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  1. 1. Information Management SoftwareInformation Management SoftwareTGMC Technical SessionBringing it All Together! ·Click to add text © 2011 IBM Corporation
  2. 2. Agenda • SRS Session • Resources available in TGMC DVD kit • Installation of all softwares • Small Application development © 2011 IBM Corporation
  3. 3. SRS Session • SRS Format • Structural Diagrams • Class Diagram • Behavioral Diagrams • Sequence diagram • Use case model • Activity diagram • Database Diagrams • ER diagram • Schema diagram © 2011 IBM Corporation
  4. 4. SRS Session • Tools and Technologies • Sample SRS © 2011 IBM Corporation
  5. 5. Classes A class is a description of a set of ClassName objects that share the same attributes, operations, relationships, and semantics. attributes Graphically, a class is rendered as a rectangle, usually including its name, operations attributes, and operations in separate, designated compartments. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  6. 6. Class Names The name of the class is the only required ClassName tag in the graphical representation of a class. It always appears in the top-most attributes compartment. operations © 2011 IBM Corporation
  7. 7. Class Attributes Personname : String An attribute is a named property of aaddress : Address class that describes the object being modeled.birthdate : Date In the class diagram, attributes appear inssn : Id the second compartment just below the name-compartment. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  8. 8. Class Attributes (Cont’d) Attributes are usually listed in the form: Person attributeName : Typename : String A derived attribute is one that can beaddress : Address computed from other attributes, butbirthdate : Date doesn’t actually exist. For example,/ age : Date a Person’s age can be computed fromssn : Id his birth date. A derived attribute is designated by a preceding ‘/’ as in: / age : Date © 2011 IBM Corporation
  9. 9. Class Attributes (Cont’d) Person Attributes can be:+ name : String + public# address : Address # protected# birthdate : Date - private/ age : Date / derived- ssn : Id © 2011 IBM Corporation
  10. 10. Class Operations Personname : Stringaddress : Addressbirthdate : Datessn : Id eat Operations describe the class behavior sleep and appear in the third compartment. work play © 2011 IBM Corporation
  11. 11. Class Operations (Cont’d) PhoneBooknewEntry (n : Name, a : Address, p : PhoneNumber, d : Description)getPhone ( n : Name, a : Address) : PhoneNumberYou can specify an operation by stating its signature: listing thename, type, and default value of all parameters, and, in the case offunctions, a return type. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  12. 12. Depicting ClassesWhen drawing a class, you needn’t show attributes and operationin every diagram. Person Person Person name : String birthdate : Date Person ssn : Id name Person eat() address sleep() birthdate eat work() play play() © 2011 IBM Corporation
  13. 13. RelationshipsIn UML, object interconnections (logical or physical), aremodeled as relationships.There are three kinds of relationships in UML: • dependencies • generalizations • associations © 2011 IBM Corporation
  14. 14. Dependency RelationshipsA dependency indicates a semantic relationship between two ormore elements. The dependency from CourseSchedule toCourse exists because Course is used in both the add andremove operations of CourseSchedule. CourseSchedule Course add(c : Course) remove(c : Course) © 2011 IBM Corporation
  15. 15. Generalization Relationships Person A generalization connects a subclass to its superclass. It denotes an inheritance of attributes and behavior from the superclass to the subclass and indicates a specialization in the subclass of the more general superclass. Student © 2011 IBM Corporation
  16. 16. Generalization Relationships (Cont’d) UML permits a class to inherit from multiple superclasses, although some programming languages (e.g., Java) do not permit multiple inheritance. Student Employee TeachingAssistant © 2011 IBM Corporation
  17. 17. Association RelationshipsIf two classes in a model need to communicate with each other,there must be link between them.An association denotes that link. Student Instructor © 2011 IBM Corporation
  18. 18. Association Relationships (Cont’d)We can indicate the multiplicity of an association by addingmultiplicity adornments to the line denoting the association.The example indicates that a Student has one or moreInstructors: Student Instructor 1..* © 2011 IBM Corporation
  19. 19. Association Relationships (Cont’d)The example indicates that every Instructor has one or moreStudents: Student Instructor 1..* © 2011 IBM Corporation
  20. 20. Association Relationships (Cont’d)We can also indicate the behavior of an object in an association(i.e., the role of an object) using rolenames. teaches learns from Student Instructor 1..* 1..* © 2011 IBM Corporation
  21. 21. Association Relationships (Cont’d) We can also name the association. membership Student Team 1..* 1..* © 2011 IBM Corporation
  22. 22. Association Relationships (Cont’d) We can specify dual associations. member of 1..* 1..* Student Team 1 president of 1..* © 2011 IBM Corporation
  23. 23. Interfaces An interface is a named set of operations that specifies the behavior <<interface>> of objects without showing their inner ControlPanel structure. It can be rendered in the model by a one- or two-compartment rectangle, with the stereotype <<interface>> above the interface name. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  24. 24. Interface Services <<interface>> They specify the services offered ControlPanel by a related class.getChoices : Choice[]makeChoice (c : Choice)getSelection : Selection © 2011 IBM Corporation
  25. 25. Interface Realization Relationship A realization relationship <<interface>> connects a class with an ControlPanel interface that supplies its specifier behavioral specification. It is rendered by a dashed line with a hollow triangle towards the specifier. implementation VendingMachine © 2011 IBM Corporation
  26. 26. Enumeration<<enumeration>> An enumeration is a user-defined Boolean data type that consists of a name and false an ordered list of enumeration true literals. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  27. 27. Exceptions <<exception>> Exceptions can be modeled Exception just like any other class. getMessage() Notice the <<exception>> printStackTrace() stereotype in the name compartment. <<exception>> <<exception>> KeyException SQLException © 2011 IBM Corporation
  28. 28. Use Case“A use case specifies the behavior of a system or a part of asystem, and is a description of a set of sequences of actions,including variants, that a system performs to yield an observableresult of value to an actor.”- The UML User Guide, [Booch,99]“An actor is an idealization of an external person, process, orthing interacting with a system, subsystem, or class. An actorcharacterizes the interactions that outside users may have withthe system.”- The UML Reference Manual, [Rumbaugh,99] © 2011 IBM Corporation
  29. 29. Use Case (Cont’d) A use case is rendered as an ellipse Register for Courses in a use case diagram. A use case is always labeled with its name. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  30. 30. Use Case (Cont’d) An actor is rendered as a stick figure in a use case diagram. Each actor participates in one or more use cases. Student © 2011 IBM Corporation
  31. 31. Use Case (Cont’d)Actors can participate in a generalization relation with otheractors. Student Person © 2011 IBM Corporation
  32. 32. Use Case (Cont’d) Actors may be connected to use cases only by associations. Register for Courses Student © 2011 IBM Corporation
  33. 33. Use Case (Cont’d)Here we have a Student interacting with the Registrar and theBilling System via a “Register for Courses” use case. Billing System Student Register for Courses Registrar © 2011 IBM Corporation
  34. 34. State MachineAn object must be in some specific state at any given time duringits lifecycle. An object transitions from one state to another as theresult of some event that affects it. You may create a statediagram for any class, collaboration, operation, or use case in aUML model .There can be only one start state in a state diagram, but there maybe many intermediate and final states. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  35. 35. State Machine download course offerings downloadingunscheduled make a course selection selecting make a different selection verify selection verifying select another course check schedule sign schedule checking schedulescheduled © 2011 IBM Corporation
  36. 36. Sequence DiagramA sequence diagram is an interaction diagram that emphasizesthe time ordering of messages. It shows a set of objects and themessages sent and received by those objects.- The UML User Guide, [Booch,99] © 2011 IBM Corporation
  37. 37. Sequence Diagraman Order Line An object in a sequence diagram is rendered as a box with a dashed line descending from it. The line is called the object lifeline, and it represents the existence of an object over a period of time. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  38. 38. Sequence Diagraman Order Line a Stock Item Messages are rendered as horizontal check() arrows being passed from object to [check = “true”] object as time advances down the remove() object lifelines. Conditions ( such as [check = “true”] ) indicate when a message gets passed. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  39. 39. Sequence Diagraman Order Line a Stock Item check() [check = “true”] Notice that the bottom arrow is different. remove() The arrow head is not solid, and there is no accompanying message. This arrow indicates a return from a previous message, not a new message. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  40. 40. Sequence Diagram an Order a Order Line * prepare() An iteration marker, such as * (as shown), or *[i = 1..n] , indicates that a message will be repeated as Iteration indicated. marker © 2011 IBM Corporation
  41. 41. an Order Entry window an Order an Order Line a Stock Item [Fowler,97] prepare() Condition * prepare()Object check() Message [check = “true”] remove() needsToReorder() Iteration Self-Delegation Return [needsToReorder = “true”] new A Reorder Item [check = “true”] A Delivery new Item Creation © 2011 IBM Corporation
