10 24Soc_Roles


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10 24Soc_Roles

  1. 1. Elements of Social Structure: statuses social roles groups social networks social institutions
  2. 2. def. “role”: <ul><li>A social role is a pattern of </li></ul><ul><li>expected behavior. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Role Theory is based on the following assumptions: <ul><li>People spend much of their lives in groups . </li></ul><ul><li>Within these groups, people often take over distinct functions and occupy discernible positions . </li></ul><ul><li>With specific functions and specific positions come specific expectations for behavior ; regular pattern of such expectations can be called roles . </li></ul><ul><li>People are generally conformists: we learn to conform to roles. </li></ul><ul><li>The anticipation of rewards and punishments inspire this conformity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Our school — social roles student teacher administrator staff parent
  5. 5. Our school — social roles teacher administrator staff parent <ul><li>student — role differentiations: </li></ul><ul><li>the willing learner </li></ul><ul><li>the hard worker </li></ul><ul><li>the challenging rebel </li></ul><ul><li>the obedient follower </li></ul>
  6. 6. Our school — social roles student <ul><li>the role of teacher — differentiations: </li></ul><ul><li>experienced vs. new teacher </li></ul><ul><li>strict teacher, mean teacher, soft teacher </li></ul>administrator staff parent
  7. 7. How do we know the roles?
  8. 8. How do we know what is expected from us in specific roles? How do we know what to expect from others?
  9. 9. Socialization. <ul><li>George Herbert Mead: </li></ul><ul><li>preparatory stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>children start to imitate adults and other children, which prepares them for playing roles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>play stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>child takes on someone else’s role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>game stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>child plays a role and takes into account that co-players are also playing roles </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Socialization into roles: <ul><li>For each role, we learn </li></ul><ul><li>norms of expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>sanctions (positive and negative) that we may expect when we fill out or fail to fill out a role (i.e., conform to or break a norm), and that we dole out when someone else does or does not do what we expect them to do in their role. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Socialization into roles: <ul><li>For many roles, we also learn to </li></ul><ul><li>adapt our language , and </li></ul><ul><li>associate the role with specific values . </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., while I play the role of customer on a market, I’m driven by values that differ from those that guide my behavior as a friend, or as a husband, or as a father, or as a teacher.) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Role Conflict <ul><li>Whereas for the most part, we are highly skilled at juggling different roles and switching from one role to the other, </li></ul><ul><li>we sometimes get into situations where we are assigned two (or more) different roles at once — </li></ul><ul><li>and sometimes, these roles may contain contradictory expectations. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Social Construction of Reality <ul><li>Again: where do all the scripts for all those “roles” exist? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do all these sets of expectations reside? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we find all those norms? </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Social Construction of Reality <ul><li>Where do all the scripts for all those “roles” exist? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do all these sets of expectations reside? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we find all those norms? </li></ul><ul><li>In people’s minds . </li></ul><ul><li>And they all depend on people’s individual perspectives . </li></ul>