SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Word order in the diachrony of Esperanto
A corpus-based study of noun-adjective collocation
Federico Gobbo
F.Gobbo@uva.nl
SEEPiCLa meeting, University of Amsterdam, 14 december 2015
1 of 62
A caveat. . .
Konstruata esplorado
Introduction: what is Esperanto?
3 of 62
The priority of orality in natural languages
[although] no human society [has been] known to exist or to
have existed at any time in the past without capacity of speech
[. . . ] the vast majority of societies have, until recently, been
either totally or very largely illiterate.
Lyons (1981:12-13)
This universal property of natural languages has two exceptions: sign
languages and planned languages.
4 of 62
What is a planned language?
Languages can be planned from scratch if someone decided to do so,
writing the (normative) grammar, setting up the (basic) lexicon and
giving some texts in the language.
You can always identify double articulation (phonetic space +
morphosyntactic level) in a planned language – they are languages
for human beings.
Often the language planner acts alone, rarely in committees or groups
– but always with a clear leader, that is called the language planner.
5 of 62
For planned languages orality is a challenge
..
graphisation
.
natural languages
.
orality
.
planned languages
Few planned languages are used orally by a community of practice
6 of 62
Community of practice: a sociolinguistic definition
The value of the notion ‘communities of practice’ to
Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology lies in the fact that
it identifies a social grouping not in virtue of shared abstract
characteristics (e.g. class, gender) or simple co-presence (e.g.
neighborhood, workplace), but in virtue of shared practice. In
the course of regular joint activity, a community of practice
develops ways of doing things, views, values, power relations,
ways of talking. And the participants engage with these
practices in virtue of their place in the community of practice,
and of the place of the community of practice in the larger
social order.
Penelope Eckert (2006)
7 of 62
Why planning languages from scratch?
Languages can be planned for different purposes. The language can
be secret (esoteric) if the grammar is known only by initiates;
otherwise it is public (exoteric).
Languages planned with a public in mind can be:
1. auxiliary, if their purpose is to facilitate the communication among
people from different nations;
2. non-auxiliary, when languages are planned for other purposes,
often for art, literature, especially fiction.
8 of 62
..
aux
.
non-aux
. pub.secr .
Esperanto
.
Latino sine Flexione
.
Ido
.
Basic English
.
Novial
.
Volap¨uk (19th c.)
.
Interlingua
.
etc.
.
International Auxiliary Languages
.
Dothraki
.
Klingon
.
Tolkien (21st c.)
.
Volap¨uk (20th c.
.
Na’vi
.
etc.
.
Hollywood languages
.
Tolkien’s (20th)
.
Bˆal-A I-Balan
.
Tokipona
.
Europanto
Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)?
■ pars construens:
10 of 62
Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)?
■ pars construens:
■ Esperanto is a planned language;
10 of 62
Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)?
■ pars construens:
■ Esperanto is a planned language;
■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language;
10 of 62
Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)?
■ pars construens:
■ Esperanto is a planned language;
■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language;
■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally;
10 of 62
Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)?
■ pars construens:
■ Esperanto is a planned language;
■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language;
■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally;
■ pars destruens:
10 of 62
Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)?
■ pars construens:
■ Esperanto is a planned language;
■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language;
■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally;
■ pars destruens:
■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other
formal languages);
10 of 62
Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)?
■ pars construens:
■ Esperanto is a planned language;
■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language;
■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally;
■ pars destruens:
■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other
formal languages);
■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming
languages).
10 of 62
Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)?
■ pars construens:
■ Esperanto is a planned language;
■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language;
■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally;
■ pars destruens:
■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other
formal languages);
■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming
languages).
■ Esperanto is neither a pidgin nor a creole.
10 of 62
Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)?
■ pars construens:
■ Esperanto is a planned language;
■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language;
■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally;
■ pars destruens:
■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other
formal languages);
■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming
languages).
■ Esperanto is neither a pidgin nor a creole.
10 of 62
Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)?
■ pars construens:
■ Esperanto is a planned language;
■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language;
■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally;
■ pars destruens:
■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other
formal languages);
■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming
languages).
■ Esperanto is neither a pidgin nor a creole.
That said, why Esperanto is interesting for SEEPiCLA?
10 of 62
Esperanto as a contact language
11 of 62
Esperanto is very regular on a morphological level
Colour codes adopted here for the examples:
1. substantives (NP heads) are in blue;
2. adjectives, determiners, numerals (any NP tail) are in cyan;
3. verbs and predications (VP heads) are in red;
4. adverbs and the like (MAdv, V tails) are in orange;
5. affixes (prefixes and suffixes) are in gray;
6. accusative marker (ending in -n) is in green;
7. lexemes are left in black.
La viro salutas nin
c⃝2014 Stanislavo Belov. Foto de si mem en Fejsbuko
Possible descriptions of the photo
■ La viro salutas la publikon.
■ La viro salutas vin .
■ La viro salutas vin afable.
■ La viro salutas vin per
⟨
desegno
⟩
.
■ La viro salutas vin per
⟨
desegno sur
⟨
la nigra tabulo
⟩⟩
.
■ La viro apogas la manon sur
⟨
la muro
⟩
.
14 of 62
Verbs have 6 possible endings. No exceptions
1. -as for present tense;
2. -is for past tense;
3. -os for future tense;
4. -us for conditional;
5. -u for imperative;
6. -i for infinitive.
15 of 62
Esperanto and its level of freedom in the word order
....La ..viro ..salutas ..vin ..afable
..the ..man ..greets ..you ..kindly
.
root
.
det
.
subj
.
dobj
.
advmod
....La ..viro ..afable ..salutas ..vin
..the ..man ..kindly ..greets ..you
.
root
.
det
.
subj
.
dobj
.
advmod
Just one morphological rule for nouns and adjectives
Example
Esperanto Italian English
granda elefanto un grande elefante a big elephant
malgranda elefanto un piccolo elefante a small elephant
rapida ˆcevalo un cavallo veloce a fast horse
malrapidaj ˆcevaloj dei cavalli lenti slow horses
Adjectives end in -a, -aj, -ajn according to number a case, in
agreement with nouns – respectively, -o, -on, -oj, -ojn.
There is no explicit normative rule for noun-adjective collocation.
17 of 62
Compounds always follow the Germanic model
Diachrony of Esperanto in brief
19 of 62
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof, the language planner
Born in Bialystok, 1859, a town now in Poland – then under the Tsar
– Zamenhof was a Jew (Litvak Ashkenazi), bilingual Yiddish (with his
mother) and Russian (with his father).
He had a twofold dream in his life: to set an ethnic-free bridge across
the nations, beyond any kind of wall, through a neutral religion
(Hillelism) and a neutral language (Esperanto).
20 of 62
The cover of the first book of Esperanto, 1887
The first sentence in Esperanto ever (Zamenhof 1887)
The first example has a marked word order!
