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Mel Silberman Active Training; part 3

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  1. 1. Conducting an Active Training Program Part III 1
  2. 2. What do top-notch trainers do? Involve participants in an activity in the first five minutes. Frequently check for understanding. Modify plans based on participant feedback. Use self-disclosure and humor to develop an open climate. 2
  3. 3. What do top-notch trainers do? Listen carefully and match what’s happening to the needs of the participants. Use a wide variety of learning methods. Give participants the “what-why-how” for every training activity. Review where the group has been, give an overview of where it’s going, and summarize periodically along the way. 3
  4. 4. The delivery phase of a trainingprogram is a period of continually Adjusting Refining Redesigning 4
  5. 5. Leading Them Your credibility as a leader depends on your ability to set: • Group norms • Eliminate training time wasters • Get the group’s attention • Win over wary participants • Manage difficult behaviors 5
  6. 6. Different Roles as a Trainer As a Stimulator, you give presentations and lead discussions. As a Facilitator, you guide participants through structured (and often team-based) activities. 6
  7. 7. Your Success Will Depend Upon How well you present information Lead discussions Direct participants through exercises Make effective transitions from one event in the program to another. 7
  8. 8. Concluding a Training Program Review the program Handle remaining questions Guide back-on-the-job application Evaluate training results 8
  9. 9. Beginning an Active Training Program Ch.11 9
  10. 10. Preparing Yourself Mentally Typical preparations include determining the date and time for the course. Reproducing manuals and course materials. Arranging for room space and AV equipment. Confirming course attendance. 10
  11. 11. Preparing Yourself Mentally Make the effort to connect with participants before you begin. • This will reduce your tension and build your confidence. • The purpose of their coming to training is not so that they can be impressed by you; it is so they may take something back with them when they leave. 11
  12. 12. Preparing Yourself Mentally How do you handle questions when you don’t know the answer? Have a backup exercise if a planned activity does not fit the characteristics of your current training group. 12
  13. 13. Preventing Trainer Burnout Tell yourself to focus on the participants and not myself. Try to find as many opportunities as possible for them to contribute to the discussion. Vary the location and the environment 13
  14. 14. Preventing Trainer Burnout Be flexible with your lesson plans and designs by trying out new delivery techniques and styles. Watch others train the same program. Take time to pick up new delivery techniques and styles. 14
  15. 15. Arranging the Physical Environment Horseshoe arrangement Circle or Square for full-group discussion 15
  16. 16. Typical Classroom Arrangement 16
  17. 17. U-Shape Arrangement 17
  18. 18. Setting Up Subgroups 18
  19. 19. Fishbowl Design 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Greeting Participants and Establishing Rapport Be available and ready to greet participants at least 15 minutes prior to the start of the program. Walk around casually as people enter. Make eye contact, and try to shake hands as participants make themselves comfortable with the training environment. Learn as many names as you can. 21
  22. 22. Greeting Participants and Establishing Rapport “I’ve got something for you.” “I’ve been through this, too.” “I admire you.” “You interest me.” 22
  23. 23. Getting the Best From the First Minutes of Training Impatience Competence Compatibility Trust Out-of-class concerns 23
  24. 24. Reviewing the Agenda Clue the audience into what they can expect out of the training program and what detail is expected of them. Tell them how the program will be run and what you need from them in order for the program to be successful. 24
  25. 25. Inviting Feedback to the Agenda Ask, “Does this match what you hope to gain from this program? Is there anything you would like to add to the agenda?” Ask, what hopes and concerns they might have. 25
  26. 26. Gaining Leadership of the Training Group Ch.12 26
  27. 27. Overview Setting group norms Controlling timing and pacing Getting the group’s attention Increasing receptivity to your leadership Handling problem situations 27
  28. 28. Setting Group Norms Encourage participants to express themselves honestly. Ask that confidentiality be respected. Urge risk taking. Expect participation from everyone. Promote the value of performance feedback. 28
  29. 29. Setting Group Norms Require participants to sit in different spots. Reassure participants that their questions are welcomed. Insist on punctuality. Norm setting does not have to rely on direct verbal statements. 29
  30. 30. Controlling Timing and Pacing A leisurely pace should be considered for small group activities to allow sufficient time for each person to be heard and directly involved in the activity. A much faster pace is necessary to keep the attention of all of the participants when you are working with the whole group. 30
  31. 31. Time Waster Starting late after breaks or lunch. Starting an activity when the participants are confused about what they are supposed to do. Writing lecture points on flip charts while participants watch. Passing out participant materials individually. 31
  32. 32. Time Waster Demonstrating every part of a new skill. Having every subgroup report back to the whole group one by one. Letting discussions drag on an on. Waiting for volunteers to emerge from the group. Pulling ideas or questions from a tired or lethargic group. 32
  33. 33. Getting the Group’s Attention Flick a light switch ever so slightly Make a dramatic announcement Create a verbal wave Use clapping Play pre-recorded music 33
  34. 34. Getting the Group’s Attention Use a silent signal Use a sound signal Tell a joke Can we talk? Announce “break time” 34
  35. 35. Increasing Receptivity to YourLeadership Make “liking” statements Convey respect and appreciation Encourage disagreement Convey a desire for collaboration 35
  36. 36. Increasing Receptivity to YourLeadership Share what you have in common with participants Phrase your advice and directives indirectly State what’s positive about participants’ contrary viewpoints 36
  37. 37. Handling Problem Situations Prisoners Vacationers Managing your feelings and remaining in control are important to your overall leadership of the class A good guideline is to intervene only if the problem behavior is repetitive or affects the entire training program. 37
  38. 38. List of Some Common Behaviors YouMight Face Monopolizing Tangents Private conversations Disagreeing Distractions 38
  39. 39. List of Some Common Behaviors YouMight Face Time schedules Nonparticipation Sleeping One-upping Complaining 39
  40. 40. List of Some Common Behaviors YouMight Face Intellectualizing Withdrawing Arguing Questioning Clowning (jokes) 40
  41. 41. Giving Presentations and Leading Discussions Ch.13 41
  42. 42. Knowing Your Group What is the nature of the participants Aim your initial remarks at the immediate concerns of your listeners. Understand why you are communicating this information. Use language familiar to your listeners to establish bridges between your experiences and theirs. 42
  43. 43. Organizing Your Presentation Make sure your opening is effective. Provide a preview of information prior to an explanation. (Overview) Cover a few points of information within a step-by-step sequence. Avoid tangents and getting off track. Signal transitions between information. 43
  44. 44. Organizing Your Presentation Be as specific as possible in your lecture points. Provide for brief pauses at appropriate times during the presentation. Review or allow participants to recap information frequently. Estimate the time each part of your presentation will take. 44
  45. 45. Watching Your Body Language Establish your comfort level with the group through natural, positive body language. Individualize your audience by making eye contact with the participants. Be aware of the pace and volume of your voice as you speak. 45
  46. 46. Watching Your Body Language Alter speech habits that are annoying to your listeners. Voice Delivery Facial Expressions Posture 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. Adding Visuals Pictures are processed by the mind with very little effort. Pictures act as keys to the memory. Pictures can easily illustrate tasks that words are not suited to. Vibrant visuals provide a common focus for the audience. 48
  49. 49. Adding Visuals Visuals allow the presenter to direct the attention of the audience to his or her goals. Visuals allow the audience to pause, scan the message, linger for a moment, and then absorb the message more thoroughly. Research has shown that presenters using graphics are seen as better prepared, more professional, more persuasive, more credible, and more interesting. 49
