Saarmste 2012 presentation

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Co-Presentation with Dr. Zanzini Ndhlovu and Godfrey Mwewa, University of Zambia

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Saarmste 2012 presentation

  1. 1. Assessing ICT availability and use byMathematics and Science Teachers of High Schools in Zambia: A case of Copper-belt and North-Western Provinces of Zambia Mwewa GodfreyUniversity of Zambia, Institute of Distance Education & Ndhlovu B. Zanzini (PhD) University of Zambia, School of Education
  2. 2. Presentation Outline• Abstract• Introduction• Theoretical background – purpose of study & research questions• Methodology• Results and Discussion: demographic characteristics• Conclusion and recommendations03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  3. 3. Abstract Paper reports on the availability and use of ICTs in teaching and learning in high schools by mathematics and science teachers in two provinces of Zambia, one urban and other rural. A survey research design was adopted, utilising both quantitative and qualitative methods. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data while Focus Group Discussions and interviews were used to collect qualitative data.03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  4. 4. Abstract cont’d …• Findings indicate that there were very limited ICTs facilities in schools.• Where they were available, no technical support such that a large number of hardware was not functional.• Internet connectivity was poor and expensive.• Large number of teachers did not feel adequately prepared to teach using ICTs. 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  5. 5. Abstract cont’d …• They lacked skills and appropriate software to create inquiry-based learning environments. Recommendations:• To use ICTs fully, teachers need not only to access ICT tools or resources, but also re-learn how to use ICT in an appropriate manner and actually integrate technology in their teaching. 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  6. 6. Key words• Information Communication Technologies• High Schools,• mathematics and science teachers,• learning resources,• ICT policy; and• Interactive environments03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  7. 7. Introduction• ICTs identified as most effective tools to bring about socio-economic development• Technologies offer whole new field for citizens to participate in developing knowledge-based economies (UNDP, 2006)• Spread of IT-enabled services are beneficial especially to those with limited skills or lack resources to invest in higher education 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  8. 8. Introduction cont’d …Government of Zambia recognises importance of ICTs:• Planned to have e-learning applied in all learning and socio-economic activities by 2015• Committed to have infrastructure available fully integrated and functional throughout Zambia by 2015 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  9. 9. • Challenge of inadequate supply of teaching and learning materials could be circumvented by use of ICTs (MoE, 2010)• Majority of schools are not currently ICT- equipped or internet enabled• Access to internet cafe`s steadily increasing (Hennessey, et al 2010)• Little research on availability and extent of use of ICTs especially by maths and science teachers03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  10. 10. Introduction cont’d …• Documented that pupils are experiencing new environments that offer opportunities for collaborative learning. (Becker, 2000)Research indicates that ICT can change the way teachers teach as:• it supports more student-centred approaches to instruction• developing the higher order skills and promoting collaborative activities 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  11. 11. Purpose of the Study Study sought to determine the prevalence and use of ICTs by Mathematics and Science teachers in high schools03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  12. 12. Research questions• What ICTs are available in schools in the Copper- belt and North-western Provinces?• How do mathematics and science teachers use ICTs in their teaching?• What experiences do mathematics and science teachers have in the use of ICTs for teaching and learning?• What challenges if any do they face in ICT use? 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  13. 13. Theoretical background• Teachers’ use of ICT generally explained through two classifications: – Supportive ICT use; and – Classroom ICT use (Tondeur et al, 2007)• Study also guided partly by motivation theories, and how they relate to teacher use of ICTs• Sufficient levels of motivation in teachers spur them to innovative use of technology.03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  14. 14. Methodology• Survey carried out in two provinces on types of ICTs in schools and actual use• Sample of 20 secondary schools in two provinces• Questionnaires sent to schools• Total of 17 maths & science teachers interviewed in focused group discussions and 6 in in-depth interviews.• Quantitative data analysed using percentages while qualitative results were put in categories 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  15. 15. Results and discussion• Results presented according to research questionsDemographic characteristics• 17 participants: 3 females and 14 males• 4 teachers offered Physics, 3 offered Chemistry, 2 of 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  16. 