....[main phrase] ..ˆcu ..vi ..ˆgin ..ne ..vidis ..□?
.. ..Polar-Q ..you ..it ..not ..saw ..it
.
movement
.
root
.
question
.
(. . . )
.
subj
.
dobj
.
advmod
Zamenhof did not give clear cues for the word order in Esperanto.
23 of 62
French Esperantists come into the arena
Source: Garv´ıa (2015:78)
Universala Kongreso, 1905
Esperantists from various countries met in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
25 of 62
La bela sonˆgo de l’ homaro. . .
. . . ends with the Great War (1914-1918)
c⃝ 1915 Louis Raemaekers satirieke kaart van Europa, Het gekkenhuis (oud liedje, nieuwe wijs)
Esperanto should reinvent itself after the Great War
According to the demographic analysis by Roberto Garv´ıa (2015:100)
summarizing the work by the pioneer Tanquist (1927), these are the
main motivation in learning Esperanto (US, UK, Germany-Austria):
‘Vestaˆȷoj malnovaj’, from: The Great Dictator, 1940
CC⃝ 2014 Vikimedio
vestaˆȷoj malnovaj means ‘second-hand cloths’
The dangerous language: Hitler and Stalin against
Esperanto
c⃝ 2014 Dan Mazur. Esperantists
After the end of the Second World War, Esperanto was forced to
change his strategy so to propose
Since the 1950s, Esperanto is part of the linguistic
rights
■ Unesco in 1954 (Montevideo, Uruguay) recognizes that the results
attained by Esperanto correspond with the aims and ideals of
Unesco
■ Unesco in 1985 (Sofia, Bulgary) “Invites the Member States to
mark the centenary of Esperanto by suitable arrangements,
declarations, issuing of special postal stamps, etc., and to promote
the introduction of a study programme on the language problem
and Esperanto in their schools and higher educational institutions”
The map of the future: TEJO Member Associations
TEJO is the umbrella association of the young Esperantists
Major periods of the Esperanto language
■ Planning phase: 1978-1887: Zamenhof prepares the language;
■ Pioneers’ phase: 1887-1905: most Esperantists come from Russia;
■ French phase: 1905-1920: Geneva and Paris become the centres of
innovation
■ European phase: 1921-1939: Esperanto mainly used between the
East and the West sides of the continent;
■ Polycentric phase: 1945-1993: Esperanto gets the attention of the
UN and Unesco, with many centres of innovation across the world.
■ Digital phase: 1993-now: after the fall of USSR and the spread of
the World Wide Web, the Esperanto Movement is forced to
renovate itself again.
33 of 62
The corpus-based study of
noun-adjective collocation:
preliminary observations
34 of 62
How diachrony affects the Esperanto word order?
■ Fact: from my participant observation (since 1997), noun-adj
collocation is considered archaic or even wrong in contemporary
Esperanto;
■ Hypothesis: the ‘superlect’ of Esperanto changes across time, and
this partially affects the word order;
1. first, there was Russian (until 1905);
2. then, French (until 1945);
3. in the aftermath of the Second Word War, English.
35 of 62
Participant observation: pioneer’s collocation. . .
La Espero
Sur
⟨
ne˘utrala lingva fundamento
⟩
komprenante unu la alian,
la popoloj faros en konsento
unu
⟨
grandan rondon familian
⟩
Zamenhof (1891)
On a neutral language basis,
understanding one another,
the people will make in agreement
one great family circle.
36 of 62
. . . and the contemporary collocation
Samideano
samideano, ˆcu vi atendas ˆgis la
⟨
fina venko?
⟩
samideano, ni ˆciuj sidas sur
⟨
la sama benko
⟩
samideano, ˆcu vi laboras por
⟨
pli bona mondo?
⟩
, oh jes
samideano, kion signifas
⟨
‘familia rondo’?
⟩
Eterna Rima (2011)
samideano, are you waiting for the final victory?
samideano, we all sit on the same bank,
samideano, are you working for a better world?
samideano, what does ‘familia rondo’ mean?
37 of 62
Methodology of the study (currently undergoing)
■ The corpus-based analysis of frequent expressions in the common
Esperanto discourse aims to test the hypothesis. The two tools
used for the study are:
1. The digital online corpus http://www.tekstaro.com/ by Bertilo
Wennergren; XML-encoding (TEI initiative), 4,675,412 words (Feb
2009; in particular Zamenhof’s texts can be selected as a distinct
sub-corpus;
2. Frequency Dictionary Esperanto by Sabine Fiedler et al. (2014) at the
University of Leipzig; it gives the most frequent words in real-world
Esperanto discourse, so to choose meaningful noun-adj. 250,000
entries.
■ Nota Bene: my results are very preliminary!
38 of 62
Pilot study: ‘Esperanto’, ‘internacia’, ‘lingvo’
According to the Frequency Dictionary Esperanto:
■ Esperanto (67) is the most frequent noun;
■ internacia ‘international’ (277) is used together with lingvo with a
symbolic significance (personal observation);
■ lingvo (92) is of course one of the most used words – with the
other forms: lingvoj (195), lingvon (253), lingvojn (887), not to
mention compounds like planlingvo (8298)
39 of 62
Zamenhof’s use of ‘international language’ 1/3
Zamenhof’s use of ‘international language’ 2/3
Zamenhof’s use of ‘international language’ 3/3
Note that there are only 4 entries with the adj-noun word order –
zero entries for internaciaj lingvoj, internacian lingvon, internaciajn
lingvojn.
Early use of ‘language’ with adjectives
■ Pioneers Vojaˆgimpresoj [Trip impressions, 1895] is a notebook
published after a trip of two students of the University of Uppsala
(Sweden) across Europe, members of the Upsala Klubo
Esperantista.
■ (Early) French period selection of texts just after 1905 and
before the Great War, the moment of enthusiasm – and fundings
for publication.
■ European phase:
□ use in Vivo de Zamenhof [Life of Zamenhof, 1920] by Edmond Privat,
eminent figure of the Swiss Movement in Geneva.
□ use in Zamenhof [1929] by Ernest Drezen, Soviet Esperantist, eminent
interlinguist and Esperantologist.
□ use in Vortoj de Kamarado E. Lanti [Words of Comrade E. Lanti,
1920-1929], the founder of the anationalist Esperanto Movement.
‘language’ with adjectives in the French period 1/2
‘language’ with adjectives in the French period 2/2
Use by Edmond Privat 1/2
Use by Edmond Privat 2/2
Use by Ernest Drezen 1/2
Use by Ernest Drezen 2/2
Use by E˘ugeno Lanti 1/2
Use by E˘ugeno Lanti 2/2
Modern use of ‘language’ with adjectives
■ Polycentric phase:
□ use in Azia strategio [Asian strategy, 1963] by Victor Sadler, British
esperantist living in the Netherlands, who played an important role in
the international movement.
□ use for literature (mainly short stories and poems) by Hungarian
authors Kalocsay, Szil´agyi and Szathm´ari in the 1950-60s
□ use in Tokio invitas vin [Tokio invites you, 1963] by Yagi, Japanese
Esperantist
□ use in Por pli efika informado [For a more effective information, 1974],
by Ivo Lapenna, the most influent Esperantist in the 1950-1970s.
■ Digital phase:
□ use in the articles of the monthly magazine Monato [Month], in the
years 1997-2003 – 578,826 words.
‘language’ used by Victor Sadler
How it is used by Hungarian authors
How it is used by a Japanese author
The use of ‘language’ by Ivo Lapenna 1/2
The use of ‘language’ by Ivo Lapenna 2/2
The use of ‘language’ in Monato 1/2
The use of ‘language’ in Monato 2/2
A lot of work still to be done. . .
■ There are almost no studies on the diachrony of Esperanto. Still to
be explored.
■ In Russian ‘international language’ is mezhdunarodnyy yazyk, like
English, but Zamenhof followed mainly the model of French
(langue internationale).
■ Even if Zamenhof was naturally considered the first stylistic model
of Esperanto, in truth his style – at least in the adj-noun
collocation – was not followed by the Esperanto authors, even his
contemporaries.
■ The expression lingvo internacia remains a pseudo-idiomatic form,
referring to Zamenhof himself by other authors.
60 of 62
A “natural” equilibrium in the system?
Corpus-based data do not corroborate fully the hypothesis. Perhaps
the structure of Esperanto leads towards the adj-noun structure
“naturally”, having seen that:
1. the compounds are borrowed from the Germanic Sprachbund
(remember terpomo)
2. the pronominal system also tends to a similar form: nia lingvo is
‘our language’, while lingvo nia is ‘one of our languages’ – marked
form, pertaining the prestigious, high register of the language use.
61 of 62
Thanks for your attention! Dankon por via atento!
Questions? Comments?
If not now, send afterwards to:
⟨F.Gobbo@uva.nl⟩
Download and share this presentation from here:
http://federicogobbo.name/pub/
CC⃝ BY:⃝ $⃝
C
⃝ Federico Gobbo 2015
62 of 62