  50. 50. Visual Types Flip charts Overheads Slides Electronic presentations Handouts 50
  51. 51. Making Smooth Transitions Involves briefly reminding the participants of what you have already covered, then indication what is to follow. • References to periods of time • Mini-subject review • Agenda check • Change of visual aid • Change of group format 51
  52. 52. Facilitating a Lively Discussion Start off the discussion with an open- ended question Open discussion Response cards Subgroup discussions Calling on the next speaker 52
  53. 53. Facilitating a Lively Discussion Polling Partners Go-arounds Games Panels Fishbowls 53
  54. 54. Point Facilitation Menu Paraphrase  Disagree Check  Mediate Compliment  Pull Elaborate  Change Energize  Summarize 54
  55. 55. Facilitating StructuredActivities & Promoting Team Learning Ch.14 55
  56. 56. Structured Activities Motivating participation Directing participants’ activities Managing the group process Keeping participants involved Processing the activity 56
  57. 57. Motivating Participation Explain your objectives Sell the benefits Convey enthusiasm 57
  58. 58. Motivating Participation Connect the activity to previous activities Share personal feelings with participants Express confidence in participants 58
  59. 59. Directing Participants’ Activities Speak slowly Use visual backup Define important terms Demonstrate the activity 59
  60. 60. Managing the Group Process Form groups in a variety of ways. Mix teams and seat partners. Vary the number of people in any activity based upon that exercise’s specific requirements. Divide participants into teams before giving further directions. 60
  61. 61. Managing the Group Process Ask groups of five or more to elect a facilitator or timekeeper. Give groups instructions separately in a multipart activity. Keep people busy. Inform the subgroups how much time they have. 61
  62. 62. Keeping Participants Involved Keep the activity moving. Challenge the participants. Reinforce participants for their involvement in the activity. Build physical movement into the activity. Let your enthusiasm show. 62
  63. 63. Processing the Activity Ask relevant questions. Carefully structure the first processing experiences. Observe how participants react during the processing. Assist a subgroup that is having trouble processing an activity. Keep your own reactions to yourself until after you’ve heard from the participants. 63
  64. 64. Team Learning Confusion Tangents Unequal participation One-way communication No division of labor Superficiality 64
  65. 65. Composing Learning Teams Random assignment Diversity Homogeneity Prior acquaintance 65
  66. 66. Building Learning Teams 1st Initial team-building activities 2nd Set expectations and ground rules 66
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. Building Learning Teams 3rd Share lists, combine ideas, and formulate a brief vision statement 4th Assign crucial jobs to be done • Facilitator • Timekeeper • Secretary/note taker • Checker • Investigator 68
  69. 69. Involving Participants in TeamLearning Study group Information search Group inquiry Jigsaw learning Learning tournament 69
  70. 70. Concluding & Evaluating an Active Training Program Ch.15 70
  71. 71. Reviewing Program Content Recall Reminisce Rehearse Reconsider 71
  72. 72. Obtaining Final Questions andConcerns Prepare a list of questions you would like the participants to take away with them. Hold a final question and answer period. Write the following on a flip chart 72
  73. 73. Obtaining Final Questions andConcerns Break participants into small groups and ask each group to record on newsprint their final questions and concerns. Hand out two index cards. Ask each participant to complete the following sentences: 73
  74. 74. Promoting Self-Assessment Ask participants to complete a questionnaire or test that provides feedback about their current functioning in areas related to the training. Design a way for fellow participants to give each other feedback and then ask them each to develop a personal profile based on the feedback they receive. 74
  75. 75. Promoting Self-Assessment Create one or more statements that assess participant change. Ask participants to write a short essay in response to the question, “How do you see yourself now as a result of this program?” At the beginning of a training session, ask participants to write down how they hope to be able to use the training on the job. 75
  76. 76. Expressing Final Sentiments Group photograph Artistic product Closing circle Web of connections Touch of humor 76
