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Deliberate metaphors in Esperanto

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Talk delivered at the Metaphor Lab, University of Amsterdam, 14 March 2017.

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Deliberate metaphors in Esperanto

  1. 1. Deliberate metaphors in Esperanto Building a cosmopolitan culture from scratch Federico Gobbo Amsterdam / Torino ⟨F.Gobbo@uva.nl⟩ Metaphor Lab Amsterdam – Research Meeting 14 March 2017 1 de 66
  2. 2. Outline ■ 1. Interlinguistics – the science of planned languages ■ 2. The role by Zamenhof, the founder of Esperanto ■ 3. How the Esperanto culture is currently built 2 de 66
  3. 3. A word of advice: this is still a work in progress c⃝ Ch. M. Schultz of Snoopy and the Peanuts 3 de 66
  4. 4. 1. Interlinguistics – the science of planned languages
  5. 5. The priority of orality in natural languages [although] no human society [has been] known to exist or to have existed at any time in the past without capacity of speech [. . . ] the vast majority of societies have, until recently, been either totally or very largely illiterate. Lyons (1981:12-13) This universal property of natural languages has two exceptions: sign languages and planned languages. 5 de 66
  6. 6. What is a planned language? Languages can be planned from scratch if someone decided to do so, writing the (normative) grammar, setting up the (basic) lexicon and giving some texts in the language. You can always identify double articulation (phonetic space + morphosyntactic level) in a planned language – they are languages for human beings. Often the language planner acts alone, rarely in committees or groups – but always with a clear leader, that is called the language planner. 6 de 66
  7. 7. For planned languages orality is a challenge graphisation natural languages orality planned languages Few planned languages are used orally by a community of practice 7 de 66
  8. 8. Community of practice: a sociolinguistic definition The value of the notion ‘communities of practice’ to Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology lies in the fact that it identifies a social grouping not in virtue of shared abstract characteristics (e.g. class, gender) or simple co-presence (e.g. neighborhood, workplace), but in virtue of shared practice. In the course of regular joint activity, a community of practice develops ways of doing things, views, values, power relations, ways of talking. And the participants engage with these practices in virtue of their place in the community of practice, and of the place of the community of practice in the larger social order. Penelope Eckert (2006) 8 de 66
  9. 9. Why planning languages from scratch? Languages can be planned for different purposes. The language can be secret (esoteric) if the grammar is known only by initiates; otherwise it is public (exoteric). Languages planned with a public in mind can be: 1. auxiliary, if their purpose is to facilitate the communication among people from different nations; 2. non-auxiliary, when languages are planned for other purposes, often for art, literature, especially fiction. 9 de 66
  10. 10. aux non-aux pubsecr Esperanto Latino sine Flexione Ido Basic English Novial Volap¨uk (19th c.) Interlinguaetc. International Auxiliary Languages Dothraki Klingon Tolkien (21st c.) Volap¨uk (20th c. Na’vi etc.Hollywood languages Tolkien’s (20th) Bˆal-A I-Balan Tokipona Europanto
  11. 11. Finally, what is Esperanto (and what is not)? ■ pars construens: 11 de 66
  12. 12. Finally, what is Esperanto (and what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; 11 de 66
  13. 13. Finally, what is Esperanto (and what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; 11 de 66
  14. 14. Finally, what is Esperanto (and what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; 11 de 66
  15. 15. Finally, what is Esperanto (and what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: 11 de 66
  16. 16. Finally, what is Esperanto (and what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other formal languages); 11 de 66
  17. 17. Finally, what is Esperanto (and what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other formal languages); ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming languages). 11 de 66
  18. 18. Finally, what is Esperanto (and what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other formal languages); ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming languages). ■ Esperanto is neither a pidgin nor a creole. 11 de 66
  19. 19. Finally, what is Esperanto (and what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other formal languages); ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming languages). ■ Esperanto is neither a pidgin nor a creole. 11 de 66
  20. 20. Finally, what is Esperanto (and what is not)? ■ pars construens: ■ Esperanto is a planned language; ■ Esperanto is an International Auxiliary Language; ■ Esperanto is used by a community of practice, orally; ■ pars destruens: ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense first-order logic and other formal languages); ■ Esperanto is not artificial (in the sense of computer programming languages). ■ Esperanto is neither a pidgin nor a creole. That said, why Esperanto is interesting for the Metaphor Lab? 11 de 66
  21. 21. 2. The role by Zamenhof, the founder of Esperanto
  22. 22. Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof: his life in a glance ■ 1859: born in Bialystok (today’s Poland, then Tsarist Russia) ■ 1879-1881: student of medicine in Moscow ■ 1881-1885: student in Warsaw ■ 1887: publication of lingvo internacia (pseudonym: Esperanto) ■ 1901: definition of his ‘human-neutral religion’ (pseudonym: Homo Sum) ■ 1905: first Esperanto World Congress, Esperanto becomes a community ■ 1906: publication of Hilelismo (pseudonym: Homarano) ■ 1910: publication of Proverbaro Esperanta ■ 1913: publication of Dogmoj de Homaranismo ■ 1914: answer to the foundation of the Hebrea Esperanto-Ligo ■ 1915: Appeal to the Diplomats: after the Great War ■ 1917: Passing in Warsaw 13 de 66
  23. 23. Lejzer Zamenhof’s parents c⃝ Source: La familio Zamenhof, Zofia Banet-Fornalowa
  24. 24. Student of medicine in Moscow (1879-1881) c⃝ Source: Biserica sfanta tatiana moscova, crestinortodox.ro
  25. 25. Russian pogroms in 1881. . . c⃝ Source: fineartamerica.com
  26. 26. ...and the first Zionist alyah c⃝ Source: Kindergarten in Rishon Lezion, c. 1898, Wikipedia
  27. 27. Zamenhof family from Bialystok to Warsaw c⃝ Source: Google Maps
  28. 28. Map of Warsaw, 1944 c⃝ Source: La familio Zamenhof, Zofia Banet-Fornalowa
  29. 29. Map of the ghetto in Warsaw, 1942 c⃝ Source: La familio Zamenhof, Zofia Banet-Fornalowa
  30. 30. Zamenhof and his wife, Klara Silbernik c⃝ Source: Esperantomuseum, Vienna
  31. 31. Cover of the first book in Esperanto, 1887 c⃝ Source: Esperantomuseum, Vienna
  32. 32. * * * Intermezzo * * *
  33. 33. Esperanto is a work of art like LEGO c⃝ 2014 The Art of the Brick – De Tentoonstelling 24 de 66
  34. 34. Esperanto is very regular on a morphological level Colour codes adopted here for the examples: 1. substantives (NP heads) are in blue; 2. adjectives, determiners, numerals (any NP tail) are in cyan; 3. verbs and predications (VP heads) are in red; 4. adverbs and the like (MAdv, V tails) are in orange; 5. affixes (prefixes and suffixes) are in gray; 6. accusative marker (ending in -n) is in green; 7. lexemes are left in black.
  35. 35. La viro salutas nin c⃝2014 Stanislavo Belov. Foto de si mem en Fejsbuko
  36. 36. Possible descriptions of the photo ■ La viro salutas la publikon. ■ La viro salutas vin . ■ La viro salutas vin afable. ■ La viro salutas vin per ⟨ desegno ⟩ . ■ La viro salutas vin per ⟨ desegno sur ⟨ la nigra tabulo ⟩⟩ . ■ La viro apogas la manon sur ⟨ la muro ⟩ . 27 de 66
  37. 37. Verbs have 6 possible endings. No exceptions 1. -as for present tense; 2. -is for past tense; 3. -os for future tense; 4. -us for conditional; 5. -u for imperative; 6. -i for infinitive. 28 de 66
  38. 38. Esperanto and its level of freedom in the word order La viro salutas vin afable the man greets you kindly root det subj dobj advmod La viro afable salutas vin the man kindly greets you root det subj dobjadvmod
  39. 39. Just one morphological rule for nouns and adjectives Example Esperanto Italian English granda elefanto un grande elefante a big elephant malgranda elefanto un piccolo elefante a small elephant rapida ˆcevalo un cavallo veloce a fast horse malrapidaj ˆcevaloj dei cavalli lenti slow horses Adjectives end in -a, -aj, -ajn according to number a case, in agreement with nouns – respectively, -o, -on, -oj, -ojn. There is no explicit normative rule for noun-adjective collocation. 30 de 66
  40. 40. Compounds always follow the Germanic model
  41. 41. * * * End of Intermezzo * * *
  42. 42. Hillelism: letter to Abraham Kofman, 28 May 1901 Se eˆc ˆciuj akademioj de la mondo akceptus Esperanton, se eˆc milionoj da personoj ˆgin uzadus, nenio garantias, ke en la da˘uro de unu jaro ˆgi subite ne estos forˆȷetita kaj forgesita por eterne! Se ˆgi unu fojon “eliros el la modo”, ˆgi plej rapide pereos por ˆciam. Lingvo Internacia fortikiˆgos por ˆciam nur en tia okazo, se ekzistos ia grupo da homoj, kiuj akceptus ˆgin kiel sian lingvon familian, heredan. Cento da tiaj homoj estas por la ideo de lingvo ne˘utrala multege pli grava ol milionoj da aliaj homoj. Hereda lingvo de la plej malgranda kaj plej sensignifa popoleto havas vivon multege pli garantiitan kaj neestingeblan, ol senpopola lingvo, kiun uzus eˆc milionoj da homoj. Jes, mi estas profunde konvinkita, ke nek solvo de la hebrea demando, nek enradikiˆgo de lingvo ne˘utrala estos iam ebla sen hilelismo, t. e. sen kreo de ne˘utrala popolo. 33 de 66
  43. 43. First World Esperanto Congress, 1905 c⃝ Source: Esperantomuseum, Vienna
  44. 44. Cover of the small book Hillelismo, 1906 c⃝ Source: Esperantomuseum, Vienna
  45. 45. Hillelismo and Esperantism (1906) La mirinda sukceso de la Bulonja kongreso konvinkis la iniciatorojn de la hilelismo, ke absoluta justeco, egaleco kaj frateco inter la popoloj en la praktiko estas plene ebla. Tial ili decidis uzi la plej proksiman tutmondan kongreson de la esperantistoj en ˆGenevo en Septembro 1906, por proponi al ˆciuj amikoj de interpopola justeco, unuiˆgi en apartan grupon, kiu inter la amikoj de internacia lingvo prezentis apartan sekcion.* ( *Oni ne devas intermiksi la hilelismon kun la esperantismo! Amba˘u ideoj estas tre parencaj inter si, sed tute ne identaj. Oni povas esti bonega esperantisto kaj tamen kontra˘uulo de la hilelismo.) 36 de 66
  46. 46. Proverbaro Esperanta, 1910 ■ Written after a comparative work by his father, Markus Zamenhof ■ Markus compared Russian, Polish, French and German proverbs ■ The aim is to find a common ground for the culture (Hillelist idea) ■ 1232 entries ■ Sometimes one version, sometimes more (synonimic expressions) ■ index by domains: abundo, afableco, afero... 37 de 66
  47. 47. The importance of the Proverbaro Esperanta Proverbs and clich´es are complex and very fixed form of methaphor. They generally involve truth-statements and have an element of word play about them. In the Fundamento Zamenhof equipped the language with a large number of proverbs [. . . ] Although most proverbs are rarely invoked in the general language, they form part of the basic repertoire of metaphors which the speaker may allude to (fera mano ‘an iron hand, amata ˆcevaleto ‘hobby horse’). By writing down a set of proverbs, Zamenhof effectively created an oral history of the language, a corpus of expressions to dip into and cite or reformulate (Gledhill 1988 in Astori 2016). 38 de 66
  48. 48. Entry zero of Proverbaro Esperanta, 1910 ■ Peko kaj eraro estas ecoj de l’ homaro ■ Nur tiu ne eraras, kiu neniam ion faras This sounds like an excusatio non petita, accusatio manifesta (if you do not need to say sorry, don’t do it). Zamenhof was not sure about every solution, so he proposed alternatives in the most difficult cases. 39 de 66
  49. 49. How to say ‘it’s Greek to me’ in Esperanto? ■ 7a (539 too [sic]). ˆGi estas por mi ˆhina scienco. ■ 7b. ˆGi estas por mi volapukaˆȷo. ■ 7c. Nun finiˆgas mia klereco. ■ 7d. Venis fino al mia latino.1 7b actually won, being felt as “more Esperantist” (i.e., endogenous), Volap¨uk being part of the Esperanto proper culture as the first rival International Auxiliary Language. 1 Different from the Dutch: Ik ben aan het eind van mijn latijn, meaning ‘I have no energy anymore’ (via Gerard Steen)40 de 66
  50. 50. Examples from the domain of money ■ 18. Groˆson ˆstelis – ho ˆstelisto milojn ˆstelis – financisto. ■ 1226a. De fremda groˆso ˆsiriˆgas la poˆso. ■ 1226b. Fremda spesmilo estas sen utilo. ■ 965. Spesmilo superflua poˆson ne ˆsiras. ■ 664a. Kiu speson ne tenas, tiu al spesmilo ne venas. ■ 664b. Kiu malmulton ne ˆsatas, multon ne meritas.2 ■ 664c. Sen speso unua ne ekzistas la dua. ■ 664d. ˆCiuj milionoj konsistas el milonoj. ■ 664e. Unu guto plenigas la glason. Some are exogenous (groˆso), some endogenous (speso / spesmilo). 2 Dutch equivalent: wie het kleine niet eert is het grote niet weerd (=waard) (via Gerard Steen).41 de 66
  51. 51. From the Bible or Christianity ■ 11. Mano manon lavas. ■ 17. Petro kornojn tenas, Pa˘ulo lakton prenas. ■ 28a. Ne povas ˆciu homo esti pap’ en Romo. ■ 28b. Kiun la sorto karesos, tiu sukcesos. ■ 793a. Amikon ˆsatu, malamikon ne batu. ■ 793b. Al Dio plaˆcu, sed nur diablon ne kraˆcu. ■ 793c. Se vi povas, profitu, sed aliajn ne incitu. 42 de 66
  52. 52. From Ancient Rome and Greece ■ transiri la Rubikonon ■ Troja ˆcevalo ■ mono ne fetoras (pecunia non olet) 43 de 66
  53. 53. Cover of the small book Homaranismo (1913) c⃝ Source: Esperantomuseum, Vienna
  54. 54. From the Preface [. . . ] Dum la esenco de Esperanto estas plena ne˘utraleco kaj la esperantisma ideo prezentas nur ne difintan fratecan senton kaj esperon, kiujn nature naskas la renkontiˆgado sur ne˘utrala lingva fundamento kaj kiujn ˆciu esperantisto havas plenan rajton, ne sole komentarii al si tiel, kiel li volas, sed eˆc ˆgenerale akcepti a˘u ne akcepti ilin – la homaranismo estas speciala kaj tute difinita politika-religia programo, kiu prezentas mian kredon pure privatan kaj la aliajn esperantistojn tute ne koncernas. 45 de 66
  55. 55. Letter of 20 June 1914, to the Jewish Esperantists Mi mem beda˘urinde devas stari flanke de la afero, ˆcar, la˘u miaj konvinkoj, mi estas “homarano”, kaj mi ne povas ligi kun la celado kaj idealoj de speciala gento a˘u religio. [. . . ] Estas vero, ke la nacionalismo de la gentoj premataj – kiel natura sindefenda reago – estas multe pli pardoninda, ol la nacionalismo de gentoj premantaj; sed, se la nacionalismo de la fortuloj estas nenobla, la nacionalismo de la malfortuloj estas neprudenta; amba˘u naskas kaj subtenas unu la alian, kaj prezentas eraran rondon de malfeliˆcoj, el kiuj la homaro neniam eliros, se ˆciu el ni ne oferos sian grupan memamon kaj ne penos stariˆgi sur grundo tute ne˘utrala. 46 de 66
  56. 56. 1914, the end of the belle ´epoque c⃝ 1915 Louis Raemaekers satirieke kaart van Europa, Het gekkenhuis (oud liedje, nieuwe wijs)
  57. 57. A bilingual Esperanto-English text, 1915 c⃝ Source: Esperantomuseum, Vienna
  58. 58. Pan-European Court and neutral geographical names c⃝ Source: Esperantomuseum, Vienna