More Related Content

What's hot

From Universal to Programming Languages
From Universal to Programming LanguagesFrom Universal to Programming Languages
From Universal to Programming Languages
Federico Gobbo
 
Deliberate metaphors in Esperanto
Deliberate metaphors in EsperantoDeliberate metaphors in Esperanto
Deliberate metaphors in Esperanto
Federico Gobbo
 
The Digital Way To Spread Conlangs
The Digital Way To Spread ConlangsThe Digital Way To Spread Conlangs
The Digital Way To Spread Conlangs
Federico Gobbo
 
The international language (called esperanto)
The international language (called esperanto)The international language (called esperanto)
The international language (called esperanto)
eraonlus
 
Is Esperanto a neutral language? The political paradoxes of the Esperanto Mov...
Is Esperanto a neutral language? The political paradoxes of the Esperanto Mov...Is Esperanto a neutral language? The political paradoxes of the Esperanto Mov...
Is Esperanto a neutral language? The political paradoxes of the Esperanto Mov...
Federico Gobbo
 
A Journey on Tolkien's fascination for words and languages
A Journey on Tolkien's fascination for words and languagesA Journey on Tolkien's fascination for words and languages
A Journey on Tolkien's fascination for words and languages
Federico Gobbo
 
Examreview
ExamreviewExamreview
Examreview
francesandrobert
 
German
GermanGerman
German
Punit Shah
 
Why spanish
Why spanishWhy spanish
Why spanish
GreenhillSpanish
 
Thiudiskaz: Teutoniese of Germaanse tale
Thiudiskaz: Teutoniese of Germaanse taleThiudiskaz: Teutoniese of Germaanse tale
Thiudiskaz: Teutoniese of Germaanse tale
PieterUys7
 
English as an indo european language
English as an indo european languageEnglish as an indo european language
English as an indo european language
MaFranciscaaa
 
Estratégias de leitura em LEM - 2º ano
Estratégias de leitura em LEM - 2º anoEstratégias de leitura em LEM - 2º ano
Estratégias de leitura em LEM - 2º ano
Maria Glalcy Fequetia Dalcim
 
Leah Dacheva & Richard Fay
Leah Dacheva & Richard FayLeah Dacheva & Richard Fay
Leah Dacheva & Richard Fay
researchingmultilingually
 
Third session
Third sessionThird session
Third session
Almudena Martínez
 
Contrastive linguistic por julio cesar coloma
Contrastive linguistic por julio cesar colomaContrastive linguistic por julio cesar coloma
Contrastive linguistic por julio cesar coloma
JulioCesar789
 
Researching Multilingually (slideshare, expanded)
Researching Multilingually (slideshare, expanded)Researching Multilingually (slideshare, expanded)
Researching Multilingually (slideshare, expanded)
Achilleas Kostoulas
 
Slide strategies and genres in the english classes
Slide strategies and genres in the english classesSlide strategies and genres in the english classes
Slide strategies and genres in the english classes
MACERC
 
Word of world by pamela fox
Word of world by pamela foxWord of world by pamela fox
Word of world by pamela fox
Bhim Upadhyaya
 
Shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation from Czech to Polish
Shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation from Czech to PolishShallow-transfer rule-based machine translation from Czech to Polish
Shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation from Czech to Polish
Jim O'Regan
 
Bilingualism Myths and Correlations with Executive Functions by Tracey Tokuha...
Bilingualism Myths and Correlations with Executive Functions by Tracey Tokuha...Bilingualism Myths and Correlations with Executive Functions by Tracey Tokuha...
Bilingualism Myths and Correlations with Executive Functions by Tracey Tokuha...
Conexiones: The Learning Sciences Platform
 

What's hot (20)

From Universal to Programming Languages
From Universal to Programming LanguagesFrom Universal to Programming Languages
From Universal to Programming Languages
 
Deliberate metaphors in Esperanto
Deliberate metaphors in EsperantoDeliberate metaphors in Esperanto
Deliberate metaphors in Esperanto
 
The Digital Way To Spread Conlangs
The Digital Way To Spread ConlangsThe Digital Way To Spread Conlangs
The Digital Way To Spread Conlangs
 
The international language (called esperanto)
The international language (called esperanto)The international language (called esperanto)
The international language (called esperanto)
 
Is Esperanto a neutral language? The political paradoxes of the Esperanto Mov...
Is Esperanto a neutral language? The political paradoxes of the Esperanto Mov...Is Esperanto a neutral language? The political paradoxes of the Esperanto Mov...
Is Esperanto a neutral language? The political paradoxes of the Esperanto Mov...
 
A Journey on Tolkien's fascination for words and languages
A Journey on Tolkien's fascination for words and languagesA Journey on Tolkien's fascination for words and languages
A Journey on Tolkien's fascination for words and languages
 
Examreview
ExamreviewExamreview
Examreview
 
German
GermanGerman
German
 
Why spanish
Why spanishWhy spanish
Why spanish
 
Thiudiskaz: Teutoniese of Germaanse tale
Thiudiskaz: Teutoniese of Germaanse taleThiudiskaz: Teutoniese of Germaanse tale
Thiudiskaz: Teutoniese of Germaanse tale
 
English as an indo european language
English as an indo european languageEnglish as an indo european language
English as an indo european language
 
Estratégias de leitura em LEM - 2º ano
Estratégias de leitura em LEM - 2º anoEstratégias de leitura em LEM - 2º ano
Estratégias de leitura em LEM - 2º ano
 
Leah Dacheva & Richard Fay
Leah Dacheva & Richard FayLeah Dacheva & Richard Fay
Leah Dacheva & Richard Fay
 
Third session
Third sessionThird session
Third session
 
Contrastive linguistic por julio cesar coloma
Contrastive linguistic por julio cesar colomaContrastive linguistic por julio cesar coloma
Contrastive linguistic por julio cesar coloma
 
Researching Multilingually (slideshare, expanded)
Researching Multilingually (slideshare, expanded)Researching Multilingually (slideshare, expanded)
Researching Multilingually (slideshare, expanded)
 
Slide strategies and genres in the english classes
Slide strategies and genres in the english classesSlide strategies and genres in the english classes
Slide strategies and genres in the english classes
 
Word of world by pamela fox
Word of world by pamela foxWord of world by pamela fox
Word of world by pamela fox
 
Shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation from Czech to Polish
Shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation from Czech to PolishShallow-transfer rule-based machine translation from Czech to Polish
Shallow-transfer rule-based machine translation from Czech to Polish
 
Bilingualism Myths and Correlations with Executive Functions by Tracey Tokuha...
Bilingualism Myths and Correlations with Executive Functions by Tracey Tokuha...Bilingualism Myths and Correlations with Executive Functions by Tracey Tokuha...
Bilingualism Myths and Correlations with Executive Functions by Tracey Tokuha...
 

Viewers also liked

Introduction to Plone
Introduction to PloneIntroduction to Plone
Introduction to Plone
Jazkarta, Inc.
 
