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Doug lemov handouts

  1. 1. Small Changes. Big Difference.Applying the Techniques of Champion Teachers The Techniques: 100% Positive Framing What To Do Cold Call Strong Voice No Opt Out A presentation for New Leaders for New Schools by Doug Lemov True North Public Schools/Uncommon Schools 1
  2. 2. A Scene from the Life of a TeacherClip #1 Doug McCurry: How do Doug’s actions create value in his classroom and in the school?What surprises you about the clip, particularly about the students in the clip? 2
  3. 3. The Five Principles of Classroom Culture, Defined:DisciplineManagementControlEngagementInfluence 3
  4. 4. 100% Technique NotesKey Idea: Teachers should get 100% of students to follow their direction 100% of the way 100% of the time.Preview Clip: What makes this teacher effective at getting full compliance?Three Principles of 100% compliance  Use the least invasive form of intervention 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Rely on firm, calm finesse o o o  Emphasize compliance you can see o o 4
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  6. 6. 100% VideosTeacher Inquiry Question? Observations and Takeaways How many non-verbalColleen Driggs interventions does Colleen make in the course of this clip? What Rules of Thumb can you infer about effective interventions from watching her? What does Patrick add to ourPatrick Pastore understanding of non-verbal interventions? What evidence do you see of the second and third principles of 100%? What two levels of interventionGeorge Davis does George use? How is this an example of catching it early? Which of the six levels is this? WhatJaimie Brillante makes it an effective intervention? How does Lisa demonstrate theLisa Tirums second two principles of 100% 6
  7. 7. “The Quiz”Type of Intervention Used? Description/Evidence/EvaluationP #1 Least Invasive Intervention • Non-verbal Correction • Positive Group Correction • Anonymous Individual Correction • Private Individual Correction • Lightning-quick Public Correction • ConsequenceP#2: Firm Calm FinesseP#3: Compliance You Can See 7
  8. 8. Activity: Using Non-Verbal Interventions While You TeachFor each behavior, describe an effective non-verbal intervention you might use.Behavior: Student slouching in his chairIntervention:Behavior: Student with her head down on her desk (eyes up)Intervention:Behavior: Student with her head down on her desk (eyes hidden)Intervention:Behavior: Student gazing out window while peer is talking.Intervention:Behavior: Student engaged in sustained looking under desk for “something”Intervention:Behavior: Frequent struggler doing well and working hard today.Intervention:Behavior: Student writing when it’s “pencils down”Intervention: 8
  9. 9. Consider for a moment the difference between a non-verbal intervention and one of the two next interventionsavailable to you on the scale we discussed. In the space below discuss some reasons why you might elect to use aPositive Group Correction or Anonymous Individual Correction instead of a non-verbal intervention?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Now, returning to the list of behaviors you planned to encounter in the previous activity, script aneffective Positive Group Correction or Anonymous Individual Correction for each. Label yourintervention according to what type it is. The first example is done for you.Behavior: Student slouching in his chairIntervention: Just a minute. Fifth grade, show me your best SLANT. (Positive GroupCorrection)Behavior: Student with her head down on her desk (eyes up)Intervention:Behavior: Student with her head down on her desk (eyes hidden)Intervention: 9
  10. 10. Behavior: Student gazing out window while peer is talking.Intervention:Behavior: Student engaged in sustained looking under desk for “something”Intervention:Behavior: Student persistently raising hand (for reasons unrelated to your questions)Intervention:Behavior: Student writing when it’s “pencils down”Intervention:Behavior: Student sending the bathroom signal at critical time during lessonIntervention:Behavior: Frequent struggler doing well and working hard today.Intervention: 10
  11. 11. Principles of Training and Supervision I: “Practice Doesn’t Make Perfect; Perfect Practice Makes Perfect”Teaching adults to master new skills is both similar to and different from teaching students new skills. What are some ofthe important similarities and what are some of the key differences?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Thoughts on Practice • Adults need practice on multiple occasions to get to mastery. They need class work, home work and a quiz • Set a scope and sequence: choose the most important teaching skills and teach them multiple times • When teachers practice, make sure they practice succeeding: (Much role playing rehearses failure.) • Let teachers plan first; start simple and get complex slowly • Safe practice is important • Practice with feedback is critical. 11
  12. 12. What To Do Warm UpClip #2: Heather Bowman, Milwaukee College PrepWatch the first half of the clip. What would a typical teacher say to the student in this situation?Watch the whole clip: What do you notice about what Heather says and/or about how the student reacts? 12
