Certified Cardiovascular Industry Representative The Clinical Spectrum of Heart Disease Dr Thomas Drew, MD MODULE 1: Cardi...
CAD - Coronary Artery Disease  <ul><li>aka CHD - Coronary Heart Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerotic disease in the c...
Structural Heart Disease <ul><li>Congenital  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present at birth, often requiring attention early on in...
Structural Heart Disease <ul><li>Congenital heart defects - Acyanotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrial septal defects (ASD)  <...
Structural Heart Disease <ul><li>Congenital heart defects  - Cyanotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetralogy of Fallot </li></ul>...
Structural Heart Disease (cont.) <ul><li>Congenital heart defects -  Cyanotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transposition of the g...
Structural Heart Disease <ul><li>Valvular heart disease: mitral, aortic, tricuspid </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy review </li><...
Structural Heart Disease <ul><li>Valvular diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitral stenosis and insufficiency/regurgitation <...
Structural Heart Disease (cont.) <ul><li>Valvular diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic stenosis and insufficiency </li></...
Acquired Heart Disease <ul><li>Rheumatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects females to males 4:1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gro...
Arrhythmias <ul><li>Bradyarrhythmias [brady = slow] <60 bpm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sick sinus syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><...
CHF - congestive heart failure <ul><li>Systolic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability of ventricles to contract </li></ul></ul><...
Cardiomyopathy  <ul><li>Diseases of the heart muscle. [-myo = muscle;  -pathy = disease] </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with...
Pericarditis and pericardial effusion <ul><li>[peri = surrounding; -itis = inflammation] </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of...
Endocarditis  <ul><li>[endo = within] </li></ul><ul><li>Staph or strep bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Native or prosthetic val...
THE END
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Drew module 1 clinical spectrum of heart disease

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Drew module 1 clinical spectrum of heart disease

  1. 1. Certified Cardiovascular Industry Representative The Clinical Spectrum of Heart Disease Dr Thomas Drew, MD MODULE 1: Cardiovascular Disease WELCOME
  2. 2. CAD - Coronary Artery Disease <ul><li>aka CHD - Coronary Heart Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerotic disease in the coronary arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood supply to the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis: hardening of arteries due to buildup of fatty plaques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commonly results in angina, myocardial infarction, or heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Main focus of course </li></ul>Atherosclerosis
  3. 3. Structural Heart Disease <ul><li>Congenital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present at birth, often requiring attention early on in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some less severe conditions may not be discovered until adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquired </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes multiple etiologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflamation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>degenerative </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Structural Heart Disease <ul><li>Congenital heart defects - Acyanotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrial septal defects (ASD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hole in atrial septum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventricular septal defects (VSD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hole in ventricular septum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent ductus arteriosos (PDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remnant fetal vessel remains open </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left heart obstruction: Coarctation of the Aorta; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome; Pulmonic Stenosis </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Structural Heart Disease <ul><li>Congenital heart defects - Cyanotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetralogy of Fallot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RV hypertrophy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VSD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stenotic pulmonary valve and artery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enlarged overriding aorta </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Structural Heart Disease (cont.) <ul><li>Congenital heart defects - Cyanotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transposition of the great vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aorta and pulmonary artery malposition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary valve stenosis with associated VSD or ASD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to left shunt </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Structural Heart Disease <ul><li>Valvular heart disease: mitral, aortic, tricuspid </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider location of valves and backup of blood flow to understand source of symptoms </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Structural Heart Disease <ul><li>Valvular diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitral stenosis and insufficiency/regurgitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mitral valve is bicuspid (two-leaflet), left AV valve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly caused by rheumatic disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right heart failure, pulmonary congestion, edema </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Structural Heart Disease (cont.) <ul><li>Valvular diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic stenosis and insufficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic valve is tricuspid (three-leaflet) valve between LV and aorta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath, syncope, angina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tricuspid stenosis and insufficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tricuspid valve is right AV valve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edema, ascites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infection causes insufficiency rarely </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Acquired Heart Disease <ul><li>Rheumatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects females to males 4:1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group A strep pharyngotonsilitis develops into rheumatic fever, affecting valves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scar tissue = stiffening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90 +% of mitral valve stenosis </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Arrhythmias <ul><li>Bradyarrhythmias [brady = slow] <60 bpm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sick sinus syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AV nodal block </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tachyarrhythmias [tachy = fast] >100 bpm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrial fibrillation and flutter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventricular fibrillation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms will depend upon the health of the patient and the degree of rhythm abnormality. </li></ul>
  12. 12. CHF - congestive heart failure <ul><li>Systolic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability of ventricles to contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms: hypotension, cool extremities, shortness of breath, distension of jugular veins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diastolic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability of ventricles to fill normally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms: distension of jugular veins, pulmonary congestion and edema </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Cardiomyopathy <ul><li>Diseases of the heart muscle. [-myo = muscle; -pathy = disease] </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with other underlying heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Types of cardiomyopathies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dilated: enlarged and poorly contracting heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertrophic: LV and septal thickening; reduced CO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictive: reduced compliance, poor diastolic filling </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Pericarditis and pericardial effusion <ul><li>[peri = surrounding; -itis = inflammation] </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of pericardium </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid accumulation: effusion </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: chest pain, fever, cough, shortness of breath </li></ul>
  15. 15. Endocarditis <ul><li>[endo = within] </li></ul><ul><li>Staph or strep bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Native or prosthetic valves </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: fever, murmur, petechial rash </li></ul>
  16. 16. THE END

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