ul><ul><li>The questions on migration reasons, employment status and employment spheres during migration were removed in 2007; </li></ul><ul><li>The questions on remittances and their importance were added in 2007 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Migration characteristics: General overview <ul><li>Why? Lack of jobs (slides 10 and 11, DI-2006) </li></ul><ul><li>- From Unemployment to Employment in Private sector (Armenia) </li></ul><ul><li>- From Unemployment to Self-employment abroad (Azerbaijan) </li></ul><ul><li>How many? </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of flows over time: Back? </li></ul><ul><li>Where (destination ): Russia? </li></ul><ul><li>Who? Men aged 30-50? </li></ul><ul><li>For what period? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Migration 2006: Adjusting LM conditions? (% of total migrants aged 16 and higher) Reasons for leaving the home country
  11. 11. Migration 2006: Migrants’ occupation before and during migration (% of total migrants aged 16 and higher)
  12. 12. Data from DI 2007 survey Current Migrants: Household members who have left their households (either permanently or temporarily) for more than 3 months since 1991 but have not returned home. Return Migrants: Household members who have been abroad for more than 3 months during 1991-2007 and returned home. Definitions
  13. 13. Return Migrants 2007: Share of households who had former (return) migrants (% of total HHs)
  14. 14. Return Migration: Share of household members who have been abroad for more than 3 months during 1991-2007 and returned home
  15. 15. Return Migration : Share of household members who have left their HHs and came back (% within groups)
  16. 16. Return Migration : Destination countries for those who have been abroad for more than 3 months during 1991-2007 and returned home
  17. 17. Return Migration : How long did the former migrants stay abroad? (% of total)
  18. 18. Current Migrants: Share of HHs having at least one member abroad as of October 2007
  19. 19. Current Migrants: Number of Current Migrants per 100 HHs (October 2007)
  20. 20. Current migrants: Demographic profile (Armenia, % of all migrants abroad in 2007)
  21. 21. Year of last emigration of current migrants (% of all current migrants)
  22. 22. Current Migration : What do Armenian migrants do abroad? (% of all migrants abroad in 2007) Work and Study Work Neither w ork nor study Study 67% 25% 8% 1%
  23. 23. <ul><li>Remittances </li></ul><ul><li>Important? Sustainable? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Return Migration: Share of former/return migrants who financially supported their HHs (share of total in respective groups, %)
  25. 25. Do the Migrants Support their HHs in home country? (% of all)
  26. 26. How often do Armenian Migrants Support their HHs Back Home? (% of all)
  27. 27. Age and gender of remittance senders (Armenia, % of all remittance senders)
  28. 28. How do the migrants send money back home? (%)
  29. 29. Share of HHs receiving remittances from their members abroad (% of all HHs in each strata)
  30. 30. Current Migrants’ and remitters' relation to the HH head (% of total)
  31. 31. Importance of contributions received from household members currently living abroad to those households’ well-being (share of total, %)
  32. 32. Importance of Remittances Received from Current Migrants for Armenian HHs (share of total, %)
  33. 33. Share of received remittances in the annual HH income in 2006 (%) Share of remittances in the annual HH income among HHs receiving remittances in 2006 (% of all HHs receiving remittances)
  34. 34. Countries where the remittances are sent from: looking for diversification! (share of all remittance senders, %)
  35. 35. How do HHs spend money received from their migrant members? (%, three possible items)
  36. 36. Do HHs share remittances received from their migrant HH members with other HHs? (%)
  37. 37. What percent of those remittances did Armenian HHs share with other HHs? (% of HHs) Share of remittances
  38. 38. Migration potential: “If the socioeconomic conditions in your country do not improve in the next three years, will you migrate from the country?” (% of all, year 2006)
  39. 39. <ul><li>Visit --> Data Initiative Project to find: </li></ul><ul><li>Survey datasets (in SPSS format) </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires and show cards (in 4 languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Survey methodology document </li></ul><ul><li>SPSS online crash course </li></ul>Want to know more?
  40. 41. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul>