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0137033451 pp6

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0137033451 pp6

  1. 1. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally Chapter 6 ROCK EXCAVATION
  2. 2. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally INTRODUCTION • Rock Characteristics – Rock may be classified as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic, according to its origin. Igneous rock formed when the Earth’s molten material cooled. – Because of its origin, it is quite homogeneous and is therefore the most difficult type of rock to excavate.
  3. 3. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally INTRODUCTION • Rock Investigation – Relative hardness is measured on Moh’s scale from 1 (talc) to 10 (diamond). – As a rule, any rock that can be scratched by a knife blade (hardness about 5) can be easily excavated by ripping or other mechanical methods.
  4. 4. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally INTRODUCTION FIGURE 6-1. Schematic representation of seismic refraction test.
  5. 5. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally INTRODUCTION FIGURE 6-2. Graph of refraction test data.
  6. 6. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally INTRODUCTION FIGURE 6-3. Graph of refraction test data, Example 6-1.
  7. 7. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally INTRODUCTION • Rock-Handling Systems – The process of rock moving may be considered in four phases: • Loosening • Loading • Hauling • Compacting
  8. 8. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally INTRODUCTION Table 6-1. Principal rock-handling systems
  9. 9. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally INTRODUCTION • Tunneling – Tunneling in rock is a specialized form of rock excavation that has traditionally been accomplished by drilling and blasting. – Recently, however, tunneling machines or mechanical moles equipped with multiple cutter heads and capable of excavating to full tunnel diameter have come into increasing use.
  10. 10. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally INTRODUCTION FIGURE 6-4. Large tunneling machine. (Courtesy of The Robbins Company)
  11. 11. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally INTRODUCTION FIGURE 6-5. Hydraulic jumbo. (Courtesy of Atlas Copco)
  12. 12. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally DRILLING • Drilling Equipment – Common types of drilling equipment include percussion drills, rotary drills, and rotary- percussion drills. Table 6-2. Typical characteristics of rock drilling equipment
  13. 13. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally DRILLING FIGURE 6-6. Hydraulic track drill. (Courtesy of Atlas Copco)
  14. 14. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally DRILLING FIGURE 6-7. Rotary blast hole drill. (Courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Company)
  15. 15. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally DRILLING FIGURE 6-8. Downhole drill mounted on a rotary drill. (Courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Company)
  16. 16. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally DRILLING FIGURE 6-9. Drill penetration versus air pressure.
  17. 17. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally DRILLING Table 6-3. Representative drilling rates (carbide bit)
  18. 18. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally DRILLING • Drill Bits and Steel FIGURE 6-10. Major types of rock drill bits.
  19. 19. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally DRILLING • Drilling Patterns and Rock Yield Table 6-4. Typical drill hole spacing (rectangular pattern) [ft (m)]
  20. 20. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally DRILLING FIGURE 6-11. Principal drilling patterns.
  21. 21. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally BLASTING • Explosives – The principal explosives used for rock excavation include dynamite, ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate in fuel oil (ANFO), and slurries.
  22. 22. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally BLASTING • Electric Blasting Circuits FIGURE 6-12. Types of electric blasting circuits.
  23. 23. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally BLASTING Table 6-5. Representative current requirements for firing electric blasting caps
  24. 24. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally BLASTING Table 6-6. Representative resistance of electric blasting caps
  25. 25. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally BLASTING Table 6-7. Resistance of solid copper wire
  26. 26. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally BLASTING FIGURE 6-13. Circuit for Example 6-3.
  27. 27. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally BLASTING • Nonelectric Blasting Circuits • Controlled and Secondary Blasting • Blasting Safety FIGURE 6-14. Hydraulic demolition hammer. (Courtesy of Allied Construction Products, Inc.)
  28. 28. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally ROCK RIPPING • Employment of Rippers – Rippers have been utilized since ancient times to break up hard soils. – However, only since the advent of the heavy-duty tractor-mounted ripper has it become feasible to rip rock.
  29. 29. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally ROCK RIPPING FIGURE 6-15. Heavy-duty crawler-mounted ripper. (Reprinted Courtesy of Caterpillar Inc.)
  30. 30. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally ROCK RIPPING • Ripping Equipment • Ripper Production • Considerations in Ripping FIGURE 6-16. Adjustable parallelogram ripper.
  31. 31. Copyright ©2011, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Construction Methods and Management, 8th ed. S. W. Nunnally ROCK RIPPING FIGURE 6-17. Ripper performance vs. seismic velocity. (Reprinted Courtesy of Caterpillar Inc.)

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