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Ego defense mechanisms


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Ego defense mechanisms

  2. 2. DEFINITION<br /><ul><li>Defense mechanisms are defined as unconsciouspsychological strategies brought into play by various entities to cope with reality and to maintain self-image.
  3. 3. purpose of the Ego Defense Mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety.</li></li></ul><li>HISTORY<br />Sigmund Freud<br /><ul><li>Founder of psychoanalysis.
  4. 4. Theory of Psychosexual Development
  5. 5. The Id, Ego, and Superego
  6. 6. Dream interpretation.
  7. 7. Free association</li></ul>Anna freud<br /><ul><li>Child psychonalysis
  8. 8. Clear explanations of defense mechanism
  9. 9. concept of signal anxiety</li></li></ul><li>Otto F. Kernberg -theory of borderline personality organization ,based on ego psychological object relations theory.<br />Robert Plutchik-defenses as derivatives of basic emotions.<br />George EmanVaillant-a continuum related to their psychoanalytical developmental level<br />
  10. 10. Structural model of mind<br />
  11. 11. THE ID<br /><ul><li>Reservoir Of Unorganized Instinctual Drives
  12. 12. Based On The Pleasure Principle
  13. 13. Unconscious Primary Process
  14. 14. No Logic And No Time Line</li></li></ul><li>SUPER EGO<br /><ul><li>Internalized Societal And Parental Standards
  15. 15. Predominantly Unconscious
  16. 16. The Conscience
  17. 17. The Ego Ideal
  18. 18. Children Internalize Parental Values And Standards At About The Age Of 5-6 Yrs</li></li></ul><li>EGO<br /><ul><li>The Moderator Between The Id And Superego
  19. 19. Sense Of Time And Place
  20. 20. Based on reality principle
  21. 21. Predominantly Conscious ,Some part Is Unconscious
  22. 22. Defense Mechanisms Reside In The Unconscious Domain Of Ego.</li></li></ul><li>
  23. 23. CLASSIFICATION(vaillant’s)<br />Pathological/NarcisticDefenses<br /><ul><li>Denial
  24. 24. Distortion
  25. 25. Projection
  26. 26. Regression</li></li></ul><li>IMMATURE DEFENCES <br /><ul><li>Acting out
  27. 27. Hypochondriasis
  28. 28. Introjections
  29. 29. Passive aggressive behavior
  30. 30. Regression
  31. 31. Schizoid fantasy
  32. 32. Somatization</li></li></ul><li>NEUROTIC DEFENCES <br /><ul><li>Intellectualization
  33. 33. Reaction Formation
  34. 34. Dissociation
  35. 35. Displacement
  36. 36. Repression
  37. 37. Externalization
  38. 38. Inhibition
  39. 39. Isolation
  40. 40. Rationalization
  41. 41. Sexualization
  42. 42. Compensation
  43. 43. Splitting</li></li></ul><li>MATURE DEFENCES <br /><ul><li>Humour
  44. 44. Sublimation
  45. 45. Suppression
  46. 46. Altruism
  47. 47. Anticipation
  48. 48. Asceticism</li></li></ul><li>DENIAL<br /><ul><li>Involuntary exclusion of unpleasant or painful reality from conscious awareness
  49. 49. Postulated by sigmundfreud
  50. 50. Simple denial - deny the reality of the unpleasant fact altogether
  51. 51. Minimization- admit the fact but deny its seriousness
  52. 52. Projection - admit both the fact and seriousness but deny responsibility</li></li></ul><li>Example in normals<br /><ul><li>Grief
  53. 53. Children of 3-6 yrs</li></ul>Clinical illustration<br /><ul><li>Terminal illness
  54. 54. Addiction</li></li></ul><li>TYPES OF DENIAL<br /><ul><li>Denial of fact
  55. 55. Denial of responsibility
  56. 56. Denial of impact
  57. 57. Denial of awareness
  58. 58. Denial of cycle
  59. 59. Denial of denial</li></li></ul><li>DISTORTION<br /><ul><li>Grossly reshaping external reality to suit inner needs</li></ul>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Hallucinations
  60. 60. Delusions especially grandiose</li></li></ul><li>PROJECTION<br /><ul><li>Perceiving and reacting to unacceptable inner impulses and their derivatives as though they were outside the self
  61. 61. Freudian Projection
  62. 62. projective identification -connection of the self with that projected impulse continues.
