Institutional Sources of Corruption in the Case of Armenia

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Institutional Sources of Corruption in the Case of Armenia

  1. 1. Caucasus Research Resource Centers - ARMENIA A Program of Eurasia Partnership Foundation INSTITUTIONAL SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN THE CASE OF ARMENIA: IS IT RULES, BLOOD AND CULTURE, OR PUNISHMENT? Anna Martirosyan Yerevan, August 14, 2009
  2. 2. CORRUPTION Definitions and Measurements Causes and Consequences THE POLITICS OF INSTITUTIONAL CHOICE: THE CASE OF AREMNIA Formal Rules and Corruption Informal Rules and Corruption Enforcement Mechanisms and Corruption METHODOLOGY, DATA, SOURCES RESULTS, RECOMMENDATIONS, CONCLUSION
  3. 3. RESEARCH QUESTION <ul><li>Which institutional source – formal rules , informal constraints , or enforcement mechanisms – most negatively affects corruption in Armenia? </li></ul>
  4. 4. HYPOTHESES <ul><li>Hypothesis 1: Public perception of corruption level is high, when perceptions of formal rules are weak. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis 2: Public perception of corruption level is high, when perceptions of informal rules are strong (informal constraints are weak). </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis 3: Public perception of corruption level is high, when perceptions of enforcement mechanisms are weak. </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS CORRUPTION? <ul><li>Corruption can take many forms and involve different actors. </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption can be considered either as a structural problem of politics and economics, or as a socio-cultural problem and moral decay. </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption is most often defined as the abuse of public roles and resources for private gain. </li></ul><ul><li>The accent of the definition in this research is on public corruption and it is measured based on the public perceptions of corruption existence (level) in the 2008 Armenia Corruption Household Survey. </li></ul>
  6. 6. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES <ul><li>The causes and consequences of corruption can be overlapping. </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and Political Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>The size of government (GDP share of government) </li></ul><ul><li>De creases in wages </li></ul><ul><li>E ducation and urbanization levels </li></ul><ul><li>Inactive mass media </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in transportation and communications technology </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of capitalist classes, urban middle classes, and an urban labor force </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Historical traditions; </li></ul><ul><li>Colonization; </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted norms and social behavior; </li></ul><ul><li>Religion; </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic diversity </li></ul>
  7. 7. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES <ul><li>CONSEQUENCES </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels of economic development (negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal allocation of public resources and opportunities (negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Social exclusion (negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased investment levels (negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Level of democracy (negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption helps to overcome bureaucratic rigidities and get around the bureaucratic red tape (positive) </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption can be a source of capital formation. It can also promote entrepreneurship as it increases opportunities of entrepreneurs to get access to political decisions (positive) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Measures of Corruption <ul><li>Corruption Perception Index (CPI) </li></ul><ul><li>Control Corruption Index (CCI) </li></ul><ul><li>Public Integrity Index (PII) </li></ul><ul><li>Bribe Payers Index (BPI) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Corruption Barometer (GCB) and related surveys by Transparency International </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES) </li></ul><ul><li>Governance and Corruption Diagnostic Surveys(GCDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Oxford Policy Management (OPM) briefing notes, “ Measuring Corruption ”, 2007-01, page 2, www.opml.co.uk </li></ul>
  9. 9. POLITICS OF INSTITUTIONAL CHOICE <ul><li>“ Institutions include any form of constraint that human beings devise to shape human interaction ” (North 1990:4). </li></ul><ul><li>In the framework of this research, in stitutional sources are causes rather than consequences of corruption . </li></ul><ul><li>A country’s institutional design is of greatest importance for its corruption patterns. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Three Institutional Sources <ul><li>Institutions are characterized in terms of three dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>Formal rules (constraints); </li></ul><ul><li>Informal constraints (rules); </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement mechanisms. </li></ul>
  11. 11. FORMAL RULES <ul><li>Formal rules are well-defined rules, such as constitutions, laws, and property rights. They include “political (and judicial) rules, economic rules and contracts” (North 1990:47). </li></ul>
  12. 12. INFORMAL RULES <ul><li>Informal rules are conventions, codes of conduct, norms of behavior. They consist of: </li></ul><ul><li>extensions, elaborations, and modifications of formal rules </li></ul><ul><li>socially sanctioned norms of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>internally enforced standards of conduct. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ENFORCEMENT MECHANISMS <ul><li>Both forms of rules and constraints need enforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>The successful operation of any system or any policy depends on whether the deployed enforcement mechanisms can guarantee the compliance with the policies. </li></ul>