L'invenzione linguistica come ponte interculturale
L'invenzione linguistica come ponte interculturaleL'invenzione linguistica come ponte interculturale
L'invenzione linguistica come ponte interculturale
Federico Gobbo
 
Kion oni lernas planante sekretan lingvon?
Kion oni lernas planante sekretan lingvon?Kion oni lernas planante sekretan lingvon?
Kion oni lernas planante sekretan lingvon?
Federico Gobbo
 
The art of language invention in schools
The art of language invention in schoolsThe art of language invention in schools
The art of language invention in schools
Federico Gobbo
 
Esperanto-drongo-2016
Esperanto-drongo-2016Esperanto-drongo-2016
Esperanto-drongo-2016
Federico Gobbo
 
Que es el horoscopo
Que es el horoscopoQue es el horoscopo
Que es el horoscopo
Paulo Arieu
 
Digital CV Sanjeev
Digital CV SanjeevDigital CV Sanjeev
Digital CV Sanjeev
Sanjeev Khindaria
 
I servizi Xelab Consulting Services
I servizi Xelab Consulting Services I servizi Xelab Consulting Services
I servizi Xelab Consulting Services
Xelab Consulting Servives
 
8 Stunning content marketing stats for 2015 - Mr. Social
8 Stunning content marketing stats for 2015 - Mr. Social8 Stunning content marketing stats for 2015 - Mr. Social
8 Stunning content marketing stats for 2015 - Mr. Social
mrsocial
 
Proyecto Teoria Divertida
Proyecto Teoria Divertida Proyecto Teoria Divertida
Proyecto Teoria Divertida
Allejo Raspo
 
Cv jesus soto 2012
Cv jesus soto 2012Cv jesus soto 2012
Cv jesus soto 2012
jesussoto87
 
Revista Únicas
Revista ÚnicasRevista Únicas
Revista Únicas
UCES Comunicación
 
Agenda de talleres y Programación Cultural del Centro Cívico Trinitat Vella
 Agenda de talleres y Programación Cultural del Centro Cívico Trinitat Vella Agenda de talleres y Programación Cultural del Centro Cívico Trinitat Vella
Agenda de talleres y Programación Cultural del Centro Cívico Trinitat Vella
euronoticias
 
Samburu 1º C, María S., Sara R. Andrea.
Samburu 1º C, María S., Sara R. Andrea.Samburu 1º C, María S., Sara R. Andrea.
Samburu 1º C, María S., Sara R. Andrea.
Rosa Pérez
 
Las Maravillas De Venecia
Las Maravillas De VeneciaLas Maravillas De Venecia
Las Maravillas De Venecia
guest867ae1
 
Students In E Society
Students In E SocietyStudents In E Society
Students In E Society
enterprisingeducation
 
Programación cultural junio
Programación cultural junioProgramación cultural junio
Programación cultural junio
boletinmusa
 
5 steps to re design your email marketing campaigns in 2016!
5 steps to re design your email marketing campaigns in 2016!5 steps to re design your email marketing campaigns in 2016!
5 steps to re design your email marketing campaigns in 2016!
Subhakar Rao Surapaneni
 
Memoria anual Tecnova 2014
Memoria anual Tecnova 2014Memoria anual Tecnova 2014
Memoria anual Tecnova 2014
Tecnova
 
Libro de dra. monica
Libro de dra. monicaLibro de dra. monica
Libro de dra. monica
Wikipedia
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Introduction to Plone
Introduction to PloneIntroduction to Plone
Introduction to Plone
 
L'invenzione linguistica come ponte interculturale
L'invenzione linguistica come ponte interculturaleL'invenzione linguistica come ponte interculturale
L'invenzione linguistica come ponte interculturale
 
Kion oni lernas planante sekretan lingvon?
Kion oni lernas planante sekretan lingvon?Kion oni lernas planante sekretan lingvon?
Kion oni lernas planante sekretan lingvon?
 
The art of language invention in schools
The art of language invention in schoolsThe art of language invention in schools
The art of language invention in schools
 
Esperanto-drongo-2016
Esperanto-drongo-2016Esperanto-drongo-2016
Esperanto-drongo-2016
 
Que es el horoscopo
Que es el horoscopoQue es el horoscopo
Que es el horoscopo
 
Digital CV Sanjeev
Digital CV SanjeevDigital CV Sanjeev
Digital CV Sanjeev
 
I servizi Xelab Consulting Services
I servizi Xelab Consulting Services I servizi Xelab Consulting Services
I servizi Xelab Consulting Services
 
8 Stunning content marketing stats for 2015 - Mr. Social
8 Stunning content marketing stats for 2015 - Mr. Social8 Stunning content marketing stats for 2015 - Mr. Social
8 Stunning content marketing stats for 2015 - Mr. Social
 
Proyecto Teoria Divertida
Proyecto Teoria Divertida Proyecto Teoria Divertida
Proyecto Teoria Divertida
 
Cv jesus soto 2012
Cv jesus soto 2012Cv jesus soto 2012
Cv jesus soto 2012
 
Revista Únicas
Revista ÚnicasRevista Únicas
Revista Únicas
 
Agenda de talleres y Programación Cultural del Centro Cívico Trinitat Vella
 Agenda de talleres y Programación Cultural del Centro Cívico Trinitat Vella Agenda de talleres y Programación Cultural del Centro Cívico Trinitat Vella
Agenda de talleres y Programación Cultural del Centro Cívico Trinitat Vella
 
Samburu 1º C, María S., Sara R. Andrea.
Samburu 1º C, María S., Sara R. Andrea.Samburu 1º C, María S., Sara R. Andrea.
Samburu 1º C, María S., Sara R. Andrea.
 
Las Maravillas De Venecia
Las Maravillas De VeneciaLas Maravillas De Venecia
Las Maravillas De Venecia
 
Students In E Society
Students In E SocietyStudents In E Society
Students In E Society
 
Programación cultural junio
Programación cultural junioProgramación cultural junio
Programación cultural junio
 
5 steps to re design your email marketing campaigns in 2016!
5 steps to re design your email marketing campaigns in 2016!5 steps to re design your email marketing campaigns in 2016!
5 steps to re design your email marketing campaigns in 2016!
 
Memoria anual Tecnova 2014
Memoria anual Tecnova 2014Memoria anual Tecnova 2014
Memoria anual Tecnova 2014
 
Libro de dra. monica
Libro de dra. monicaLibro de dra. monica
Libro de dra. monica
 

Similar to Word order in the diachrony of Esperanto: A corpus-based study of noun-adjective collocation

Lecture: literacy issues bilingual children
Lecture: literacy  issues bilingual childrenLecture: literacy  issues bilingual children
Lecture: literacy issues bilingual children
Annie Muir
 
What is english; what is language (online new)
What is english; what is language (online new)What is english; what is language (online new)
What is english; what is language (online new)
Simon Smith
 
Hollywood Languages: The Challenge of Interlinguistics in the New Millennium
Hollywood Languages: The Challenge of Interlinguistics in the New MillenniumHollywood Languages: The Challenge of Interlinguistics in the New Millennium
Hollywood Languages: The Challenge of Interlinguistics in the New Millennium
Federico Gobbo
 
Esperanto -- a language for engineers
Esperanto -- a language for engineersEsperanto -- a language for engineers
Esperanto -- a language for engineers
agrao
 
The International language (called Esperanto)
The International language (called Esperanto)The International language (called Esperanto)
The International language (called Esperanto)
eraonlus
 
Interlinguistics in the 21st century: Planned languages as a tool to learn li...
Interlinguistics in the 21st century: Planned languages as a tool to learn li...Interlinguistics in the 21st century: Planned languages as a tool to learn li...
Interlinguistics in the 21st century: Planned languages as a tool to learn li...
Federico Gobbo
 
An approach to open source nlp tools for galician as minoritized variety of p...
An approach to open source nlp tools for galician as minoritized variety of p...An approach to open source nlp tools for galician as minoritized variety of p...
An approach to open source nlp tools for galician as minoritized variety of p...
José Ramom Pichel Campos
 
Esperanto: Language and Culture
Esperanto: Language and Culture Esperanto: Language and Culture
Esperanto: Language and Culture
agrao
 
Esperanto and Minority Languages
Esperanto and Minority LanguagesEsperanto and Minority Languages
Esperanto and Minority Languages
Federico Gobbo
 
Introduction to General Linguistics lecture 1
Introduction to General Linguistics lecture 1Introduction to General Linguistics lecture 1
Introduction to General Linguistics lecture 1
Mazhar Ranjha
 
The top 10 ways that spanish isn't special
The top 10 ways that spanish isn't specialThe top 10 ways that spanish isn't special
The top 10 ways that spanish isn't special
Judy Hochberg
 
Meaning, thought and reality: How categories influence thinking.
Meaning, thought and reality: How categories influence thinking.Meaning, thought and reality: How categories influence thinking.
Meaning, thought and reality: How categories influence thinking.
ThaSouzza
 
Esperanto in a glocal world language, democracy and globalization - giridha...
Esperanto in a glocal world   language, democracy and globalization - giridha...Esperanto in a glocal world   language, democracy and globalization - giridha...
Esperanto in a glocal world language, democracy and globalization - giridha...
agrao
 
Discourse Analysis
Discourse AnalysisDiscourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
The Art of Learning
 
One species, many languages
One species, many languagesOne species, many languages
One species, many languages
Federico Gobbo
 
The top 10 reasons why Spanish is special
The top 10 reasons why Spanish is specialThe top 10 reasons why Spanish is special
The top 10 reasons why Spanish is special
Judy Hochberg
 
Comparative grammar
Comparative grammarComparative grammar
Comparative grammar
Geraldine Paneda
 
Design features 2.pptx
Design features 2.pptxDesign features 2.pptx
Design features 2.pptx
WajiSherzad
 
The Importance Of Language In English Language
The Importance Of Language In English LanguageThe Importance Of Language In English Language
The Importance Of Language In English Language
Haley Johnson
 
Miracles of human language-By Saad Elhalafawy
Miracles of human language-By Saad ElhalafawyMiracles of human language-By Saad Elhalafawy
Miracles of human language-By Saad Elhalafawy
Saad Elhalafawy
 

Similar to Word order in the diachrony of Esperanto: A corpus-based study of noun-adjective collocation (20)

Lecture: literacy issues bilingual children
Lecture: literacy  issues bilingual childrenLecture: literacy  issues bilingual children
Lecture: literacy issues bilingual children
 
What is english; what is language (online new)
What is english; what is language (online new)What is english; what is language (online new)
What is english; what is language (online new)
 
Hollywood Languages: The Challenge of Interlinguistics in the New Millennium
Hollywood Languages: The Challenge of Interlinguistics in the New MillenniumHollywood Languages: The Challenge of Interlinguistics in the New Millennium
Hollywood Languages: The Challenge of Interlinguistics in the New Millennium
 
Esperanto -- a language for engineers
Esperanto -- a language for engineersEsperanto -- a language for engineers
Esperanto -- a language for engineers
 
The International language (called Esperanto)
The International language (called Esperanto)The International language (called Esperanto)
The International language (called Esperanto)
 
Interlinguistics in the 21st century: Planned languages as a tool to learn li...
Interlinguistics in the 21st century: Planned languages as a tool to learn li...Interlinguistics in the 21st century: Planned languages as a tool to learn li...
Interlinguistics in the 21st century: Planned languages as a tool to learn li...
 
An approach to open source nlp tools for galician as minoritized variety of p...
An approach to open source nlp tools for galician as minoritized variety of p...An approach to open source nlp tools for galician as minoritized variety of p...
An approach to open source nlp tools for galician as minoritized variety of p...
 
Esperanto: Language and Culture
Esperanto: Language and Culture Esperanto: Language and Culture
Esperanto: Language and Culture
 
Esperanto and Minority Languages
Esperanto and Minority LanguagesEsperanto and Minority Languages
Esperanto and Minority Languages
 
Introduction to General Linguistics lecture 1
Introduction to General Linguistics lecture 1Introduction to General Linguistics lecture 1
Introduction to General Linguistics lecture 1
 
The top 10 ways that spanish isn't special
The top 10 ways that spanish isn't specialThe top 10 ways that spanish isn't special
The top 10 ways that spanish isn't special
 
Meaning, thought and reality: How categories influence thinking.
Meaning, thought and reality: How categories influence thinking.Meaning, thought and reality: How categories influence thinking.
Meaning, thought and reality: How categories influence thinking.
 
Esperanto in a glocal world language, democracy and globalization - giridha...
Esperanto in a glocal world   language, democracy and globalization - giridha...Esperanto in a glocal world   language, democracy and globalization - giridha...
Esperanto in a glocal world language, democracy and globalization - giridha...
 
Discourse Analysis
Discourse AnalysisDiscourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
 
One species, many languages
One species, many languagesOne species, many languages
One species, many languages
 
The top 10 reasons why Spanish is special
The top 10 reasons why Spanish is specialThe top 10 reasons why Spanish is special
The top 10 reasons why Spanish is special
 
Comparative grammar
Comparative grammarComparative grammar
Comparative grammar
 
Design features 2.pptx
Design features 2.pptxDesign features 2.pptx
Design features 2.pptx
 
The Importance Of Language In English Language
The Importance Of Language In English LanguageThe Importance Of Language In English Language
The Importance Of Language In English Language
 
Miracles of human language-By Saad Elhalafawy
Miracles of human language-By Saad ElhalafawyMiracles of human language-By Saad Elhalafawy
Miracles of human language-By Saad Elhalafawy
 

More from Federico Gobbo

Open Issues of Language Contestation in Italy
Open Issues of Language Contestation in ItalyOpen Issues of Language Contestation in Italy
Open Issues of Language Contestation in Italy
Federico Gobbo
 
Human-Machine Communication strategies in today’s Esperanto community of prac...
Human-Machine Communication strategies in today’s Esperanto community of prac...Human-Machine Communication strategies in today’s Esperanto community of prac...
Human-Machine Communication strategies in today’s Esperanto community of prac...
Federico Gobbo
 
Esperanto as Lingua Receptiva / Esperanto Ricevema
Esperanto as Lingua Receptiva / Esperanto RicevemaEsperanto as Lingua Receptiva / Esperanto Ricevema
Esperanto as Lingua Receptiva / Esperanto Ricevema
Federico Gobbo
 
L’utilizzo di lingue inventate come strumento di educazione interculturale in...
L’utilizzo di lingue inventate come strumento di educazione interculturale in...L’utilizzo di lingue inventate come strumento di educazione interculturale in...
L’utilizzo di lingue inventate come strumento di educazione interculturale in...
Federico Gobbo
 
Una lingua comune per l'Europa?
Una lingua comune per l'Europa?Una lingua comune per l'Europa?
Una lingua comune per l'Europa?
Federico Gobbo
 
Esperanto: el Eŭropa lulilo al disvastiĝo tra la tuta mondo
Esperanto: el Eŭropa lulilo al disvastiĝo tra la tuta mondoEsperanto: el Eŭropa lulilo al disvastiĝo tra la tuta mondo
Esperanto: el Eŭropa lulilo al disvastiĝo tra la tuta mondo
Federico Gobbo
 
Reflecting upon the European Day of Languages
Reflecting upon the European Day of LanguagesReflecting upon the European Day of Languages
Reflecting upon the European Day of Languages
Federico Gobbo
 
Interlinguistica ed esperantologia oggi: l’esperienza di Amsterdam
Interlinguistica ed esperantologia oggi: l’esperienza di AmsterdamInterlinguistica ed esperantologia oggi: l’esperienza di Amsterdam
Interlinguistica ed esperantologia oggi: l’esperienza di Amsterdam
Federico Gobbo
 
Adpositional Argumentation: How Logic Originates In Natural Argumentative Dis...
Adpositional Argumentation: How Logic Originates In Natural Argumentative Dis...Adpositional Argumentation: How Logic Originates In Natural Argumentative Dis...
Adpositional Argumentation: How Logic Originates In Natural Argumentative Dis...
Federico Gobbo
 
Complex Arguments in Adpositional Argumentation
Complex Arguments in Adpositional ArgumentationComplex Arguments in Adpositional Argumentation
Complex Arguments in Adpositional Argumentation
Federico Gobbo
 
Assessing linguistic unease to understand (socio)linguistic justice
Assessing linguistic unease to understand (socio)linguistic justiceAssessing linguistic unease to understand (socio)linguistic justice
Assessing linguistic unease to understand (socio)linguistic justice
Federico Gobbo
 
Lingua di contatto e mobilità: il caso dell'esperanto
Lingua di contatto e mobilità: il caso dell'esperantoLingua di contatto e mobilità: il caso dell'esperanto
Lingua di contatto e mobilità: il caso dell'esperanto
Federico Gobbo
 
Le lingue di minoranza: il caso dell'esperanto
Le lingue di minoranza: il caso dell'esperantoLe lingue di minoranza: il caso dell'esperanto
Le lingue di minoranza: il caso dell'esperanto
Federico Gobbo
 
The Religious Dimensions of the Esperanto Collective Identity
The Religious Dimensions of the Esperanto Collective IdentityThe Religious Dimensions of the Esperanto Collective Identity
The Religious Dimensions of the Esperanto Collective Identity
Federico Gobbo
 
I limiti dell'invenzione linguistica: la tipologia linguistica dall'esperanto...
I limiti dell'invenzione linguistica: la tipologia linguistica dall'esperanto...I limiti dell'invenzione linguistica: la tipologia linguistica dall'esperanto...
I limiti dell'invenzione linguistica: la tipologia linguistica dall'esperanto...
Federico Gobbo
 
Sei definizioni in cerca di una disciplina - Interlinguistica tra comunicazio...
Sei definizioni in cerca di una disciplina - Interlinguistica tra comunicazio...Sei definizioni in cerca di una disciplina - Interlinguistica tra comunicazio...
Sei definizioni in cerca di una disciplina - Interlinguistica tra comunicazio...
Federico Gobbo
 
Lingva Kafejo: Esperanto
Lingva Kafejo: EsperantoLingva Kafejo: Esperanto
Lingva Kafejo: Esperanto
Federico Gobbo
 
Fare musica in esperanto : ieri, oggi, domani
Fare musica in esperanto : ieri, oggi, domaniFare musica in esperanto : ieri, oggi, domani
Fare musica in esperanto : ieri, oggi, domani
Federico Gobbo
 
Language regimes of the European Union
Language regimes of the European UnionLanguage regimes of the European Union
Language regimes of the European Union
Federico Gobbo
 
Language policy and planning : Between Economics and Identity
Language policy and planning : Between Economics and IdentityLanguage policy and planning : Between Economics and Identity
Language policy and planning : Between Economics and Identity
Federico Gobbo
 

More from Federico Gobbo (20)

Open Issues of Language Contestation in Italy
Open Issues of Language Contestation in ItalyOpen Issues of Language Contestation in Italy
Open Issues of Language Contestation in Italy
 
Human-Machine Communication strategies in today’s Esperanto community of prac...
Human-Machine Communication strategies in today’s Esperanto community of prac...Human-Machine Communication strategies in today’s Esperanto community of prac...
Human-Machine Communication strategies in today’s Esperanto community of prac...
 
Esperanto as Lingua Receptiva / Esperanto Ricevema
Esperanto as Lingua Receptiva / Esperanto RicevemaEsperanto as Lingua Receptiva / Esperanto Ricevema
Esperanto as Lingua Receptiva / Esperanto Ricevema
 
L’utilizzo di lingue inventate come strumento di educazione interculturale in...
L’utilizzo di lingue inventate come strumento di educazione interculturale in...L’utilizzo di lingue inventate come strumento di educazione interculturale in...
L’utilizzo di lingue inventate come strumento di educazione interculturale in...
 
Una lingua comune per l'Europa?
Una lingua comune per l'Europa?Una lingua comune per l'Europa?
Una lingua comune per l'Europa?
 
Esperanto: el Eŭropa lulilo al disvastiĝo tra la tuta mondo
Esperanto: el Eŭropa lulilo al disvastiĝo tra la tuta mondoEsperanto: el Eŭropa lulilo al disvastiĝo tra la tuta mondo
Esperanto: el Eŭropa lulilo al disvastiĝo tra la tuta mondo
 
Reflecting upon the European Day of Languages
Reflecting upon the European Day of LanguagesReflecting upon the European Day of Languages
Reflecting upon the European Day of Languages
 
Interlinguistica ed esperantologia oggi: l’esperienza di Amsterdam
Interlinguistica ed esperantologia oggi: l’esperienza di AmsterdamInterlinguistica ed esperantologia oggi: l’esperienza di Amsterdam
Interlinguistica ed esperantologia oggi: l’esperienza di Amsterdam
 
Adpositional Argumentation: How Logic Originates In Natural Argumentative Dis...
Adpositional Argumentation: How Logic Originates In Natural Argumentative Dis...Adpositional Argumentation: How Logic Originates In Natural Argumentative Dis...
Adpositional Argumentation: How Logic Originates In Natural Argumentative Dis...
 
Complex Arguments in Adpositional Argumentation
Complex Arguments in Adpositional ArgumentationComplex Arguments in Adpositional Argumentation
Complex Arguments in Adpositional Argumentation
 
Assessing linguistic unease to understand (socio)linguistic justice
Assessing linguistic unease to understand (socio)linguistic justiceAssessing linguistic unease to understand (socio)linguistic justice
Assessing linguistic unease to understand (socio)linguistic justice
 
Lingua di contatto e mobilità: il caso dell'esperanto
Lingua di contatto e mobilità: il caso dell'esperantoLingua di contatto e mobilità: il caso dell'esperanto
Lingua di contatto e mobilità: il caso dell'esperanto
 
Le lingue di minoranza: il caso dell'esperanto
Le lingue di minoranza: il caso dell'esperantoLe lingue di minoranza: il caso dell'esperanto
Le lingue di minoranza: il caso dell'esperanto
 
The Religious Dimensions of the Esperanto Collective Identity
The Religious Dimensions of the Esperanto Collective IdentityThe Religious Dimensions of the Esperanto Collective Identity
The Religious Dimensions of the Esperanto Collective Identity
 
I limiti dell'invenzione linguistica: la tipologia linguistica dall'esperanto...
I limiti dell'invenzione linguistica: la tipologia linguistica dall'esperanto...I limiti dell'invenzione linguistica: la tipologia linguistica dall'esperanto...
I limiti dell'invenzione linguistica: la tipologia linguistica dall'esperanto...
 
Sei definizioni in cerca di una disciplina - Interlinguistica tra comunicazio...
Sei definizioni in cerca di una disciplina - Interlinguistica tra comunicazio...Sei definizioni in cerca di una disciplina - Interlinguistica tra comunicazio...
Sei definizioni in cerca di una disciplina - Interlinguistica tra comunicazio...
 