  77. 77. Evaluating the Program 77
  78. 78. Interim Feedback Post session reaction surveys Anonymous remarks Oral survey Informal interview Advisory group 78
  79. 79. Final Assessment Kirkpatrick’s 4 levels of Evaluation • Evaluate Reaction • Evaluate Learning • Evaluate Behavior • Evaluate Results 79
  80. 80. Level 1 Evaluation - Reaction What Is It? • How favorably participants react to the training (“Customer satisfaction”) • Collects reactions to instructor, course, and learning environment • Communicates to trainees that their feedback is valued • Can provide quantitative information 80
  81. 81. Level 1 Evaluation - Reaction What It Looks Like • Questionnaire - Most common collection tool • Content • Methods • Media • Trainer style • Facilities • Course materials 81
  82. 82. Level 1 Evaluation - Reaction Connection to Other Levels • The Connection - Can ask trainees if they: • Will use new skill(s) or information (Level II) • Plan to change behavior (Level III) • Expect improvements in results (Level IV) • The Disconnection - Does not: • Measure what was learned (Level II) • Guarantee behavioral change (Level III) • Quantify results from learning (Level IV) 82
  83. 83. Level 1 Evaluation - Reaction How to Perform • Determine what you want to find out • Design a form to collect/quantify reactions • Do Immediately • Develop acceptable scoring standards • Follow-up as appropriate 83
  84. 84. Level 2 Evaluation - Learning Learning - What Is It? • Knowledge • Skills • Attitudes 84
  85. 85. Level 2 Evaluation - Learning Learning: Connection to Other Levels • The Connection - People who learn can: • Experience pride (Level I) • Experiment with new behaviors (Level III) • Achieve better results (Level IV) • The Disconnection - It doesn’t ensure they: • Liked training program (Level I) • Will behave differently (Level III) • Will get expected results (Level IV) 85
  86. 86. Level 2 Evaluation - Learning Learning - What It Looks Like • Media used to measure learning: • Text • Voice • Demonstration • Methods used to measure learning: • Interviews • Surveys • Tests (pre-/post-) • Observations • Combinations 86
  87. 87. Level 2 Evaluation - Learning Learning - How to Perform • Use a control group, if feasible • Evaluate knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes before and after • Get 100% participation or use statistical sample • Follow-up as appropriate 87
  88. 88. Level 3 Evaluation - Behavior Behavior - What Is It? • Transfer of knowledge, skills, and/or attitude to the real world • Measure achievement of performance objectives 88
  89. 89. Level 3 Evaluation - Behavior Behavior - What It Looks Like • Observe performer, first-hand • Survey key people who observe performer • Use checklists, questionnaires, interviews, or combinations 89
  90. 90. Level 3 Evaluation - Behavior Behavior: Connection to Other Levels • The Connection - Can determine: • Degree to which learning transfers to the post- training environment (Level II) • The Disconnection - Cannot determine if: • Participants like the training (Level I) • Participants understand (Level II) • Behaviors accomplish results (Level IV) 90
  91. 91. Level 3 Evaluation - Behavior Behavior - How to Perform • Evaluate before and after training • Allow ample time before observing • Survey key people • Consider cost vs. benefits • 100% participation or a sampling • Repeated evaluations at appropriate intervals • Use of a control group 91
  92. 92. Level 4 Evaluation - Results Results - What Is It? • Assesses “bottom line,” final results • Definition of “results” dependent upon the goal of the training program 92
  93. 93. Level 4 Evaluation - Results Results - What It Looks Like • Depends upon objectives of training program • Quantify • Proof vs. Evidence • Proof is concrete • Evidence is soft 93
  94. 94. Level 4 Evaluation - Results Results: Connection to Other Levels • The Connection • Positive Levels 1, 2, 3 evaluations results can provide positive Level 4 evidence • The Disconnection - Does not: • Tell if participants liked training (Level I) • Prove trainees understand (Level II) • Prove use of preferred behaviors (Level III) 94
  95. 95. Level 4 Evaluation - Results Results - How to Perform • Use a control group • Allow time for results to be realized • Measure before and after the program • Consider cost versus benefits • Be satisfied with evidence when proof is not possible 95
  96. 96. Conclusion We’ve reached the end of the cafeteria line for now. 96
  97. 97. Questions? 97