  59. 59. Territoriality principles and United States of Europe c⃝ Source: Esperantomuseum, Vienna
  60. 60. 3. How the Esperanto culture is currently built
  61. 61. The nice dream of mankind (1910)
  62. 62. The Esperanto Day (also Z-Day), a stable tradition Each 15th of December
  63. 63. The football “national” team (accepted in the non-FIFA) Lille, France, 2015
  64. 64. Davide Astori’s (2015) main thesis: a pseudo-nation ■ the Esperanto community has: 55 de 66
  65. 65. Davide Astori’s (2015) main thesis: a pseudo-nation ■ the Esperanto community has: ■ . . . a collective name; 55 de 66
  66. 66. Davide Astori’s (2015) main thesis: a pseudo-nation ■ the Esperanto community has: ■ . . . a collective name; ■ . . . a sense of belonging; 55 de 66
  67. 67. Davide Astori’s (2015) main thesis: a pseudo-nation ■ the Esperanto community has: ■ . . . a collective name; ■ . . . a sense of belonging; ■ . . . norms of behaviour; 55 de 66
  68. 68. Davide Astori’s (2015) main thesis: a pseudo-nation ■ the Esperanto community has: ■ . . . a collective name; ■ . . . a sense of belonging; ■ . . . norms of behaviour; ■ . . . shared values; 55 de 66
  69. 69. Davide Astori’s (2015) main thesis: a pseudo-nation ■ the Esperanto community has: ■ . . . a collective name; ■ . . . a sense of belonging; ■ . . . norms of behaviour; ■ . . . shared values; ■ . . . common knowledge (language included); 55 de 66
  70. 70. Davide Astori’s (2015) main thesis: a pseudo-nation ■ the Esperanto community has: ■ . . . a collective name; ■ . . . a sense of belonging; ■ . . . norms of behaviour; ■ . . . shared values; ■ . . . common knowledge (language included); ■ . . . uses by own tradition; 55 de 66
  71. 71. Davide Astori’s (2015) main thesis: a pseudo-nation ■ the Esperanto community has: ■ . . . a collective name; ■ . . . a sense of belonging; ■ . . . norms of behaviour; ■ . . . shared values; ■ . . . common knowledge (language included); ■ . . . uses by own tradition; ■ . . . social structure; 55 de 66
  72. 72. Davide Astori’s (2015) main thesis: a pseudo-nation ■ the Esperanto community has: ■ . . . a collective name; ■ . . . a sense of belonging; ■ . . . norms of behaviour; ■ . . . shared values; ■ . . . common knowledge (language included); ■ . . . uses by own tradition; ■ . . . social structure; ■ . . . artistic forms; 55 de 66
  73. 73. Is it really a pseudo-nation? Intercultural problems ■ manˆgi herbon survoje (from Japanese; Fiedler 1999: 77) ■ karoti la aferon (from Italian; Gobbo’s fieldwork 2016) ■ Esti abrikot-arbo (from Vietnamese: Astori 2016: 137) ■ Dormi kiel ˆstono (from English; Astori 2016: 138) ■ Dormi kiel lakto (from Hungarian; Astori 2016: 138) ■ Dormi ege multe (endogenous; Astori 2016: 138) ■ Dormi profund(eg)e (endogenous; Astori 2016: 138) ■ Dormi kiel bebo (relatively universal? Astori 2016: 138) The fact that each Esperanto speaker belongs to at least another nation questions Astori’s thesis. 56 de 66
  74. 74. The fear of idiomatic expressions ■ eˆc Homero kelkfoje dormetas (klarigo por nee˘uropanoj: eˆc la plej grandaj poemistoj foje eraras) (very fluent Italian speaker, quoted in Astori 2016:136) ■ Kvankam idiotismoj ja faras la lingvon pli buntan, estas bone ke Esperanto evitas ilin (from a blog of a US Esperanto speaker, in Astori 2016: 135, note 5) ■ La facileco de Volap¨uk estas la plej amata ˆcevaleto [preferata temo], sur kiu elveturas al ˆciu okazo (Zamenhof’s expression in the monolingual dictionary PIV, with the gloss between brackets) 57 de 66
  75. 75. Two translation of the Italian classic Pinocchio Pinocchio is a fictional character and the protagonist of the children’s novel The Adventures of Pinocchio (1883) by the Italian writer Carlo Collodi. Carved by a woodcarver named Geppetto in a village near Florence, he was created as a wooden puppet but dreamed of becoming a real boy. (from: Wikipedia) ■ sar`o il bastone della vostra vecchiaia ■ 1930: mi estos subteno de via maljuneco ■ 2003: [mi] estos apogo dum via maljuneco No use of the word bastono, which does exist since 1887! (in Astori 2016: 141) 58 de 66