  63. 63. Examlple-Blaming
  64. 64. Clinical-Delusions and halluciations
  65. 65. Paranoid personality
  66. 66. Projective Techniques-Rorschach ink-blots&TAT</li></li></ul><li>Acting out<br /><ul><li>Expression of an unconscious impulses through actions ,thereby gratifying the impulses rather than prohibiting it
  67. 67. Usually anti-social ,addiction form</li></ul>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Temper tantrums
  68. 68. Rebellious behaviors</li></li></ul><li>INTROJECTION<br /><ul><li>Unconscious internalization of the qualities of an object or person
  69. 69. When used as a defense, it can obliterate the distinction between the subject and the object
  70. 70. Classic example is identification with the aggressor
  71. 71. Stockholm syndrome</li></ul>Clinical illustration<br /><ul><li>Depression</li></li></ul><li>Passive aggression<br />Hypochondriasis<br /><ul><li>Expressing aggression towards others indirectly through passivity ,masochism and turning against the self
  72. 72. Manifestation -failure,procrastination,illness that affect others
  73. 73. Exaggerating and overemphasizing an illness for the purpose of evasion and regression
  74. 74. responsibility can be avoided ,guilt may be circumvented,and instinctual impulse are warded off </li></li></ul><li>REGRESSION<br /><ul><li>Attempting to return to an earlier libidinal phase of functioning to avoid the tension and conflict evoked at the present level of development
  75. 75. Temporary reversion of the ego to an earlier stage
  76. 76. Essential for relaxation, sleep, and orgasm</li></li></ul><li>Example in normals:<br /><ul><li>Dreams
  77. 77. Adult with tember tantrum</li></ul>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Neurosis-mild regression
  78. 78. Psychosis-more pervasive regression
  79. 79. Severe and prolonged physical illness</li></li></ul><li>SCHIZOID FANTASY<br /><ul><li>Withdrawal in to self to resolve conflict and gratify frustrated wishes.
  80. 80. Conscious and unconscious
  81. 81. Something which is not real, or cannot be real</li></ul>Example in normals:<br /><ul><li>Seen in adolescence as wish fulfilling daydreams
  82. 82. Strip-tease shows, or by day-dreaming over pornographic material</li></ul>Clinical illustrarion:<br /><ul><li>Schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder
  83. 83. Narcissistic personality disorder</li></li></ul><li>Somatization<br /><ul><li>Converting psychic derivatives in to bodily symptoms and tending to react with somatic rather than psychic manifestation
  84. 84. Unconscious rechannelling of repressed emotions into somatic symptoms</li></li></ul><li>REACTION FORMATION<br /><ul><li>Transforming an unacceptable impulse into its opposite
  85. 85. Where reaction-formation takes place, it is usually assumed that the original, rejected impulse does not vanish, but persists, unconscious, in its original infantile form</li></ul>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Obsessional character
  86. 86. Phobia</li></li></ul><li>REPRESSION<br /><ul><li>Expelling or withholding an idea or feeling from consciousness</li></ul>Primary repression<br /><ul><li>Refers to the curbing/crushing of ideas and feelings before they have attained consciousness</li></ul>Secondary repression<br /><ul><li>Excludes from awareness what was once experienced at a conscious level
  87. 87. Suppression differs-at conscious level</li></li></ul><li>Example in normals:<br /><ul><li>Forgetting
  88. 88. Slip of tongue</li></ul>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Psychogenic amnesia
  89. 89. Post traumatic stress disorder</li></li></ul><li>RATIONALIZATION<br /><ul><li>Offering rational explanations in an attempt to justify attitudes, beliefs, or behavior that may otherwise be unacceptable
  90. 90. Ernest jones-contributed the term "rationalization" to psychoanalysis
  91. 91. Simply speaking providing logical explanations for irrational behavior motivated by unacceptable wishes.
  92. 92. Fully conscious to mostly subconscious </li></li></ul><li>Rationalization is very common amongst the <br />medical profession in covering up medical errors. <br />Common excuses made are:<br /><ul><li>"Why disclose the error? The patient was going to die anyway"
  93. 93. "Telling the family about the error will only make them feel worse"
  94. 94. "It was the patient's fault, if he wasn't so (obese, sick etc), this error wouldn't have caused so much harm"
  95. 95. "Well, we did our best. These things happen"</li></li></ul><li>DISPLACEMENT<br /><ul><li>Shifting an emotion or drive cathexis from one idea or object to another that resembles the original in some aspect or quality
  96. 96. Can act in a chain-reaction</li></ul>Example in normals:<br /><ul><li>Some people punch cushions when they are angry at friends
  97. 97. A college student may snap at his or her roommate when upset about an exam grade.</li></ul>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Phobias in children
  98. 98. Obsessive and compulsive disorder</li></li></ul><li>DISSOCIATION<br /><ul><li>Involuntary splitting or suppression of mental function from rest of the personality in a manner that allows expression of forbidden unconscious impulses without having any sense of responsibility for actions</li></ul>Example in normals:<br /><ul><li>Near death experience
  99. 99. Dissociation can be a response to trauma or drugs</li></li></ul><li>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Dissociative amnesia
  100. 100. Dissociative fuge
  101. 101. Multiple personality disorder
  102. 102. Somnambulism
  103. 103. Possession attack
  104. 104. post-traumatic stress disorder</li></li></ul><li>INTELLECTUALIZATION<br /><ul><li>Excessively using intellectual processes to avoid affective expressions or experiences.
