Chapter 7 notes


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Chapter 7 notes

  1. 1. Chapter 7: Performance and FitnessHuman Performance: A Function of Fitness
  2. 2. Human Performance: A Function of Fitness•What 2 RESOURCES does your body require to carry out daily activities? ▫ Matter: Example:  all physical objects consist of matter.  includes atoms and other particles which have mass.  matter is organized into specific structures.
  3. 3. Human Performance: A Function of Fitness▫ Energy:  Energy is needed to organize matter and perform work.  All cells in your body require energy.  Ex. It takes energy to build/use muscle or grow flower petals.
  4. 4. Human Performance: A Function of FitnessIf all people require energy and matter, whyare some people more athletic than others? Matter in the athletic individual is organized more effectively. Ex. Their muscles are larger and stronger  carries out tasks better! Energy is supplied more effectively in the athlete…they may pump blood and exchange nutrients in their capillaries more efficiently.
  5. 5. Food: Our Bodys Source ofEnergy and Structural Material
  6. 6. Food: Our Bodys Source of Energy and Structural Material• What is food? ▫ Any substance that your body can use is a raw material to sustain its growth, repair and provide energy. WATER ▫ Food consists mostly of ________.  Each day you consume on average _______ of water. 2 Liters ▫ What major classes of nutrients is food made up of?  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Fats
  7. 7. Food: Our Bodys Source of Energy and Structural Material• What is the job of YOUR digestive system? ▫ To break down large nutrient molecules into small molecules. ▫ The molecules must be small enough to pass through your small intestines into the blood.
  8. 8. Food: Our Bodys Source of Energy and Structural Material• What are each of the following molecules broken into? ▫ Carbohydrates Simple Sugars ▫ Proteins  Amino Acids ▫ Fats  Glycerol and Fatty Acids
  9. 9. Food: Our Bodys Source of Energy and Structural Material• Why does our body need carbohydrates? ▫ Provides readily available energy. ▫ Found in bread, cereal, pasta• Why does our body need proteins? ▫ Repairs and maintains body tissue. ▫ Found in meat, milk, eggs, soy, grains, nuts, seeds, legumes.• Why does our body need fats? ▫ Make hormones, cell membranes and provide energy. ▫ Found in meat, cheese, butter, oils, sweets
  10. 10. Food: Our Bodys Source of Energy and Structural Material• What are the two other components of nutrients that make up food? ▫ Vitamins regulate cell activities. ▫ Essential Elements  help maintain homeostasis.
  11. 11. Pioneers: The Changing face ofthe Food Guide Pyramid
  12. 12. Food Guide Pyramid• What is the difference between a serving size and a helping? ▫ Serving Size= the amount that has been analyzed for nutritional value. ▫ Helping= the amount you choose to consume!• How is the Food Guide Pyramid changing? ▫ To meet the needs of our culturally diverse population.
  13. 13. Mouth: 1) Teeth (mechanical)-grind 2) Salivary Glands (chemical) ▫ soften & secrete salivary amylase that begins to break down starch to disaccharides. 3) Epiglottis: ▫ flap that blocks trachea to prevent food and water from entering.
  14. 14. Esophagus: • Made of muscle. • Moves food by means of peristalsis (muscle contractions)Stomach: a) Mechanical-Muscles contract to churn food b) Mucus – lubricates & protects stomach lining from acids and enzymes c) hydrochloric acid -activates enzymes, dissolves minerals & kills bacteria d) pepsin – breaks proteins to amino acids •
  15. 15. E) Liver – not part of digestive tract 1) store glycogen 2) detoxify substances from blood 3) secretes bile into small intestine that breaks up fat droplets. Bile is stored in gall bladder until required for digestion cirrhosis
  16. 16. F) Pancreas- ot part of digestive tract – secretes n pancreatic fluid (digestive enzymes) into small intestines and neutralizes fluids from stomach
  17. 17. 1) Trypsin proteins amino acids2) Amylase starch simple sugar3) Lipase fat fatty acid and glycerol4) Nuclease nucleic acids nucleotides
  18. 18. G) Small Intestines- receive secretions from gall bladder & pancreas to complete digestionabsorption lining has fingerlike projections called villi (increase surface area) – contain blood vessels & lymph, they absorb water & nutrients.
  19. 19. H) Large Intestines or colon- • Reabsorb water from food material Absorb vitamins produced by bacteria (E Coli in intestines ) • Eliminate feces, waste products, from anus
  20. 20. Tongue Mouth Salivary Glands Esophagus Liver Stomach Gall Bladder PancreasLarge IntestinesSmallIntestines rectum Anal Sphincter
  21. 21. Anorexia NervosaDying to be Thin
  22. 22. Anorexia NervosaAffects ___________ people (mostly teenage girls) in the United 1 millionStates.• What happens if anorexia nervosa is left untreated? ▫ Hormone levels will drop ▫ Heart muscle will become weak and thin ▫ Digestive system will malfunction ▫ Electrical activity in the brain will become abnormal ▫ Electrolyte imbalance can lead to heart failure ▫ Possible death• Why is treating Anorexia Nervosa complex? ▫ Take into account the physical, cultural and psychological self. ▫ Treatment is the MOST successful when the family is involved!!!!