  14. 14. FORMAL RULES AND CORRUPTION <ul><li>A well-written constitution is an important formal rule and an essential pledge for less corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Another element of formal rules is the legal system . A week judicial system is both a cause and consequence of corruption. </li></ul>
  15. 15. FORMAL RULES AND CORRUPTION <ul><li>“ The criminal code of Armenia does not fully meet the requirements of international anti-corruption standards” . </li></ul><ul><li>Armenian legislation does not explicitly cover bribery of foreign or international public officials or bribery in international financial transaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The transfer of non-material advantages to public officials is not considered corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Armenian legislation does not contain any type of liability for legal persons involved in corruption-related cases or corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>2004 OECD Anti-Corruption Action Plan for Armenia: Review of Legal and Institutional Framework for Fighting Corruption </li></ul>
  16. 16. INFORMAL RULES AND CORRUTPTION <ul><li>Cultural values play a fundamental role on the level and perceptions of corruption. C ertain cultural values may either foster or restrain corruption within a society . </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Unofficial payments were ubiquitous in Armenia – literally from the cradle to the grave.” </li></ul><ul><li>2002 ARD’s report “Armenia: Rule of Law/Anti-Corruption Assessment” </li></ul>
  17. 17. INFORMAL RULES AND CORRUTPTION <ul><li>Armenia’s having a collectivist, high-power distance and high masculinity culture and at the same time possessing pervasive corruption levels supports the proposition that that the existence and power of certain informal rules instigate corruption. </li></ul>
  18. 18. ENFORCEMENT MECHANISMS AND CORRUPTION <ul><li>Four elements of enforcement mechanisms are vital to achieve positive results in corruption eradication: </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Committed and incorrupt enforcement agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Independence of the judiciary from the politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Equal access to the law for everyone (Jain 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>In Armenia, there is a considerable lack of all four. </li></ul>
  19. 19. METHOD, DATA, SOURCES <ul><li>“ Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.” _ A. Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>Logit regression </li></ul><ul><li>2008 Armenia Household Corruption Survey, conducted by CRRC-Armenia, in coordination with USAID MAAC Activity and IFES in Armenia </li></ul><ul><li>1549 observations ; individuals aged 18 and higher, coming from Yerevan and other marzes of Armenia </li></ul>
  20. 20. METHOD, DATA, SOURCES <ul><li>There are two models constructed: </li></ul><ul><li>First model tests the association of the dependent variable with the primary independent variables alone. </li></ul><ul><li>The second model incorporates socio-demographic control variables to find if it can change results obtained in the first model. </li></ul>
  21. 21. METHOD, DATA, SOURCES <ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul><ul><li>“ Perceptions of corruption ”, a dummy variable, is constructed based on the answers to the question: “In your opinion, how serious of a problem is corruption in Armenia?” </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Very serious’ and ‘ serious’ = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Not very serious ’ and ‘ not at all serious ’ = 0 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Don’t know ’ and ‘ refused ’ are missing values; there were very few of those answers. </li></ul>
  22. 22. METHOD, DATA, SOURCES <ul><li>Independent Variables: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Perceptions of formal rules ”, is constructed based on the answers to these questions of the database: </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know what institutions to contact in order to report a corrupt act by a public official? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree or disagree that NGOs are capable of combating corruption in Armenia? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you aware of any anti-corruption measures being taken by the Government of Armenia? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you aware of the Anti-Corruption Strategy and Action Plan implemented by the Government of Armenia? </li></ul>
  23. 23. METHOD, DATA, SOURCES <ul><li>Independent Variables: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Perceptions of enforcement mechanisms ”, is constructed based on the answers to these questions: </li></ul><ul><li>During the past 12 months, have you heard of anyone including relatives, friends, acquaintances or neighbors paying bribes to obtain a public service? </li></ul><ul><li>How effective or ineffective is the Government’s fight against corruption in Armenia? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the current government of Armenia have a sincere desire and will to combat corruption? </li></ul>
  24. 24. METHOD, DATA, SOURCES <ul><li>Independent Variables: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Perceptions of informal constraints ”, is formed based on the answers to the following questions: </li></ul><ul><li>How would you react if you were offered to take a bribe? Would you take it or would you not take it? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you react if you were offered to give a bribe? Would you give it or would you not take it? </li></ul><ul><li>In your opinion, what can you personally do to reduce corruption in Armenia? </li></ul>
  25. 25. METHOD, DATA, SOURCES <ul><li>Control Variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul>
  26. 26. RESULTS <ul><li>Descriptive statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 1: Perceptions of Formal Rules </li></ul>
  27. 27. RESULTS <ul><li>Descriptive statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 2: Perceptions of Enforcement Mechanisms </li></ul>
  28. 28. RESULTS <ul><li>Descriptive statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 2: Perceptions of Informal Rules </li></ul>
