Conferenza iosa revised

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Conferenza iosa revised

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. RAFFAELE IOSA USR-ER: via De’ Castagnoli, 1MIUR* Technical Inspector 40126 Bologna – Italy in Emilia Romagna direzione-emiliaromagna@istruzione.it* Ministry of Education, University and Research Home: via Ariosa, 35/A 48100 Ravenna – Italy rafiosa@tin.it 2
  3. 3. Bologna – 4th May 2011 Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Regular Schools:Overview and PossibleCooperation between Partner Regions 3
  4. 4. THE ITALIAN MODELFOR THE INTEGRATION AND INCLUSION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES 4
  5. 5. -I-30+ Years of Integration Policies:RELEVANT MILESTONES 5
  6. 6. Law n. 517/1977• The Italian Parliament establishes the integration of all disabled students in regular classes, from scuola materna (preschool) to scuola media (lower secondary school) = students aged from 3 to 14 6
  7. 7. Sentence n. 515/87 of the Constitutional Court• The sentence acknowledges the right of disabled students to attend upper secondary schools (students aged from 14 to 18) 7
  8. 8. Law 104/92 “Framework Law for the Assistance, the Social Inclusion and the Rights of Disabled People”• It is the first framework law on this topic• It deals with all aspects of the life of disabled people and their families (education, health and social aspects):- Assessment of a handicap- Prevention and early diagnosis- Treatment and rehabilitation- Social inclusion- Right to education and training- Labour market integration- …. 8
  9. 9. Law n. 68/99• It’s a quite innovative law which guarantees the right of disabled young adults to have access to work 9
  10. 10. -II - SOME CONSIDERATIONS:• The idea of including all individuals (regardless of their personal situation) in what is commonly called “NORMALITY” is no doubt part of our culture and tradition;• This same culture /tradition led us to close, back in the 70’s, psychiatric asylums, foundling institutions for orphan and deserted children and special schools• This same culture / tradition has been promoting the inclusion of foreign students into regular schools/classes 10
  11. 11. • NORMALITY is therefore the main feature of our education and social experience• Working and focusing on NORMALITY doesn’t mean at all to forget special needs• On the contrary, by acknowledging all young learners’ special needs• and by getting over the dichotomy that opposes what is normal to what is special … 11
  12. 12. …our goal is to build… A SPECIAL NORMALITY that students can live and perceive asA NORMAL NORMALITY 12
  13. 13. Growing up in a “special normality” that isaccepted as a “NORMAL NORMALITY” isvery important not just for disabled students but for ALL STUDENTS WHY? Because it gets children (and adults) used toan open, supportive and caring society 13
  14. 14. - III - RESULTS• In spite of the problems that we had to face and are still facing (organization, training, economic issues), the outcomes of our 30+ years’ integration policies are extremely positive and they have been acknowledged by all governments, regardless of their party label 14
  15. 15. 4 EXAMPLES:1) An international psychological survey hasshown that the IQ (Intelligent Quotient) ofstudents affected by Down’s Syndromeintegrated in regular classes in Italy is 25-30%higher than students affected by Down’sSyndrome and attending special schools inGermany and Belgium: A NORMAL NORMALITY SEEMS TO HAVE A THERAPEUTIC EFFECT ON STUDENTS’ INTELLIGENCE! 15
  16. 16. 2) A research carried out by the EuropeanAgency for Development in Special NeedsEducation proved that integrating disabledstudents in regular schools is less expensivethan keeping them in special schools: A NORMAL NORMALITY IS LESS COSTLY THAN A SPECIAL SPECIALITY WHICH KEEPS OPPOSING WHAT IS NORMAL TO WHAT IS SPECIAL 16
  17. 17. 3) In Emilia Romagna more than 60% ofdisabled students finish the upper secondaryschool by obtaining either a regular highschool leaving qualification (what we call“maturità”) or a certificate identifying thespecific skills and abilities reached: IN A NORMAL NORMALITYDISABLED STUDENTS CAN FOLLOWA REGULAR EDUCATION PATHWAY FROM THE BEGINNING TO THE END 17
  18. 18. 4)Lots of disabled students find a “normal” job after leaving high school: A NORMAL NORMALITY PROMOTES WORK INTEGRATION OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES 18
  19. 19. - IV - FACTORS PROMOTING SCHOOL INTEGRATION1) LESS STUDENTS PER CLASSWe try to keep the number of studentsreasonably low (20-25 rather than 25-28),which makes it a bit easier to think of apersonalized teaching methodology 19
  20. 20. 2) LEARNING SUPPORT TEACHERSLearning support teachers are there for the wholeclass group, not just for the disabled students, andthey work together with the other teachers of theclass.Therefore, all teachers have didactic responsibility,including learning support teachers.Learning support teachers help to define apersonalized methodology for disabled students, butthey also have a core role as far as the cooperationbetween all students and teachers is concerned. 20
  21. 21. 3) PERSONALIZED PROGRAM (what we callPEI = Piano Educativo Individualizzato)Each disabled student has the right to a personalizedprogram (PEI).The PEI is (re-)defined every year by the school andthe social services, and accepted by the family.The curriculum that disabled students follow is theregular one, with some adjustments.At the upper secondary school (students aged from 14to 18) the curriculum may differ for disabled studentsaffected by serious diseases. 21
  22. 22. 4) MORE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATORSWhen the situation is particularly serious,more professional educators work with thedisabled students to help them reach a level ofpersonal autonomyIn upper secondary schools we often haveuniversity students acting as “tutors”, whilecaretakers (school staff) help students in thedifferent daily situations and needs (toilet,meals, etc) 22
  23. 23. 5) COUNSELLING AND TRANSITION TO ADULT LIFE Particular assistance is granted to disabled students during the transition from Scuola Media to Scuola Superiore (from lower to upper secondary school) and from Scuola Superiore (upper secondary school) to adult life 23
  24. 24. 6) LOCAL COOPERATION Social services, local councils, schools and families work together to define the most suitable integration pathway. In each one of the 9 provinces of the region there is a public structure having a coordinating, promoting and assessing role 24
  25. 25. 7) BROAD USE OF TECHNOLOGY The use of assistive technology for disabled students has developed and increased over the last years. In Emilia Romagna we have research centres specialized in producing assistive technology for schools. 25
  26. 26. -V - DISABLED STUDENTS: WHO ARE THEY?• This terminology question is not a minor detail, as there are different interpretations Europe-wide• The definition we use refers to the ICD10 (International Classification of Diseases – 10th version) by the World Health Organization (WHO) BUT… 26
  27. 27. • ... Our diagnosis are carried out by using a new and different tool called ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health).• The main difference is that the assessment carried out takes into consideration not just the medical/clinical aspects but also the bio- psycho-social aspects.• In one word, we can definitely say that this new approach is HOLISTIC 27
  28. 28. -VI - TWO OUTSTANDING OUTCOMES IN EMILIA ROMAGNA• 1) In Emilia Romagna most deaf students don’t have to pay for their cochlear implant and quite relvant didactic rehabilitation experiences are carried out with these students after surgery• 2) Emilia Romagna is very well known for the quality of the services provided to disabled students, which is the reason why many families with disabled children decide to move here 28
  29. 29. -VII - CRITICAL ISSUES• Class sizes• Teacher training• Teamwork at times missing in lower and upper secondary schools, where support teachers are too often the only one who work with disabled students• Most disabled students attend vocational secondary schools because our Licei are often less prepared to integrate and include them in their classes• Severe disabilities 29

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