  42. 42. Sequence Diagram – Compilation :Compiler Linker FileSystem Actor Compile Load Files Compile files Save OBJ Files Link Load OBJ files Link OBJ files Write EXE file 42 © 2011 IBM Corporation
  43. 43. Alternative Flow: flow changes to alternative lifeline branchof the same object Editor FileSystem Actor Exit App [delete file] [save file] 43 © 2011 IBM Corporation
  44. 44. Activity DiagramAn activity diagram is essentially a flowchart, showing theflow of control from activity to activity.Use activity diagrams to specify, construct, and document thedynamics of a society of objects, or to model the flow ofcontrol of an operation. Whereas interaction diagramsemphasize the flow of control from object to object, activitydiagrams emphasize the flow of control from activity toactivity. An activity is an ongoing non-atomic executionwithin a state machine.- The UML User Guide, [Booch,99] © 2011 IBM Corporation
  45. 45. Receive Order [Fowler,97] Multiple Trigger for each line * item on order Check Cancel Authorize Line Order Payment [failed] Item [succeeded] [in stock] Assign to OrderSynchronization Condition [need to reorder] Reorder Item [stock assigned to all line items and payment authorized] Dispatch Order © 2011 IBM Corporation
  46. 46. Database Diagrams © 2011 IBM Corporation
  47. 47. Introduction• Entity Relationship Modeling (ERM) • a technique used to analyze & model the data in organizations using an Entity Relationship (E-R) diagram. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  48. 48. Definitions• Entity • an aggregation of a number of data elements • each data element is an attribute of the entity• Entity type • a class of entities with the same attributes• Relationship • an association between two or more entities that is of particular interest © 2011 IBM Corporation
  49. 49. ERD Development Process• Identify the entities• Determine the attributes for each entity• Select the primary key for each entity• Establish the relationships between the entities• Draw an entity model• Test the relationships and the keys © 2011 IBM Corporation
  50. 50. A Simple Example• STUDENTs attend COURSEs that consist of many SUBJECTs.• A single SUBJECT (i.e. English) can be studied in many different COURSEs.• Each STUDENT may only attend one COURSE. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  51. 51. Identify the entities Any entity can be classified in one of the following categories:• Regular : • any physical object, event, or abstract concept that we can record facts about.• Weak : • any entity that depends on another entity for its existence. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  52. 52. Determine the Attributes• Every Entity has attributes.• Attributes are characteristics that allow us to classify/describe an entity• e.g., entity STUDENT has the attributes: • student number • name • date of birth • course number © 2011 IBM Corporation
  53. 53. Key Attributes• Certain attributes identify particular facts within an entity, these are known as KEY attributes.• The different types of KEY attribute are: • Primary Key • Composite Primary Key • Foreign Key © 2011 IBM Corporation
  54. 54. Key Definitions• Primary Key: • One attribute whose value can uniquely identify a complete record (one row of data) within an entity.• Composite Primary Key • A primary key that consists of two or more attribute within an entity.• Foreign Key • A copy of a primary key that exists in another entity for the purpose of forming a relationship between the entities involved. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  55. 55. ER Diagram Components Every entity diagram consists of the following components: Entity (labelled box) Course Relationship line © 2011 IBM Corporation
  56. 56. Degrees of a Relationship One-to-one (1:1) 1 1 Man Woman One-to-many (1:n) 1 M Customer Order Many-to-many (n:m) M M Course Subject NOTE: Every many to many relationship consists of two one to many relationships working in opposite directions © 2011 IBM Corporation
  57. 57. Degrees of relationship, alternativerepresentation One-to-one (1:1) Man Woman One-to-many (1:n) Customer Order Many-to-many (n:m) Course SubjectNOTE: Every many to many relationship consists of two one to many relationships working in opposite directions © 2011 IBM Corporation
  58. 58. Notation for optional attributes 1 M Person Car A person must own at least one car. A car doesn’t have to be owned by a person, but if it is, it is owned 1 at least one person. A by person may own many cars. optional relationship mandatory relationship © 2011 IBM Corporation
  59. 59. A Sample ER Diagram Student Course Subject A Student Record Entity Diagram © 2011 IBM Corporation
  60. 60. Summary of ER Diagram Designing Identify the entities Determine the attributes for each entity Select the primary key for each entity Establish the relationships between the entities Draw an entity model © 2011 IBM Corporation
  61. 61. Tools and Technologies• See Technical Resources page on TGMC website © 2011 IBM Corporation
  62. 62. Best of LuckFor TGMC contest and Technical queries: SRS submission: Save your SRS in PDF format. © 2011 IBM Corporation
  63. 63. Best of Luck• Ask your faculty mentor to register at • • For all the softwares and e-Books download © 2011 IBM Corporation