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  14. 14. What To Do Technique NotesKey Idea: Give directions that tell students What To Do, as opposed to what NOT to do.Three types of misbehavior: • Incompetence • Defiance • Opportunistic misbehavior Teacher: “I thought I told you to pay attention.” Student: ______________________________When they want ‘control,’ champion teachers give directions that are: • Specific • Concrete • Sequential • ObservableThe benefits: • • • 14
  15. 15. •What happens if you confuse incompetence and defiance? • • 15
  16. 16. What to Do VideosTeacher Observations My Biggest TakeawayBuroffHanusPeterson Insufficient What To Do Directions 16
  17. 17. Direction: You should be writing this down.Revised with What To Do:Direction: I’d like to begin. Please get ready for class.Revised with What To Do:Direction: Stop fooling around.Revised with What To Do:Dction: ShhhhhhRevised with What To Do: 17
  18. 18. Principles of Training and Supervision II: “Buy-In is an Outcome, not a pre-condition.”Most of these videos were shot in charter schools. Sure they’re similar in student population but they get to hire theirpeople in a different way and they can make them use techniques. How can you address the challenge of changing theway people teach in an environment where you will be faced with potentially entrenched resistance?_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Thoughts on Buy-In • Consider letting staff “opt in.” If a few key people are successful others will want to be a part of it too. And the initial participants can evangelize. • Ensure the success of your first initiative by shooting for fewer things and doing them very well. • Start with a technique that will be simple and straight-forward to implement and will result in instant, visible results. • Can you make it an honor and a reward? “Master teacher training”? With Perks? 18
  19. 19. Strong VoiceKey Idea: Having a firm and clear “teacher voice” that signals confidence puts teachers in control. Much of it can’t bebottled. But there are five things all of your teachers can do to achieve that goal. 1. Do Not Talk Over 2. Economy of Language 3. Square Up/Stand Still 4. Do Not Engage 5. Quiet Power 19
  20. 20. Characteristics of Three Classroom Registers:Casual:Formal:Urgent:Which of the registers do you think would be most powerful in asserting control? Why? 20
  21. 21. Clip McCue Brillante Peterson Williams Noormuhammad Do Not Talk Over Economy of Language Square Up/Stand Still21 Strong Voice Do Not Engage Quiet Power Register?
  22. 22. Do Not Engage, Part 1: Comparing ResponsesBelow you’ll find several interactions between students and their teachers. Discuss the teachers’ responses interms of their effectiveness, their tone, and their riskiness.Setting: Peter and Marnie sitting next to each other. Peter trying to wrench Marnie’s book out of her hands.Teacher: Peter, please let go of Marnie’s book.Student: But she’s always got her stuff on my desk.Teacher: I understand. Please let go of Marnie’s book.Teacher: Peter, please let go of Marnie’s book.Student: But she’s always got her stuff on my desk.Teacher: I asked you to let go of Marnie’s book. Do that now.Teacher: Peter, please let go of Marnie’s book.Student: But she’s always got her stuff on my desk.Teacher: We can discuss that later. Right now I need you to let go of her book.Notes: 22
  23. 23. Setting: Early afternoon in March. 10th grade English class. A smart but mercurial bunch.Teacher: The book we’re going to begin today, 1984, is a 20th century classic. You will discuss it and probablyread it again in college. Does anyone know the name of the author?Student: Did you read 1984 in college?Teacher: That is not the name of the author. Who else would like to try?Teacher: The book we’re going to begin today, 1984, is a 20th century classic. You will discuss it and probablyread it again in college. Does anyone know the name of the author?Student: Did you read 1984 in college?Teacher: The question, again, was, Does anyone know the name of the author? Would you like to try again?Teacher: The book we’re going to begin today, 1984, is a 20th century classic. You will discuss it and probablyread it again in college. Does anyone know the name of the author?Student: Did you read 1984 in college?Teacher: [Ignoring student] Does anyone know the name of the author?Teacher: The book we’re going to begin today, 1984, is a 20th century classic. You will discuss it and probablyread it again in college. Does anyone know the name of the author?Student: Did you read 1984 in college?Teacher: I did. Now, does anyone know the name of the author?Notes: 23
