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Digital Divide And Accessibility

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Digital Divide And Accessibility

  1. 1. <ul><ul><ul><li>Global Catalysts Consulting Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility in the Virtual Workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities and Challenges </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Moral and Legal Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy for implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objective <ul><li>Our objective is help you understand how to overcoming barriers in the digital economy which requires appropriate policies, technological tools and education for accessible system design and implementation.  </li></ul><ul><li>In other terms, Compliance can means job opportunities   </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fact <ul><ul><li>Access to information and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Right </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Facts <ul><li>48.9 million or 19.4% Americans are disable according to the US President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly 20%in global terms </li></ul><ul><li>21.1% of people with “vision problems” have Internet access issues </li></ul><ul><li>27.2% of people with “hearing problems” </li></ul><ul><li>22.5% of people with “difficulty using hands” </li></ul><ul><li>42.2% of people with a learning disability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACTRA Study </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. International Accessibility Survey <ul><ul><li>UN study of 20 countries revealed that only 3 out of 100 International websites was accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey included heads of states, airlines, banks, newspapers, and retailers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central government, retailers, and banks offered the best accessibility around the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British, Spanish and German central gov't faired best </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Physical World Conditions <ul><li>Physical adaptions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus Modifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curb-cut for wheelchair access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheelchair ramps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modifications to doors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TTY terminals in lobby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevators with voice and/or Braille instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guess what? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is applicable in the physical it also applies to the virtual world </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Moral and Legal Issues
  9. 9. Moral Obligation <ul><ul><li>Universal Design( Disable Design) sets out the parameters for the development and implementation of information systems which are flexible enough to accommodate the needs of the broadest range of users of computers and telecommunications equipment, regardless of age or disability. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What does this mean? <ul><li>Everyone involved in the entire process from funder, designer, staff and the public all share a common moral obligation to provide access to the to the website which meets the needs of all the end users and is EFFECTIVE. </li></ul><ul><li>It is to everyone's benefit that no one is excluded </li></ul>
  11. 11. Father of the Internet <ul><li>As Tim Berners-Lee, W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web aptly states:  “The power of the Web is in its universality.  Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fact <ul><li>People with disabilities are being locked out of the digital economy because of a lack of will and ambivalence toward inclusive accessible design. </li></ul><ul><li>Blissful ignorance recent changes with WCAG 2.0(March/08) and ISO 9241 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Legal Compliance in the US <ul><li>ADA requirements for “effective communication” and the provision of “auxiliary aids and services” and “reasonable accommodations” apply to the computer and Internet environment.  </li></ul><ul><li>Legal requirements opens doors of opportunities for consultants/design companies to assess and make websites compliant </li></ul>
  14. 14. Legal History <ul><li>Signed into law in 1990, it ... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“....prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, programs and services provided by state and local governments, goods and services provided by private companies, and in commercial facilities.” (See the U.S. Department of Justice “ADA Homepage” at </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Legal Cases <ul><li>Blind student files a case against Target Stores in the US, Class action suit, Amazon and high profile companies also facing this type of litigation </li></ul><ul><li>BBC report on UK businesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure rate 4 out of 5 in 1000 companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Accessibility and Government <ul><li>BBC study and UK Government website accessiblity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>61% fail to comply to W3 guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site failure to operate on different browsers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to provide access to visual impaired viewers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. How are the disabled impacted? <ul><li>The disabled are not bridging the digital divide in the following arenas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Services Providers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet voting, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accessible system design, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet kiosks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart cards, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic textbooks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-distance learning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer household appliances.     </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Who are facing Barriers <ul><li>The impact is not limited to people with visual and mobility disabilities.  People with specific learning disabilities are also finding that they can no longer access web pages audibly with screen readers.  Even people with cognitive disabilities are becoming lost due to the absence of navigation elements at web sites </li></ul>
  19. 19. FOSS and Accessiblity <ul><li>Legislation has created standards that will define what is meant by electronic and information technology and will set forth the technical and functional performance criteria for accessibility implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a recognized good practice to consult with the disability community, especially those members most likely to request accommodations before launching Internet services </li></ul>
  20. 20. Implementation Strategy
  21. 21. Virtual World <ul><li>As in the physical world legislation exists that require effective communication, regardless of whether they generally communicate through print media, audio media, or computerized media such as the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Entities that use the Internet for communications regarding their programs, goods, or services must be prepared to offer those communications through accessible means as well </li></ul>
  22. 22. W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) 1999 <ul><li>Ensuring that Web technologies support accessibility  </li></ul><ul><li>Developing guidelines for accessibility  </li></ul><ul><li>Developing tools to evaluate and facilitate accessibility  </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting education and outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and engaging in research and development </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1999 Guidelines for websites <ul><li>A page that is not text, provide a text equivalent. </li></ul><ul><li>Every image on a page, carry an alternative or alt text </li></ul><ul><li>When using tables to display data, identify row and column headers. so a screen reader, can turn a table of information into understandable speech </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that information is still understandable without colour. </li></ul>