  105. 105. One of freud's original defense mechanisms
  106. 106. Intellectualization may accompany, but differs from rationalization, which is justification of irrational behavior through cliches, stories, and pat explanation.</li></li></ul><li>UNDOING<br /><ul><li>Unconsciously motivated acts which symbolically counter act unacceptable thoughts ,impulses or acts</li></ul> Example in normals:<br /><ul><li>After thinking about being violent with someone, one would then be overly nice or accommodating to them.
  107. 107. Automatically saying “i am sorry”on bumping into somebody</li></ul>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Compulsive act in OCD</li></li></ul><li>SEXUALIZATION<br /><ul><li>Endowing an object or function with sexual significance that it didn’t previously have or possessed to a smaller degree to ward off anxieties associated wiyh prohibited impulses or their derivatives</li></li></ul><li>EXTERNALIZATION<br /><ul><li>Tending to perceive in the external world and in external objects elements of ones own personality,including instinctual impulses ,conflicts ,moods,attitudes and style of thinkin.It is more general term than projection.
  108. 108. More general term than projection</li></ul>Example in normals:<br /><ul><li>A patient who is overly argumentative might instead perceive others as argumentative and himself as blameless.</li></ul>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Neurosis</li></li></ul><li>INHIBITION<br /><ul><li>Involuntary decrease or loss of motivation to engage in some goal directed activity to prevent anxiety arising out of conflicts with unacceptable impulses</li></ul>Example in normals:<br /><ul><li>Writing blocks or work bloks
  109. 109. Social shyness</li></ul>Clinical illustration-OCD &Phobias<br />
  110. 110. ISOLATION<br /><ul><li>Splitting or separating an idea from the affect that accompanies it, thus allowing only the idea but not the associated affect to enter the awareness </li></ul>Example in normals:<br /><ul><li>Grief
  111. 111. Ability to explain traumatic events without the associated disturbing emotions,with passage of time</li></ul>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Obsessional thoughts</li></li></ul><li>COMPENSATION<br /><ul><li>Unconscious tendency to deal with a fear or conflict by unusual degree of effort in the opposite direction</li></ul>Example:<br /><ul><li>Involvement in dare devil activities like sky diving to counter fear of heights
  112. 112. Excessive preoccupation with body building to counter feeling of inferiority</li></ul>Clinical illustrations:<br /><ul><li>Nymphomania –to counter a sense of sexual inadequacy
  113. 113. Keeping excessive details in a diary in patients with dementia</li></li></ul><li>SPLITTING<br /><ul><li>Viewing of self or others as either good or bad without considering the whole range of qualities</li></ul>Example:<br /><ul><li>Seeing all people without mustache as feminine
  114. 114. Believing personalities as the hero is all good and the villain all bad</li></ul>Clinical illustration:<br /><ul><li>Borderline personality disorder</li></li></ul><li>ALTRUISM<br /><ul><li>Using constructive and instinctually gratifying service to others to undergo a vicarious experience.
  115. 115. It is a selfless concern
  116. 116. Core aspect of various religious traditions for the welfare of others
  117. 117. Opposite of selfishness</li></li></ul><li>ANTICIPATION<br /><ul><li>Realistic thinking and planning about future unpleasurable events.
  118. 118. It is goal directed and implies careful planning or worrying ,premature but realistic affective anticipation of potentially dreadful outcome</li></ul>HUMOUR<br /><ul><li>Overt expression of unacceptable impulses by using humor in a manner ,which doesnot produce unpleasentnessinself or others</li></li></ul><li>SUBLIMATION<br /><ul><li>Achieving impulse gratification and retention of goals,but altering a socially objectionable aim or object to a socially acceptable one
  119. 119. It is nothing but channelizing rather than blocking or diverting a unacceptable infantile or impulse into personally satisfying and socially valuable behavior pattern
  120. 120. Most productive
  121. 121. Channelization of sexual aggressive impulse into creative activities like diverting forbidden sexual impulse into artistic paintings</li></li></ul><li>SUPPRESSION<br /><ul><li>Consciously or semiconsciously postponing attention to a conscious impulse or conflict.Suppression is the process of deliberately trying to stop thinking about certain thoughts</li></ul>Example in normals:<br /><ul><li>Voluntary decision of not to think about an argument with parents while going for an interview.
  122. 122. Clinical-OCD</li></li></ul><li>ASCETICISM<br /><ul><li>Eliminating the pleasurable effects of experiences and assigning moral values to specific pleasures.Gratification is derived from renunciation</li></li></ul><li>Defense mechanisms in substance abuse<br /><ul><li>Denial
  123. 123. Isolation
  124. 124. Rationalization
  125. 125. Blaming
  126. 126. Projection
  127. 127. Minimizing</li></li></ul><li>Some defence mechanisms that are common in OCD<br /><ul><li>Undoing
  128. 128. Reaction Formation
  129. 129. Isolation</li></li></ul><li>THANK YOU<br />