  24. 24. Do Not Engage, Part 2: Revising MistakesReview the teachers’ responses to their students in the scenarios below and revise using Do Not Engage andEconomy of Language.Scenario:Teacher: You have five minutes to finish your worksheets.Student: But my stomach hurts. I think I might throw up.Teacher: Do you want to go to the nurse?Student: I don’t know. I just really don’t feel well. I think it was the lunch. That pudding stuff is nasty. (Classlaughs)New Revision:Teacher: You have five minutes to finish your worksheets.Student: But my stomach hurts. I think I might throw up.Teacher:Scenario:Teacher: We are starting our essay on Of Mice and Men today. Please get out your novels.Student: Man, when are we going to do something fun?Teacher: Stop complaining. Please get out your novel.Student: I do not complain! When do I complain? Why are you always calling people complainers!?New Revision:Teacher: We are starting our essay on Of Mice and Men today. Please get out your novels.Student: Man, when are we going to do something fun?Teacher:Scenario: 24
  25. 25. Teacher: We are starting our essay on Of Mice and Men today. Please get out your novels.Student: I still don’t understand why they had to go and kill Lennie! Everywhere you look, the Man gets you.Right Mr. P?Teacher: I’m not sure it’s all that simple, Jason.Student: Aw, come on, Mr. P. You know what happens if you get out of line. Look at Rodney King!New Revision:Teacher: We are starting our essay on Of Mice and Men today. Please get out your novels.Student: I still don’t understand why they had to go and kill Lennie! Everywhere you look, the Man gets you.Right Mr. P?Teacher: Strong Voice Phrases for Coached Practice:Practice delivering in formal register, maintaining economy of language and using quiet power and square up/stand still. 1) “Turn your chair around. Put your book in your lap.” 2) Stayvon, that’s the second demerit you’ve received at lunch, you need to have a seat in Mr. Bray’s office. You need to have a seat in Mr. Bray’s office now. You need to go back to Mr. Bray’s office. 3) “Please put your hands down. Thank you. I can’t answer all your questions today, I would like to, but we don’t have a lot of time.” 4) _____________________________________________________________________________________. 25
  26. 26. Principles of Training and Supervision III: “A common language is the most obvious binding element in any society.”- Michael HowardOnce you have a clear vision of what you want instruction to look like at your school, you need to communicate thatvision to your staff, and continually coach teachers toward that vision. How will you develop a common vocabulary forinstruction for/with your staff? What will you do to introduce that vocabulary and reinforce it?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Thoughts on Common Language • There is a power in naming. Naming leads to defining and refining, which also leads to more desirable behavior – people are more likely to do “it” when they know specifically what the “it” is. • A common language becomes a short-hand for coaching teachers – it makes interactions quick and more powerful: Max Koltuv, Co-Director for Curriculum and Instruction at Leadership Preparatory Bedford Stuyvesant Charter School says, “In two or three words, teachers and leaders can share thoughts and suggestions about what to do at specific times in the classroom – we don’t have to have a whole conversation about it, because they immediately know what I am referring to. This allows us to focus on developing teachers to use the technique, rather than identifying the technique itself.” 26
  27. 27. Positive Framing Technique NotesKey Idea: Make corrections consistently; but make them positively. Narrate the world you want your students to seeeven while you are relentlessly improving it. Failure to intervene is not positive framing (or the least invasiveintervention). • Live in the now: • Assume the best: • Allow plausible anonymity: • Build Momentum/Narrate the Positive: • Challenge!: • Talk expectations and aspiration:Keep positive by avoiding: • Rhetorical questions: • Contingencies: 27
  28. 28. Positive Framing VideosTeacher CommentsZimmerliVolpeAustin Austin: ...and now, Emarius, I am on 1. Good afternoon, Harvard. Class: Good afternoon, Ms. Austin! Austin: What is our objective for today? Oooo, look at those hands. Austin: Okay, here we go. Let’s go with A first. What did we do a long time ago when we first did patterns? It was a while ago, I know. It was a while ago. When we first did patterns…I love the track that I’m seeing now. I wonder what happens if I move around the room. Austin: What is that first step, oh, second step, sorry…that we do after we circle the rule? We need to draw them. Brooklyn, track her. Austin: I see hands up there that are ready to read. We only have three choices left, so, let’s see. Alright! I need someone with voice [looks around the room]. D’Asia, do you have voice for me? D’Asia: Yes Austin: You sure? Alright, hands down, D’Asia’s reading. D’Asia: ‘August has four more birthdays than June.’ Austin: Alright, don’t say anything because I need to see my fingers. True…for Jasmine…True or False? Let’s see ‘em. Now you can’t do this, ‘cause I can’t tell. Looks like one big finger. Austin: True or false? I like how Brooklyn took her time quickly to read and make sure she knew her answer. She didn’t look around the room to look at anybody else’s fingers; she wanted to make sure that she knew her answer. Austin: Oh, boy, we’re down to the last two. I hope one of these works. That wouldn’t be good if it didn’t. Oh well, we’ll see. Here we go. I need someone to read C. I need voice though. Kayla, we’re going to work on your voice, okay? Kayla: Okay Austin: Oh, yeah, because I know you have it. I want to hear it. C, read it-I really like the enthusiasm that I’m seeing. This column right here is really grabbing hold to it. Jordan, I know you’re trying to persevere today; keep on trying, okay? Alright, let’s hear C…Summer, use your voice! 28