Lingva Kafejo: Esperanto
Lingva Kafejo: EsperantoLingva Kafejo: Esperanto
Lingva Kafejo: Esperanto
 
Fare musica in esperanto : ieri, oggi, domani
Fare musica in esperanto : ieri, oggi, domaniFare musica in esperanto : ieri, oggi, domani
Fare musica in esperanto : ieri, oggi, domani
 
Language regimes of the European Union
Language regimes of the European UnionLanguage regimes of the European Union
Language regimes of the European Union
 
Language policy and planning : Between Economics and Identity
Language policy and planning : Between Economics and IdentityLanguage policy and planning : Between Economics and Identity
Language policy and planning : Between Economics and Identity
 

Recently uploaded

A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
Jean Carlos Nunes Paixão
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
EduSkills OECD
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Dr. Mulla Adam Ali
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
TechSoup
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Mohd Adib Abd Muin, Senior Lecturer at Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Denish Jangid
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
iammrhaywood
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
adhitya5119
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
Jyoti Chand
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
Colégio Santa Teresinha
 
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem studentsRHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
Himanshu Rai
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
RAHUL
 
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence PsychologyCognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
paigestewart1632
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
AyyanKhan40
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
Israel Genealogy Research Association
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
Celine George
 

Recently uploaded (20)

A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
 
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
 
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem studentsRHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
 
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence PsychologyCognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
 

Word order in the diachrony of Esperanto: A corpus-based study of noun-adjective collocation