  76. 76. Translation of Daar wonen Vogetkens vele Du zijs bij dag de zonne Vi estas en la tago Die zoet mij tegenlacht la ridetanta sun’, Du zijs de zoete sterre vi estas en la nokto Die mij verlicht den nacht la bel-lumanta lun! Original by Pol de Mont, translation Loˆgadas multaj birdetoj by Jan Van Schoor (in Astori 2016: 139). No dolˆca stelo for ‘zoete sterre’ is found, another example of the avoiding strategy. 59 de 66
  77. 77. Idiotisms: the world of reptiles ■ krokodili (to speak one’s native language in an Esperanto congress) ■ kajmani (to speak somebody else’s native language in an Esperanto congress with natives) ■ aligatori (to speak somebody else’s native language in an Esperanto congress without natives) ■ gaviali (to speak Esperanto outside Esperantoland as a secret language) ■ lacerti (to speak another planned language in an Esperanto congress, e.g. Tokipona) Source: see Reptiliumi in Vikipedio 60 de 66
  78. 78. Idiotisms: the green colour ■ verda stelo (green star) ■ verda standardo (green flag) ■ verda papo (a person who is overly enthusiastic about the utopian ideals behind Esperanto, especially when preachy and holier-than-thou, see Wiktionary) ■ kavaliroj de la verda stelo (a group of verdaj papoj) ■ verda rano (green frog; Esperantist who talks all the time but does nothing for Esperanto in concrete) 61 de 66
  79. 79. Commonly used idiomatic expressions, from Zamenhof’s use ■ fina venko / finvenkismo (final victory, the moment in which Esperanto will be everybody’s L2) ■ rondo familia (family circle, the Esperantists, but with links from Homaranismo) ■ interna ideo (internal idea, the core of the Homaranismo living in Esperanto) ■ facila vento (a breeze, which is the ease of Esperanto spreading through the world) ■ jam temp’ est´a (lit. ‘already time is’, from the Proto-Esperanto by Zamenhof) 62 de 66
  80. 80. Finally, some commonly used idiomatic expressions, NOT from Zamenhof’s use ■ ra˘umismo / ra˘umisto (disillusioned Esperantist of the fina venko) ■ edzperanto (somebody who helps an Esperanto woman finding a husband in Esperantoland) ■ denaskismo (the idea and practice of speaking Esperanto in the family with children) ■ gufujo (a place in festivals and other Esperanto meeting for young people where people drink tisanes and teas, with soft lights and tranquility, see Gobbo 2015) 63 de 66
  81. 81. Towards a schema for metaphors in Esperanto The Esperanto culture, launched by Zamenhof’s ideals, is enriched by Esperanto speakers, who tend to bring in firmly (i.e. transforming into idioms) only what is felt to be ‘international’ (whatever this can mean; in practice, this means the realm of S.A.E. with apart reference to the Bible – Jewish and Christian – and Ancient Rome and Greece, or relatively universal source domains). Self-reference to the Esperanto tradition is preferred (i.e. endogenous metaphors are ‘better’ than exogenous metaphors). The production of deliberate metaphors passes mainly through translated and original literature. In the early days, translated literature was more important; nowadays, the reverse is true, and popular authors lead the style of fluent speakers. 64 de 66
  82. 82. deliberate customary endogenousexogenous translated & original literature idiomatic expressions S.A.E. word Ancient Rome & Greece the Bible
  83. 83. Thank you for your kind attention Questions? Comments? If not now, drop an email afterwards: ⟨F.Gobbo@uva.n⟩ Download these slides here: http:/federicogobbo.name/pub/ CC⃝ BY:⃝ $⃝ C ⃝ Federico Gobbo 2017 66 de 66

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