  29. 29. Positive Re-Framing StatementsDirections: Discuss each statement in terms of the message it sends to students. How conducive to creatingeffective and positive classroom culture is it? Reframe each one as positively as possible. 1. I don’t see everyone slanting.Discussion Notes:Reframe: 2. Kea, stop fooling around.Discussion Notes:Reframe: 3. Just a minute, Charles, absolutely nobody is tracking right now except Dyonte and Beth.Discussion Notes:Reframe: 4. Tyrone, Jamal can’t hear you.Discussion Notes:Reframe: 29
  30. 30. Principles of Training and Supervision IV:In your experience as a teacher, what methods of observation and feedback have been the most supportive of yourimprovement? What have been least supportive?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Thoughts on Observation • Predictable –Use observation to change teacher behavior in advance. Let teachers know you are coming and what you are looking for. • Positive – The tone of your observation should be positive – it shouldn’t be a gotcha – you want the teacher to be successful. Plus you want people to expose, not cover for, their weaknesses. Thus, risk free observation not tied to evaluation. • Scaffolded – You may begin the year looking for common behavioral standards in all classrooms, but later in the year, you can focus teachers to work on the technique that makes the most sense for them, based on their strengths as a teacher. • Frequent - You want teachers to use great techniques all the time, not just during two annual formal observations. If a technique is important enough for you to present to your teachers, “be seen looking” for it on frequent short visits to their room. These visits will help to normalize the process of observation and feedback as an everyday process, not a dog and pony show. Keep the feedback loop short as well – some leaders jump-in on the spot to demonstrate, some send an email, some check-in with teachers within 24 hours. 30
  31. 31. Cold Call Technique NotesKey Idea: Call on students regardless of whether they have raised their hands in order to make engaged participationthe expectation.3 Purposes for Cold Calling • • •4 Principles of Cold Calling • Predictable— • Systematic— • Positive— • Scaffolded—3 Variations • Hands Up/”Hands Down” • Follow-on • Timing the Name: 31
  32. 32. Cold Call VideosTeacher Examples of Principles Examples of Variations ObservationsWilliamsRectorVerilliDriggsPayne 32
  33. 33. Principles of Training and Supervision V: “It’s harder to change someone’s mind than get him to accept an idea in the first place.”The changes brought about by the techniques in this workshop may be very evident to students. They may be resistant.Colleen Driggs introduced Cold Call to her class with a Roll Out Speech. This allowed her to tell her class why she wasusing Cold Call (to anticipate possible misinterpretations), to frame the endeavor positively (“What a greatopportunity!”), and to tell them how it would work and what to expect.How might a Roll Out Speech about teaching techniques look with teachers? How would it be similar or different?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Draft a Roll Out Speech for your first training below:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 33
  34. 34. No Opt Out Technique NotesKey Idea: A sequence that begins with a student unable to answer a question should end with the student answeringthat question as often as possible.Important because: • •Four ways to get to an answer: • • • •Three particularly useful cues: • • •The tradeoff: • 34
  35. 35. No Opt Out VideosTeacher Inquiry Question ObservationsWilliamsElfersWilliams 35
  36. 36. Principles of Training and Supervision VI:Read the “Notes from Leaders Panel.” What are your three biggest take-aways from the leaders’ experiences in thinkingabout delivering professional development to your staff and coaching them to produce great results?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What questions do you still have about the elements of instructional leadership presented today?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 36