  • 1. Word order in the diachrony of Esperanto A corpus-based study of noun-adjective collocation Federico Gobbo F.Gobbo@uva.nl SEEPiCLa meeting, University of Amsterdam, 14 december 2015 1 of 62
  • 2. A caveat. . . Konstruata esplorado
  • 3. Introduction: what is Esperanto? 3 of 62
  • 4. The priority of orality in natural languages [although] no human society [has been] known to exist or to have existed at any time in the past without capacity of speech [. . . ] the vast majority of societies have, until recently, been either totally or very largely illiterate. Lyons (1981:12-13) This universal property of natural languages has two exceptions: sign languages and planned languages. 4 of 62
  • 5. What is a planned language? Languages can be planned from scratch if someone decided to do so, writing the (normative) grammar, setting up the (basic) lexicon and giving some texts in the language. You can always identify double articulation (phonetic space + morphosyntactic level) in a planned language – they are languages for human beings. Often the language planner acts alone, rarely in committees or groups – but always with a clear leader, that is called the language planner. 5 of 62
  • 6. For planned languages orality is a challenge .. graphisation . natural languages . orality . planned languages Few planned languages are used orally by a community of practice 6 of 62
  • 7. Community of practice: a sociolinguistic definition The value of the notion ‘communities of practice’ to Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology lies in the fact that it identifies a social grouping not in virtue of shared abstract characteristics (e.g. class, gender) or simple co-presence (e.g. neighborhood, workplace), but in virtue of shared practice. In the course of regular joint activity, a community of practice develops ways of doing things, views, values, power relations, ways of talking. And the participants engage with these practices in virtue of their place in the community of practice, and of the place of the community of practice in the larger social order. Penelope Eckert (2006) 7 of 62
  • 8. Why planning languages from scratch? Languages can be planned for different purposes. The language can be secret (esoteric) if the grammar is known only by initiates; otherwise it is public (exoteric). Languages planned with a public in mind can be: 1. auxiliary, if their purpose is to facilitate the communication among people from different nations; 2. non-auxiliary, when languages are planned for other purposes, often for art, literature, especially fiction. 8 of 62
  • 9. .. aux . non-aux . pub.secr . Esperanto . Latino sine Flexione . Ido . Basic English . Novial . Volap¨uk (19th c.) . Interlingua . etc. . International Auxiliary Languages . Dothraki . Klingon . Tolkien (21st c.) . Volap¨uk (20th c. . Na’vi . etc. . Hollywood languages . Tolkien’s (20th) . Bˆal-A I-Balan . Tokipona . Europanto
  • 10. Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)? ■ pars construens: 10 of 62
  • 11. Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; 10 of 62
  • 12. Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; 10 of 62
  • 13. Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; 10 of 62
  • 14. Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: 10 of 62
  • 15. Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other formal languages); 10 of 62
  • 16. Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other formal languages); ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming languages). 10 of 62
  • 17. Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other formal languages); ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming languages). ■ Esperanto is neither a pidgin nor a creole. 10 of 62
  • 18. Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other formal languages); ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming languages). ■ Esperanto is neither a pidgin nor a creole. 10 of 62
  • 19. Finally, what is Esperanto (ans what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other formal languages); ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming languages). ■ Esperanto is neither a pidgin nor a creole. That said, why Esperanto is interesting for SEEPiCLA? 10 of 62
  • 20. Esperanto as a contact language 11 of 62
  • 21. Esperanto is very regular on a morphological level Colour codes adopted here for the examples: 1. substantives (NP heads) are in blue; 2. adjectives, determiners, numerals (any NP tail) are in cyan; 3. verbs and predications (VP heads) are in red; 4. adverbs and the like (MAdv, V tails) are in orange; 5. affixes (prefixes and suffixes) are in gray; 6. accusative marker (ending in -n) is in green; 7. lexemes are left in black.
  • 22. La viro salutas nin c⃝2014 Stanislavo Belov. Foto de si mem en Fejsbuko
  • 23. Possible descriptions of the photo ■ La viro salutas la publikon. ■ La viro salutas vin . ■ La viro salutas vin afable. ■ La viro salutas vin per ⟨ desegno ⟩ . ■ La viro salutas vin per ⟨ desegno sur ⟨ la nigra tabulo ⟩⟩ . ■ La viro apogas la manon sur ⟨ la muro ⟩ . 14 of 62
  • 24. Verbs have 6 possible endings. No exceptions 1. -as for present tense; 2. -is for past tense; 3. -os for future tense; 4. -us for conditional; 5. -u for imperative; 6. -i for infinitive. 15 of 62
  • 25. Esperanto and its level of freedom in the word order ....La ..viro ..salutas ..vin ..afable ..the ..man ..greets ..you ..kindly . root . det . subj . dobj . advmod ....La ..viro ..afable ..salutas ..vin ..the ..man ..kindly ..greets ..you . root . det . subj . dobj . advmod
  • 26. Just one morphological rule for nouns and adjectives Example Esperanto Italian English granda elefanto un grande elefante a big elephant malgranda elefanto un piccolo elefante a small elephant rapida ˆcevalo un cavallo veloce a fast horse malrapidaj ˆcevaloj dei cavalli lenti slow horses Adjectives end in -a, -aj, -ajn according to number a case, in agreement with nouns – respectively, -o, -on, -oj, -ojn. There is no explicit normative rule for noun-adjective collocation. 17 of 62
  • 27. Compounds always follow the Germanic model
  • 28. Diachrony of Esperanto in brief 19 of 62
  • 29. Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof, the language planner Born in Bialystok, 1859, a town now in Poland – then under the Tsar – Zamenhof was a Jew (Litvak Ashkenazi), bilingual Yiddish (with his mother) and Russian (with his father). He had a twofold dream in his life: to set an ethnic-free bridge across the nations, beyond any kind of wall, through a neutral religion (Hillelism) and a neutral language (Esperanto). 20 of 62
  • 30. The cover of the first book of Esperanto, 1887
  • 31. The first sentence in Esperanto ever (Zamenhof 1887)
  • 32. The first example has a marked word order! ....[main phrase] ..ˆcu ..vi ..ˆgin ..ne ..vidis ..□? .. ..Polar-Q ..you ..it ..not ..saw ..it . movement . root . question . (. . . ) . subj . dobj . advmod Zamenhof did not give clear cues for the word order in Esperanto. 23 of 62
  • 33. French Esperantists come into the arena Source: Garv´ıa (2015:78)
  • 34. Universala Kongreso, 1905 Esperantists from various countries met in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France 25 of 62
  • 35. La bela sonˆgo de l’ homaro. . .
  • 36. . . . ends with the Great War (1914-1918) c⃝ 1915 Louis Raemaekers satirieke kaart van Europa, Het gekkenhuis (oud liedje, nieuwe wijs)
  • 37. Esperanto should reinvent itself after the Great War According to the demographic analysis by Roberto Garv´ıa (2015:100) summarizing the work by the pioneer Tanquist (1927), these are the main motivation in learning Esperanto (US, UK, Germany-Austria):
  • 38. ‘Vestaˆȷoj malnovaj’, from: The Great Dictator, 1940 CC⃝ 2014 Vikimedio vestaˆȷoj malnovaj means ‘second-hand cloths’
  • 39. The dangerous language: Hitler and Stalin against Esperanto c⃝ 2014 Dan Mazur. Esperantists After the end of the Second World War, Esperanto was forced to change his strategy so to propose
  • 40. Since the 1950s, Esperanto is part of the linguistic rights ■ Unesco in 1954 (Montevideo, Uruguay) recognizes that the results attained by Esperanto correspond with the aims and ideals of Unesco ■ Unesco in 1985 (Sofia, Bulgary) “Invites the Member States to mark the centenary of Esperanto by suitable arrangements, declarations, issuing of special postal stamps, etc., and to promote the introduction of a study programme on the language problem and Esperanto in their schools and higher educational institutions”
  • 41. The map of the future: TEJO Member Associations TEJO is the umbrella association of the young Esperantists
  • 42. Major periods of the Esperanto language ■ Planning phase: 1978-1887: Zamenhof prepares the language; ■ Pioneers’ phase: 1887-1905: most Esperantists come from Russia; ■ French phase: 1905-1920: Geneva and Paris become the centres of innovation ■ European phase: 1921-1939: Esperanto mainly used between the East and the West sides of the continent; ■ Polycentric phase: 1945-1993: Esperanto gets the attention of the UN and Unesco, with many centres of innovation across the world. ■ Digital phase: 1993-now: after the fall of USSR and the spread of the World Wide Web, the Esperanto Movement is forced to renovate itself again. 33 of 62
  • 43. The corpus-based study of noun-adjective collocation: preliminary observations 34 of 62
  • 44. How diachrony affects the Esperanto word order? ■ Fact: from my participant observation (since 1997), noun-adj collocation is considered archaic or even wrong in contemporary Esperanto; ■ Hypothesis: the ‘superlect’ of Esperanto changes across time, and this partially affects the word order; 1. first, there was Russian (until 1905); 2. then, French (until 1945); 3. in the aftermath of the Second Word War, English. 35 of 62
  • 45. Participant observation: pioneer’s collocation. . . La Espero Sur ⟨ ne˘utrala lingva fundamento ⟩ komprenante unu la alian, la popoloj faros en konsento unu ⟨ grandan rondon familian ⟩ Zamenhof (1891) On a neutral language basis, understanding one another, the people will make in agreement one great family circle. 36 of 62
  • 46. . . . and the contemporary collocation Samideano samideano, ˆcu vi atendas ˆgis la ⟨ fina venko? ⟩ samideano, ni ˆciuj sidas sur ⟨ la sama benko ⟩ samideano, ˆcu vi laboras por ⟨ pli bona mondo? ⟩ , oh jes samideano, kion signifas ⟨ ‘familia rondo’? ⟩ Eterna Rima (2011) samideano, are you waiting for the final victory? samideano, we all sit on the same bank, samideano, are you working for a better world? samideano, what does ‘familia rondo’ mean? 37 of 62
  • 47. Methodology of the study (currently undergoing) ■ The corpus-based analysis of frequent expressions in the common Esperanto discourse aims to test the hypothesis. The two tools used for the study are: 1. The digital online corpus http://www.tekstaro.com/ by Bertilo Wennergren; XML-encoding (TEI initiative), 4,675,412 words (Feb 2009; in particular Zamenhof’s texts can be selected as a distinct sub-corpus; 2. Frequency Dictionary Esperanto by Sabine Fiedler et al. (2014) at the University of Leipzig; it gives the most frequent words in real-world Esperanto discourse, so to choose meaningful noun-adj. 250,000 entries. ■ Nota Bene: my results are very preliminary! 38 of 62
  • 48. Pilot study: ‘Esperanto’, ‘internacia’, ‘lingvo’ According to the Frequency Dictionary Esperanto: ■ Esperanto (67) is the most frequent noun; ■ internacia ‘international’ (277) is used together with lingvo with a symbolic significance (personal observation); ■ lingvo (92) is of course one of the most used words – with the other forms: lingvoj (195), lingvon (253), lingvojn (887), not to mention compounds like planlingvo (8298) 39 of 62
  • 49. Zamenhof’s use of ‘international language’ 1/3
  • 50. Zamenhof’s use of ‘international language’ 2/3
  • 51. Zamenhof’s use of ‘international language’ 3/3 Note that there are only 4 entries with the adj-noun word order – zero entries for internaciaj lingvoj, internacian lingvon, internaciajn lingvojn.
  • 52. Early use of ‘language’ with adjectives ■ Pioneers Vojaˆgimpresoj [Trip impressions, 1895] is a notebook published after a trip of two students of the University of Uppsala (Sweden) across Europe, members of the Upsala Klubo Esperantista. ■ (Early) French period selection of texts just after 1905 and before the Great War, the moment of enthusiasm – and fundings for publication. ■ European phase: □ use in Vivo de Zamenhof [Life of Zamenhof, 1920] by Edmond Privat, eminent figure of the Swiss Movement in Geneva. □ use in Zamenhof [1929] by Ernest Drezen, Soviet Esperantist, eminent interlinguist and Esperantologist. □ use in Vortoj de Kamarado E. Lanti [Words of Comrade E. Lanti, 1920-1929], the founder of the anationalist Esperanto Movement.
  • 53. ‘language’ with adjectives in the French period 1/2
  • 54. ‘language’ with adjectives in the French period 2/2
  • 55. Use by Edmond Privat 1/2
  • 56. Use by Edmond Privat 2/2
  • 57. Use by Ernest Drezen 1/2
  • 58. Use by Ernest Drezen 2/2
  • 59. Use by E˘ugeno Lanti 1/2
  • 60. Use by E˘ugeno Lanti 2/2
  • 61. Modern use of ‘language’ with adjectives ■ Polycentric phase: □ use in Azia strategio [Asian strategy, 1963] by Victor Sadler, British esperantist living in the Netherlands, who played an important role in the international movement. □ use for literature (mainly short stories and poems) by Hungarian authors Kalocsay, Szil´agyi and Szathm´ari in the 1950-60s □ use in Tokio invitas vin [Tokio invites you, 1963] by Yagi, Japanese Esperantist □ use in Por pli efika informado [For a more effective information, 1974], by Ivo Lapenna, the most influent Esperantist in the 1950-1970s. ■ Digital phase: □ use in the articles of the monthly magazine Monato [Month], in the years 1997-2003 – 578,826 words.
  • 62. ‘language’ used by Victor Sadler
  • 63. How it is used by Hungarian authors
  • 64. How it is used by a Japanese author
  • 65. The use of ‘language’ by Ivo Lapenna 1/2
  • 66. The use of ‘language’ by Ivo Lapenna 2/2
  • 67. The use of ‘language’ in Monato 1/2
  • 68. The use of ‘language’ in Monato 2/2
  • 69. A lot of work still to be done. . . ■ There are almost no studies on the diachrony of Esperanto. Still to be explored. ■ In Russian ‘international language’ is mezhdunarodnyy yazyk, like English, but Zamenhof followed mainly the model of French (langue internationale). ■ Even if Zamenhof was naturally considered the first stylistic model of Esperanto, in truth his style – at least in the adj-noun collocation – was not followed by the Esperanto authors, even his contemporaries. ■ The expression lingvo internacia remains a pseudo-idiomatic form, referring to Zamenhof himself by other authors. 60 of 62
  • 70. A “natural” equilibrium in the system? Corpus-based data do not corroborate fully the hypothesis. Perhaps the structure of Esperanto leads towards the adj-noun structure “naturally”, having seen that: 1. the compounds are borrowed from the Germanic Sprachbund (remember terpomo) 2. the pronominal system also tends to a similar form: nia lingvo is ‘our language’, while lingvo nia is ‘one of our languages’ – marked form, pertaining the prestigious, high register of the language use. 61 of 62
  • 71. Thanks for your attention! Dankon por via atento! Questions? Comments? If not now, send afterwards to: ⟨F.Gobbo@uva.nl⟩ Download and share this presentation from here: http://federicogobbo.name/pub/ CC⃝ BY:⃝ $⃝ C ⃝ Federico Gobbo 2015 62 of 62