008 02 20Frd_Dreams


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008 02 20Frd_Dreams

  1. 1. On Dreams (1901)
  2. 2. On Dreams <ul><li>“ Since the rejection of the mythological hypothesis, however, dreams have stood in need of explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>The conditions of their origin, </li></ul><ul><li>their relation to waking mental life, </li></ul><ul><li>their dependence upon stimuli which force their way upon perception during the state of sleep, </li></ul><ul><li>the many peculiarities of their content which are repugnant to waking thought, </li></ul><ul><li>the inconsistency between their ideational images and the affects attaching to them, </li></ul><ul><li>and lastly their transitory character, … </li></ul>
  3. 3. On Dreams <ul><li>“… their transitory character, the manner in which waking thought pushes them on one side as something alien to it, and mutilates or extinguishes them in memory— […]” </li></ul>
  4. 4. On Dreams <ul><li>“ But what stands in the foreground of our interest is the question of the significance of dreams, </li></ul><ul><li>a questions which bears a double sense.” </li></ul><ul><li>the psychical significance of dreaming: </li></ul><ul><li>“ as to the relation of dreams to other mental processes, </li></ul><ul><li>and as to the biological function that they may have;” </li></ul><ul><li>the “meaning” of dreams: </li></ul><ul><li>“… it seeks to discover whether dreams can be interpreted, whether the content of individual dreams has a ‘meaning’… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Psychology around 1900: <ul><li>Medicine : Psychiatry, Neurology </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy : Philosophy of Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Psychology: mostly research on perception and simple mental operations </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hypnosis <ul><li>Neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)… </li></ul><ul><li>was well-known for showing, during his lessons at the Salpêtrière hospital, &quot;hysterical&quot; woman patients. </li></ul><ul><li>endorsed hypnotism for the treatment of hysteria. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Freud’s dream: Company at table / table d’hôte <ul><li>Company at table or table d’hôte . . . spinach was being eaten . . . Frau E. L. was sitting beside me; she was turning her whole attention to me and laid her hand on my knee in an intimate manner. I removed her hand unresponsively. She then said: “But you’ve always had such beautiful eyes.” . . . I then had an indistinct picture of two eyes, as though it were a drawing or like the outline of a pair of spectacles . . . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Freud’s dream: company at table / table d’hôte <ul><li>“… I am led to regard the dream as a sort of substitute for the thought-processes, </li></ul><ul><li>full of meaning and emotion, </li></ul><ul><li>at which I arrived after the completion of the analysis.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. … leads to questions: <ul><li>(1) What is the psychical process which has transformed the latent content of the dream into the manifest one which is known to me from my memory? </li></ul><ul><li>(2) What are the motive or motives which have necessitated this transformation? </li></ul>
  10. 10. children’s dreams show: <ul><li>Dreams are wish-fulfillment. </li></ul>
  11. 11. dream-work: <ul><li>… a thought expressed in the optative has been replaced by a representation in the present tense. </li></ul>
  12. 12. You should be familiar with the following terms: <ul><li>latent and manifest dream-content </li></ul><ul><li>dream-content </li></ul><ul><li>dream-thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>dream-work: </li></ul><ul><li>the transformation of dream-thoughts into dream-content </li></ul>
  13. 13. IV <ul><li>Condensation </li></ul><ul><li>collective and composite figures and structures </li></ul><ul><li>overdetermination </li></ul>
  14. 14. V <ul><li>Displacement </li></ul><ul><li>dream-instigators </li></ul><ul><li>[daytime-residues] </li></ul>
  15. 15. VI <ul><li>the dream’s means of representation </li></ul><ul><li>for logical connection: approximation in time and space </li></ul><ul><li>causal relation: either left unrepresented, or replaced by sequence (usually in reverse order) </li></ul>
  16. 16. VII: <ul><li>a final revision </li></ul><ul><li>considerations of intelligibility </li></ul>
  17. 17. VII: <ul><li>dream-work belongs in series of psychical processes that lead to hysterical symptoms, phobias, obsessions, and delusions </li></ul><ul><li>shares with these processes condensation and, above all, displacement: </li></ul>
  18. 18. VIII: <ul><li>“The heart of the problem lies in displacement, which is by far the most striking of the achievements of the dream-work. If we enter deeply into the subject, we come to realize that the essential determining condition of displacement is a purely psychological one: something in the nature of a motive .” </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Freud broke off analysis of his own dream, wishing to keep private “thoughts that would surprise [even him]”: </li></ul><ul><li>“…suppose that these thoughts really were present in my mind, and in possession of a certain amount of psychical intensity or energy, but that they were in a peculiar psychological situation, as a consequence of which they could not become conscious to me.” </li></ul>
  20. 21. Repression <ul><li>dream-thoughts’ state of repression (inadmissability to consciousness) leads to obscurity of dream-content </li></ul>
  21. 22. IX <ul><li>Obscure and confused dreams </li></ul><ul><li>are disguised fulfillments of repressed wishes. </li></ul>
  22. 25. X <ul><li>“two thought-constructing agencies” </li></ul><ul><li>A1: its activity is unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>content passes from A1 to A2: but only that which makes it past the censor; </li></ul><ul><li>the rest is repressed </li></ul><ul><li>in certain states (e.g. sleep) censorship is relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>something of A1 becomes conscious—but only in form of a compromise </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>“What becomes conscious in such cases is a compromise between the intentions of one agency and the demands of the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Repression—relaxation of the censorship—the formation of a compromise , </li></ul><ul><li>this is the fundamental pattern for the generation not only of dreams but of many other psychopathological structures.” </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Admittedly, this model includes a “daemonic” element. </li></ul>
  25. 28. XI: The Function of Dreams <ul><li>Dreams are the guardians of our sleep. </li></ul>
  26. 29. XII: Dream-Symbolism <ul><li>most adult dreams represent fulfillments of erotic wishes </li></ul><ul><li>most commonly, in fact, infantile sexual wishes </li></ul><ul><li>often symbols help us piece together a dream </li></ul>