  24. 24. W3 Initiative Web Guidelines <ul><li>Retirement of the older 1999 guidelines with a 200,000 word document </li></ul><ul><li>Launch in Spring 2008, WCAG 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge new technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Success Criteria for testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Quick Reference </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. How does it work? <ul><li>WCAG uses success criteria to evaluate a website </li></ul><ul><li>A success criterion is a testable statement that will be either true or false when applied to specific Web content. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Four Main Guidelines <ul><li># 1 Perceivable </li></ul><ul><li>Information and user interface components must be perceivable by users </li></ul><ul><li>This means that users must be able to perceive the information being presented (it can't be invisible to all of their senses) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  27. 27. Four Main Guidelines <ul><li># 2 Operable </li></ul><ul><li>User interface components must be operable by users </li></ul><ul><li>This means that users must be able to operate the interface (the interface cannot require interaction that the user can not perform) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Four Main Guidelines <ul><li># 3 Understandable </li></ul><ul><li>Information and operation of user interface must be understandable by users </li></ul><ul><li>This means that users must be able to understand the information as well as the operation of the user interface (the content or operation cannot be beyond their understanding) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Four Main Guidelines <ul><li># 4 Robust </li></ul><ul><li>Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies </li></ul><ul><li>This means that users must be able to access the content as technologies advance (as technologies and user agents evolve, the content should remain accessible) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Defination <ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Good design incorporates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or keyboard input/output features </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Situation <ul><li>The Web 2.0 is creating more of a digital barriers to those individuals with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Each existing and new layer of the Internet is seeing more inaccessible design of Internet/Intranet web sites, Internet Service Provider “portals,” incompatible browsers, or inaccessible web-based platforms for on-line business </li></ul>
  32. 32. Threat/Opportunity <ul><li>Exciting electronic and information technology features are emerging in the areas of information appliances, real-time conference participation, audio-streaming, telephone voice browsers, search engines, news groups, chat rooms and 3-D imaging. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Untapped Markets <ul><li>IT consultants can contact with Business and Government to assess,, redesign, build and implement WCAG 2.0 compliant websites </li></ul><ul><li>Outreach to business community to build awareness of the untapped business potential for building bridges rather than walls to 20% of the population </li></ul><ul><li>New IT companies meeting the market niche for adaptative technologies </li></ul>
  35. 36. Whirlwind Wheelchair International <ul><li>International projects in 45 countries providing wheelchair design and construction utilizing local resources </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Whirlwind RoughRider designs under the Creative Commons license </li></ul>
  36. 37. Open Prosthetics Project <ul><li>Open Prosthetics or </li></ul><ul><li>North Carolina State University engineering project to create low cost myoelectric arms below $500 per limb, Versatile body powered hook and self adjusting suspension system </li></ul>
  37. 38. Websites <ul><li>Websites with graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of Navigational button or arrow to replaced to accommodate those who are visually impaired. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The US Department of Justice requires that websites must provide a text format rather than a graphical format assures accessibility to the Internet for individuals using screen readers .  </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. E Government <ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrofit government kiosks- licence renewal, voting, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online transparency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK created the Allcomms, a all party website to encourage debate on accessibility issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. W3 Review <ul><li>The W3 Accessibility sub committees review of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style Sheets, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MathML, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOM, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Access, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internationalization. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Web site Checklist <ul><li>Provide an Access Instruction Page for Visitors </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support for text browsers </li></ul><ul><li>Attach &quot;Alt&quot; tags to graphic images </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperlink photographs with descriptive text &quot;D&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Caption all audio and video clips by using &quot;CC&quot; hyperlinks </li></ul><ul><li>Provide alternative mechanisms for on-line forms (such as email or voice/TTY phone numbers) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid access barriers such as the posting of documents in PDF, table, newspaper or frame format or requiring visitors to download software. If posting in PDF, the HTML text or ASCII file must also be posted. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Strategy <ul><li>Treat new virtual communities the same way new buildings comply with building code regulations to prior to access </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with the disability community, especially those members most likely to request accommodations </li></ul><ul><li>Entities when upgrades occur should select software programs and/or hardware equipment which are adaptable for people with disabilities </li></ul>
  42. 43. More Strategies <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create proactive policies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-effective approach to purchasing adaptive technology  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive technology training  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access guidelines for distance learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Print materials translated into alternate formats such as electronic text and Braille      </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Evaluate your Website <ul><ul><li>Bobby-CAST, the Center for Applied Special Technology, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Accessibility Checker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WEBXACT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. More Resources <ul><li>IBM </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Korn, Accessibility Architect Sun Microsystems Inc </li></ul><ul><li>The World Denied: Web Accessibility the Movie </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Extensive Links <ul><li>SNOW </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACTRA </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Tools <ul><li>List of courseware accessiblity tools </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  47. 48. Website Evaluation and Repair Tools <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  48. 49. Conclusion <ul><li>A robust and strong digital economy requires the removal of barriers through the deployment of accessible design elements in our computer, information technology and communications.  By directing our research and policy directives to address these problems, we will overcome the digital divide and ensure full participation in the global digital economy. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Contact Information <ul><li>Glenn McKnight </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>email [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter gmcknight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skype gmcknight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blog Http:// </li></ul></ul>