  29. 29. Significance level: ** - p<0.01; * - p<0.05; † - p<0.1 . Model 1 Model 2 Intercept 6.89** 4.21** Perception of formal rules Knows what institutions to contact to report a corrupt act 1.03 0.93 Agrees that NGOs are capable of combating corruption in Armenia 1.32 1.39 Is aware of anti-corruption measures taken by the Government of Armenia 0.95 0.85 Is aware of the Anti-Corruption Strategy and Action Plan implemented by the Government of Armenia 0.90 0.92 Perception of enforcement mechanisms Have heard of someone paying bribes to obtain a public service in the last 12 months 1.76* 1.51† Thinks the Government’s fight against corruption in Armenia is effective 0.83 0.82 Agrees that the Government of Armenia has a sincere desire and will to combat corruption 1.61* 1.51* Perception of informal rules Would not take a bribe if was offered 1.18 1.06 Would not give a bribe if was asked 0.45** 0.44** Will personally undertake actions to reduce corruption in Armenia 0.86 0.83 Socio-demographic characteristics Age of the respondent   0.99 Sex of the respondent Female (Ref.) 1.00 Male   0.83 Education Less than secondary (Ref.) 1.00 Secondary   3.24** Technical and incomplete higher   2.56** Higher and postgraduate   4.70** Household’s monthly income (in drams) Less than 30 000 (Ref.) 1.00 30 001 to 75 000   0.96 75 001 to 120 000   0.86 120 001 and up   0.59† N of cases 1241 1176 *-2LL 895.0** 814.8**
  30. 30. STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE <ul><li>There is statistical significance between only three of the independent primary variables and the dependent variable: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ H ave heard of someone paying bribes to obtain a public service in the last 12 months ’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ A grees that the Government of Armenia has a sincere desire and will to combat corruption ’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ W ould not give a bribe if was asked ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Two of those variables represent perceptions of enforcement mechanisms and one represents perceptions of informal rules . </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical significance between perceptions of formal rules and perception of corruption. </li></ul>
  31. 31. STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE <ul><li>Among control variables only the influence of education level is statistically significant in relation to perception of corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictably, gender and income do not have any statistically significant relationship to perceptions of corruption. </li></ul>
  32. 32. SUBSTANTIVE SIGNIFICANCE <ul><li>If a person has heard of someone paying bribes to obtain a public service in the last 12 months increases the odds of considering corruption as a serious problem in Armenia by about 77%. </li></ul><ul><li>The odds that a person considers corruption as a serious problem in Armenia increases by about 60%, if a person agrees that the Government of Armenia has a sincere desire and will to combat corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>The odds that a person considers corruption as a serious problem in Armenia decreases by 55%, if a person says he/she would not give a bribe if asked. </li></ul><ul><li>The odds that person with secondary education will think of corruption as a serious problems in Armenia increases by 3 times as compared to that of a person with less than secondary education. </li></ul><ul><li>The odds that a person with technical and incomplete higher education will think of corruption as a serious problem in Armenia increases by about 2.5 as compared to that of a person with less than secondary education. </li></ul><ul><li>The odds that a person with higher and postgraduate education will think of corruption as a serious problem in Armenia increases by 5 times as compared to that of a person with less than secondary education. </li></ul>
  33. 33. DO FORMAL RULES NOT MATTER IN ARMENIA? <ul><li>The lack of statistical significance may be due to the fact that the answers chosen to represent the concept of formal rules do not match the reality, even in public perceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>An answer to a question such as “ k nows what institutions to contact to report a corrupt act ’ i s not necessarily a representative constituent of formal rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Another approach could be selecting questions from the survey which stress the role of the President, courts, the National Assembly, legislation. </li></ul>
  34. 34. LIMITATIONS <ul><li>The dependent variable is not a very accurate measure of actual corruption level in Armenia; it is a perceptual measure . </li></ul><ul><li>Our data may be subject to bias and error despite the fact that is was collected by persons detached from this particular study. </li></ul><ul><li>The independent variables are classified into too broad categories </li></ul><ul><li>T he dependant and independent variables are interrelated , and the causal direction may be opposite than the hypothesized ones. </li></ul><ul><li>F uture studies need to examine the longitudinal nature of these relationships in order to verify causality more accurately . </li></ul>
  35. 35. MAIN CONTRIBUTION <ul><li>Controlling corruption is not fundamentally about designing credible institutional rules but more importantly ensuring that those rules are well-enforced and administered in practice and even more notably, impacting the informal rules through educational and advisory activities. </li></ul>
  36. 36. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Freedom of information legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Financial disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Open budget process </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative oversight </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial reforms: Impartial enforcement of sanctions is significant </li></ul><ul><li>Public relations campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>International pressure </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS? </li></ul>

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