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Catholic health care ethics select moral principles


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Catholic Health Care Select Moral Principles

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Catholic health care ethics select moral principles

  1. 1. Ch 3 Selected Moral Principles
  2. 2. A. Totality and Integrity “All persons served by Catholic health care have the right and duty to protect and preserve their bodily and functional integrity. The functional integrity of the person may be sacrificed to maintain the health or life of the person when no other morally permissible means is available.” Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services.
  3. 3.  The principle of totality is based on the natural law which says that life is to be preserved and maintained. Although this does not mean using life-prolonging procedures that are insufficiently beneficial.
  4. 4.  Surgery for the good of the human body is directly opposed to mutilation which is a destruction of the body. The principle of totality aims to preserve life in its totality, in its whole and sometimes that may mean sacrificing a part of the body.
  5. 5.  More concretely – examples may be amputations, cancerous tissue removal, organ removal. Pg 14. On the removal of Healthy organs1) when the preservation of the organ may cause grave injury. 2)when the removal means avoiding more serious complications 3) when the removal will diminish the risk of death.
  6. 6.  This principle however may not be applied to the generative organs (sterilization) when the health of the individual is not at stake. Here the end of preserving life is not present. Organ transplants are permissible as long as the life of the donor is not placed at risk.
  7. 7. B. Ordinary and Extraordinary Means. These two terms refer to the means to preserve life. Ordinary means are obligatory. Extraordinary are optional and many not be chosen. The extraordinary may be chosen with the hope of healing a person or they may produce no benefit.
  8. 8.  The principle to preserve life is not absolute. Patients have the right to all information concerning their status, this is not a doctors decision. Read aloud directives 55, 56 and 57 pg 17 Analysis of Benefits and Burdens can be complicated.
  9. 9. Videos on the Issues Fr. Koterski - Speach on End of Life Issues EWTN Roundtable on Last Issues What is PVS? NCBC Why is Catholic Health Care Unique?
  10. 10. C. Confidentiality Confidentiality – the root word is a latin word confidere – to trust. To show confidence is to show trust with one another. Confidence – is not only having trust for one another but showing respect for one another. Authority – given the position of authority of a doctor care should be taken for a persons reputations and condition.
  11. 11.  Esteem for patience – speak well and not in a depreciative manner. Slander x Protect reputation Upon receiving confidence, do not have the right to divulge for whimsical matters. “Those who might be privy to certain confidences do not have the right to disclose them to others without the approval of the person whom the knowledge is about” pg 20
  12. 12.  Maintaining confidentiality for the Common good. Three types of secrets Natural Secret Professional Secret Parent – Children Secrets
  13. 13.  Professional Secrecy and the Common Good. If the observance of the professional secrecy would be more harmful than helpful for the common good, then the obligation of secrecy ceases and is replaced by the obligation to reveal the secret. Pg 22
  14. 14. D. Principle of Double Effect A good effect that is intended but along with the good effect there is a concomitant evil effect that is not intended. “the principle of double effect governs situation in which one action is followed by two effects, one good (and intended), the other evil (foreseen but not intended).”
  15. 15. Four Conditions for DE 1) the action in itself is a good act considered in its object. 2) the good effect is intended not the bad effect. 3) the good effect is not produced by the bad effect. 4) there is a proportionately grave reason for performing the bad act. Pg 24
  16. 16.  Action Good in itself. The object itself has to be good, if it is not than the action cannot be taken, no matter the good intent or good effects. Some acts are always objectively wrong.
  17. 17.  Intention of the act is for the morally good act. The intention for the good effect and the bad effects are merely tolerated and not wanted. Although the intention is not enough for a good act, the object in itself must be good.
  18. 18.  No Evil Means to a Good End The bad effect once again is not intended but merely tolerated. In these cases all other remedies must be attempted first, this is a last resort type of intervention. We cannot do evil in order to procure goodness.
  19. 19.  Proportionate Reason – due proportion between the good and bad effects. Usually the overall health and life of a person is a proportionate reason to a loss of bodily function. Video - Principle of Double Effect
  20. 20. F. Common Good “The common good is a good that is shared or participated in by many persons” pg 31CHCE Requires an organization – Politics, Authority Different from an an individual good Principle of Subsidiarity
  21. 21.  Principle of Common good requires sacrifices from Individuals.
  22. 22. G. Conscience Definition: Conscience is a persons reason making a judgment of right or wrong according to a set of moral principles that a person holds with conviction.
  23. 23. Types of Conscience Certain conscience – judges without doubt or fear that the opposite is true. Doubtful conscience – is a conscience that either makes no judgment or judges with fear that the opposite is true. Erroneous conscience – is one that judges good as evil or evil as good. Correct conscience – judges good as good, evil as evil.
  24. 24.  Read Directive 28 and 32 from the book CHCE and comment. Conscience is inviolable, yet not infallible The subjective guide to morality hearing the objective voice speaking to it from within, yet not confused with the self. Pg 32
  25. 25. Videos on Conscience Catholic Conscience Video Comments Fr. Barron Catholic Conscience Cardinal Newman on Following Conscience