Hist 141 how the america's changed

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Hist 141 how the america's changed

  1. 1. How The America’s Change: The Long 19 th Century Gregory Mann History 141 Fall 2011
  2. 2. The America’s in the 19th Century <ul><li>The United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After winning Independence from Britain, the new republic began to expand rapidly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Declaration of Independence had declared “all men are created equal” but the US was composed of varied regions and diverse economic and social structures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Manifest destiny” had the US expanding from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean by mid 1800’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This expansion caused conflict with indigenous peoples, along borders with Mexico and Canada and most importantly within the US leading to the Civil War. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had gained independence without war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Though ethnically divided into British Canadians and French Canadians, the War of 1812 brought unity against external threat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instability and conflict plagued Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically divided into Venezuela, Columbia, Equador and many numberous fragmented independent states. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The America’s in the 19th Century <ul><li>The United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration helped expand country and created social diversity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese immigrants came to West for Gold Rush and stayed in urban areas starting businesses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TransAmerican railroad was built. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British North American act of 1867 joined vast area as Dominion of Canada. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land used for agriculture and ranching. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military was strong presence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pooly educated masses were dominated by Creole elites </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age <ul><li>Why it happened? </li></ul><ul><li>* Maybe volcanic eruptions which ultimately led to the sun’s warmth actually being blocked. </li></ul><ul><li>* Could be a shift in the ocean currents was the cause. </li></ul><ul><li>* There is even a study that links it to the Black Death plague that is said to have wiped out over a third of the European population. This study looked at ancient oak leaf stomata to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on History </li></ul><ul><li>* Change to environment caused crops across the lands to be altered or even wiped out. </li></ul><ul><li>* There was wide spread famine and disease. </li></ul><ul><li>What is was? </li></ul><ul><li>The Little Ice Age lasted from the 14 th century through the 19 th century. Thirty percent of the Earth was covered by ice and caused extreme weather conditions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Frontiers of America <ul><li>Louisiana Purchase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Greatest real estate deal ever”…completed on April 30, 1803 for a cost of $15 million (only 4 cents and acre), the U.S. almost doubled in size and more importantly avoided having foreign neighbors across the Mississippi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many factors allowed the U.S. and Jefferson to achieve this accomplishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haitians at war with France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson not listening to frontiersman request to take New Orleans by force and Jefferson insistence on “using words”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French under Napoleon renew war with the English and need funds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An ice storm stops re-enforcements from reaching French troops. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon agrees to sell not only New Orleans, but the whole territory of Louisiana though the Spanish protested that the French did not have right to sell the land, they were unable or unwilling to try to take back by force. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Frontiers of America <ul><li>Views of a Vanishing Frontier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 1832-1834, Prince Maximilian zu Wied, a German aristocrat, and Swiss artist Karl Bodmer took a 2 year expedition to the American West. Using paintings, photography and a diary of their experience, they left an important legacy cherished by today’s Native Americans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trail of Tears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As Americans journeyed westward needing space due to the great migration of Europeans flooding into the Eastern ports, they were frontiersman, the first white men to step foot in the western territory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They realized that fur trade was a very lucrative business and the white men became the middlemen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was in the Black Hills of the great plains that the Indian nations tried to fight for their lands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic missionaries began their journey west to evangelize the Indians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The frontiersman were allowed to settle in the Mexican territories, after Mexico became independent from Spain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But in Texas, both Americans and Mexicans wanted independence from Mexico and went to war with Santa Ana. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On March 6 th 1836, the Battle of the Alamo took place and all the defenders were killed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the battle of San Jacinto, the Texas army won their independence from Mexico capturing General Santa Ana. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>The Pendulum of War 1861-1862 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 states of Confederacy established a functioning government at Richmond, Virginia. Its national territories covered 750,000 square miles that they already inhabited and only needed to fight off invasions to “win” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Union under Lincoln wanted to preserve the U.S. as a whole nation and as such needed to re-conquer and occupy the confederacy territories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Union troops were able to capture navy bases for blockade fleets along Carolina coasts and secure key border states but were stopped at the Battle of Bull Run and met disaster at Balls Bluff on the Potomac. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General George McClellan took control of the Union army and though cultivating a Napoleon image of himself, avoided taking risks and suffered several set-backs under his command. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The western theater of war along the Mississippi River was under Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant where joint army-navy attacks made great progress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media played a key role in troop morale and public sentiment as to who was “winning”. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Taking off the Kid Gloves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the summer of 1862, the confederacy was </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>able to gain some victories under General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Stonewall Jackson” and hope was renewed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the Seven Days Battle, McClellan went </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to pieces and tried to save face by reporting larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numbers of troops in opposition then actual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln revitalized war effort by summoning General John Pope (middle right) to head up Army of Virginia, issuing a call for 300,000 new three year volunteers and passing a militia act which would allow him to call in state militia for 9 months instead of just 3 months. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To appease foreign policy considerations Lincoln began pushing toward a commitment to emancipation and black leader, Frederick Douglass (lower right) pressed him to turn the war into a war for freedom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was at this time that Lincoln wanted to issue the Proclamation of Emancipation but he was convinced to put it on the back burner until a decisive victory was made by the Union. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>The Battle at Antietam </li></ul><ul><li>Single bloodiest day in American history as almost 6500 soldiers were killed near Maryland village of Sharpsburg on Sept. 17, 1862. </li></ul><ul><li>This battle is known as “the event that decided the fate of the Civil War”. It was so fierce because both sides battled as if they had no tomorrow if they lost. </li></ul><ul><li>The Beginning of the End </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Battle of Antietam was the beginning of the end for the South as the Army of Northern Virginia was badly hurt and Lee was unable to resume his preferred strategy, the offensive, for 8 more months. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee would once again invade the North but was turned back at Gettysburg. It is here that Lincoln is finally able to give his “Gettysburg Address”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Antietam, Lincoln finally had enough of McClellan's immobility and replaced him with General Burnside. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though McClellan supporters were infuriated and wanted to march on Washington, he reminded them of their duty to obey General Burnside. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McClellan would go on to run for the Presidency in 1864, but lost to Lincoln. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>What If… </li></ul><ul><li>The Confederacy had claimed triumph at Antietam? </li></ul><ul><li>The Confederate ambassadors had been able to real a deal for British support before the Battle of Antietam and the Emancipation proclamation as they had tried? </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln and his party would have lost control of the Congress and he would not have been free to issue the Emancipation Proclamation and the “future of the United States as one nation, indivisible and free” would not have been assured? </li></ul><ul><li>The emancipation of 4 million slaves had not occurred? </li></ul><ul><li>History is filled with pivotal events </li></ul><ul><li>that alter or change its course. It </li></ul><ul><li>is only with hindsight that we can </li></ul><ul><li>look back and ask “What If?” </li></ul>Jefferson Davis President of Confederacy President Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865

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