Reconstruction i


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first lecture for US History II

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Reconstruction i

  1. 1. Planning for Peace: Reconstruction before surrender
  2. 3. Cause of the War <ul><li>When tallying the Causes for the Civil War - slavery is among the chief causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1861 when the war began - what was the stated cause for the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A House divided against itself cannot stand….” 1858 speech by Abraham Lincoln </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s first inaugural address aimed at keeping the union together: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provisioning troops at forts within seceded territory - Fort Sumter… </li></ul></ul>
  3. 5. Causes of the war <ul><li>By Lincoln’s second inaugural address - he allowed that Slavery and its end was a key element to the war and a key to the future. </li></ul><ul><li>“ On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago, all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it--all sought to avert it. While the inaugeral [sic] address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war--seeking to dissole [sic] the Union, and divide effects, by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war; but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive; and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came.” Abraham Lincoln March 4, 1865 </li></ul>
  4. 6. Territory held by Confederates at end of 1863
  5. 7. Reconstruction before surrender <ul><li>What is the political purpose and effect of the Emancipation Proclamation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed January 1, 1863 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document frees slaves everywhere but: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Union occupied Tennessee, Louisiana and Virginia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the social and cultural effect? How many slaves are actually freed by this effort? </li></ul>
  6. 9. Conceptualizing Emancipation <ul><li>Abraham Lincoln did not merely go to his office on January 1 and sign the emancipation proclamation into law - rather throughout 1862 he began to take steps toward the proclamation by… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ending slavery in Washington DC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplementing the ending of slavery by paying damages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing a preliminary emancipation proclamation dated September 22, 1862 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Ending Slavery in DC <ul><li>Connects those who own slaves and are loyal US citizens to present to the government a petition in writing setting the names, ages and personal description of the freed slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Within 90 days damages will be assess and awarded through the Secretary of the treasury </li></ul>
  8. 11. Emancipation of Slaves in DC
  9. 12. Supplement <ul><li>On July 12, 1862, Congress passed a supplemental bill to the original DC Emancipation Act which allowed slaves whose masters had not filed for compensation to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>An important factor in deciding claims under this Act was that the testimony of both blacks and whites was accepted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if an owner challenged a slave who petitioned for freedom, the testimony from both was given equal weight, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a sharp departure from the previous legal practice in which slaves or freed blacks could not testify against whites. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Supplemental Act
  11. 14. Preliminary Proclamation <ul><li>On September 22, 1862 - Lincoln penned the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation which later was signed on January 1 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>This document suggests that if the Confederate slave holding states persisted in rebellion that the slaves within the rebellious states would be freed. </li></ul><ul><li>This sets the stage for the phrasing of the later Emancipation proclamation by freeing slaves only in rebellious regions and states and not those under government control or border states. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
  13. 16. Planning for Peace <ul><li>Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms for accepting the Confederate states back in the union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that reconstruction was a presidential rather than congressional responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnanimous in victory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% - loyalty oath and acceptance of end of slavery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems with the Proclamation - those detailed in text and those you have thought of? </li></ul>
  14. 18. Wade Davis Bill <ul><li>In July of 1864 Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Henry Davis of Maryland developed an alternative approach to reconstruction. </li></ul><ul><li>This alternative approach was stricter and more punitive of the Confederate states than was the president’s plan </li></ul><ul><li>It offers us an idea of the conflict between the Executive and the Legislative Branches of the government. </li></ul>
  15. 19. Wade Davis Bill, National Archives
  16. 20. Wade Davis Bill <ul><li>Appointment of Provisional Governors </li></ul><ul><li>All white male citizens to take oath to support the constitution - need to get a majority of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional convention for the state to establish a government in support of the US </li></ul><ul><li>Elections held to elect qualified and loyal citizens to fill roles of necessary government offices </li></ul><ul><li>Limited those who could hold office </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibited slavery </li></ul>
  17. 21. Benjamin Franklin Wade, Senator for Ohio
  18. 22. Problems with the two Plans <ul><li>Redistribution of land - Abandoned land or not? </li></ul><ul><li>Four million recently freed impoverished black laborers - should the government assist these people in becoming independent or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned lands (Freeman’s Bureau) created March 3, 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Surrender achieved - April 9, 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln Assassinated April 14, 1865 </li></ul>
  19. 24. Surrender <ul><li>Surrender signed on April 9th 1865 by Robert E. Lee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Fall of Richmond - the capital of the Confederacy - April 3, 1865 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of notes passed between Grant and Lee regarding details of the surrender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting at the McLean House - where Grant wrote a brief document and it was signed by Lee after some consideration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the impact of this historic event? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Surrender at Appomattox
  21. 26. Currier and Ives’ Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Original in National Archives
  22. 27. Assassination and Impact <ul><li>Lincoln’s assassination was not a single event but rather part of a much larger conspiracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to Lincoln, William H. Steward Secretary of State was also to be assassinated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The plan called also for the death of Andrew Johnson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The larger plot which was to create chaos and overthrow the government of the United States was not successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the end 8 coconspirators were tried for the plot - four of whom died by hanging, three were imprisoned for life, and Booth died during capture. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 29. Impact of Assassination <ul><li>First American President to be assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Mourned throughout Nation </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks on those who supported Booth </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion of Lincoln increases after death - millions came to funeral procession in Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Train trip to Illinois for burial </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Johnson - one of least liked Presidents </li></ul>