  37. 37. Notes from Leaders Panel - June 26, 2009At a recent workshop, we asked a panel of school leaders who had used the Taxonomy to drive results in highperforming schools to answer questions from participants about implementing the taxonomy.Panel: • Erica Woolway, Staff Developer, Leadership Preparatory Charter School, Brooklyn, NY • Darryl Williams, Founder and Principal, Brighter Choice Charter School for Boys, Albany , NY • Ben Marcovitz, Founder and Principal, New Orleans Charter Science and Math AcademyModerator: How do you decide where to start with the Taxonomy?Ben Marcovitz: • At the advice of several school leaders, I decided when presenting this to the staff that I would present the techniques most tied to culture first, then shift to the academic techniques. • We had time during the summer – I presented culture techniques in summer workshop. • I presented the academic techniques in professional development throughout the year • I also made a point to bring up “cold” material from the summer throughout the year. I would tell the staff, “We’re looking for this right now…”Erica Woolway: • We use a combination of a pre-planned professional development calendar mixed with professional development that is in response to “what’s going wrong,” or what we see happening in classrooms that we need to address. • The DVDs (which have several different video clips of the techniques) help when a specific issue needs to be addressed. They can be used when working one on one with a teacher as well as with the whole staff. • We hold a “Master Teacher retreat” for our more experienced teachers, and we use the train-the-trainer model with Grade Level Chairs so that they can train the teachers in their grade level.Darryl Williams: • It is important to keep in mind that you want your teachers to be able to be successful. • Teachers sometimes suspect they are hand-picked children or teachers in the videos. We always starts with, “This is something that you CAN do with hard work.” • We start small: o I don’t even tell the staff that there is an entire Taxonomy o We roll-out in increments o We also start with behavior techniques: 37
  38. 38.  100% is huge • Taxonomy can be tailored throughout the year based on needModerator: How did you create “buy-in” with the teachers?Woolway: • The techniques are clear and concrete. Teachers like them because they are so helpful and clearly implemented. • Each technique has so many small parts (ex: Strong Voice) or subtleties, so you can use it with a master teacher and a first-year – they can both get something out of it. • Having and using a common vocabulary helps streamline observations during the school year.Williams: • The Taxonomy and videoing of teachers can be used to help excellent teachers improve in specific areas. • There is no one above and beyond the skills and strategies outlined in the Taxonomy. It can be used across the board.Marcovitz: • It is important as a school leader to be well-versed in the Taxonomy before you present it. o When teachers offer worst case scenarios while you are presenting techniques to them, if you truly know the Taxonomy, you can address with a solution to increase confidence.Moderator: How have you adapted workshop materials for your own use?Williams: • Specific example: STAR position is essential for all students. The Taxonomy talks about getting 100% of students to STAR position using calm finesse, we added calm “confident” success. • You have to believe that techniques will work in order for them to be successful. • Ex: A teacher who walks toward a misbehaving student without practicing and being prepared can give the student the stage “to dance throughout the lesson” • We play with the language, but leave the techniques intact because they work.Marcovitz: • Biggest example: When we implemented 100%, we did it before we had been trained in Joy Factor, but we unknowingly incorporated Joy Factor into 100%. Our idea was to have the teachers create fun ways to seek student compliance (like showing they are finished with their Do Now by slamming their pens down, or with a team clap). We figured it would be easier to practice 100% with things that were fun for the students, and then practice it with other behavioral standards. • We reinforce techniques through role plays with teachers. And we do it again and again until teachers feel really comfortable. 38
  39. 39. • As a trainer, have fluency in the techniques and allow teachers to role play. It’s easier to fix bad habits in training than in the classroom.Woolway: • The feedback we give teachers is framed in terms of the Taxonomy. • We use videos one on one as a follow-up to observations.Participant Question: How do you keep this language fresh and in front of your teachers all year? Emails? Posted?Williams: • We observed at North Star Elementary School that the teachers posted reminders in the classroom to help them implement techniques – they listed Positive Framing ideas, or What To Do principles. • We integrate it into feedback language when speaking with or observing teachers.Participant Question: Any practical lessons from implementation of your training programs? What worked and whatdidn’t work in terms of training?Marcovitz: • Focus on training as simulation and role play. Practice needs to be established. Practice with other teachers to help calibrate them. • When you are introducing a brand new technique and teachers are under stress, expect a reaction.Williams: • The facilitator of Taxonomy techniques needs to practice in the mirror with the language and be ready and willing to act out techniques yourself. • Make sure that when you roll it out, you can speak as an expert. 39