16. Results and discussion cont’d ... Subject Number of teachers PercentageBiology 2 12Chemistry 3 18Mathematics 7 41Physics 4 23Other 1 6Total 17 10003/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  17. 17. Types of schools Type of school Copperbelt North-WesternGRZ 7 4Grant-Aided 3 1Technical 0 1Total 10 6 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  18. 18. Results and discussion• More (44%) GRZ schools than other types of schools• Majority of teachers were males 14 (82%) and 3 (18%) females• Mathematics had highest number of teachers (7 teachers) representing 41% 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  19. 19. ICT AvailabilityCopperbelt North-westernRadio RadioVideo VideoTV TVComputers ComputersTape Recorders Tape RecordersTelephone(s) Telephone(s)CD-ROM CD-ROM03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  20. 20. • ICTs in two provinces were identical - differed in quantities• Very few schools with computers with internet connection• Copperbelt had more schools with Internet connections (6)• Grant-aided schools had computers with internet connection• Grant-aided schools had more ICTs available• Telephone line, radios and CD-ROM had minimal classroom opportunity for learning 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  21. 21. ICT Availability• Local communities registered a number of internet cafe’s whose patronage included pupils• Schools seemed slow to take advantage of information society.• Schools should be in driving seat and not back seat.• Task ahead for government is to equip schools adequately for e-learning mode 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  22. 22. ICT Policy• Majority of schools had no ICT policy• 75 % of schools indicated that they had no ICT policy while only 25 % had an ICT policy• School ICT policy statements include: - Every learner to have access to basic computer literacy skills - All teachers should be computer literate 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  23. 23. ICT Policy cont’d …• Where a computer room existed, there was a teacher appointed to coordinate its use• 65 % of schools had a coordinator while 15% didn’t have• 40% of coordinators were trained in ICTs• Observed that background of ICT coordinators: maths (4); Science based (6); social sciences (2); and other areas (3)• Felt that maths and/or science teachers were more suited to coordinate ICT activities 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  24. 24. ICT Policy cont’d …• Lack of policy in schools compounded by the absence of clear policy by Ministry of Education• Grant-aided schools have some guidelines on ICT• A policy would make it mandatory for schools to purchase ICT equipment and send teachers for training03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  25. 25. ICT Policy• School-level policy facilitates coherent and supportive community of practice associated with effective, regular and consistent ICT use (Hennessy, et al, 2005) 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  26. 26. ICTs use in schools• ICTs used for teaching in maths and Sciences were stated as TVs and computers• Schools with DSTV (A Private TV Network) had access to channels that broadcasted educational programmes in all school subject areas• About 71 % of teachers used MS applications for preparation of lesson plans, keeping records and typing test 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  27. 27. ICTs use in schools cont’d …• Two schools on Copperbelt, radio was used in the classroom• In grant-aided schools on Copperbelt, teachers used computers to access instructional materials on internet.• ICTs were not used by learners for learning purposes03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  28. 28. Teacher motivation• Majority of teachers indicated willingness to learn how to use computers for teaching purposes• Bester et al indicated that classroom use of ICT directly depended on teacher motivation and support in their use03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  29. 29. Teachers experiences• On use of TV broadcast educational channels: - “Learners found it a strange way of learning” - “Learners were very attentive and happy” - “I covered more material in a short time” - “There was full participation from all learners”• Teachers expressed frustrations with Internet connectivity – slow, unstable and costly 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  30. 30. Challenges in ICTs use• Limited knowledge of how to use ICTs (and applications)• Generally inadequate hardware and where available, hardly used due to computer illiteracy• Lack of technical support in centrally controlled computer labs and usually with obsolete equipment• Lack of control of television programmes aired on DSTV03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  31. 31. Conclusion• There are very limited ICTs facilities in schools• Where such facilities existed Internet connectivity was poor and expensive difficult to engage learners in collaborative learning environments• Many teachers felt inadequately prepared to teach with ICTs• Largest use of ICTs was in preparation and record keeping of results 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  32. 32. Conclusion cont’d• ICT use was about introducing learners to basic computer use such as word processing, e-mail & web-browsing• Teachers were willing and ready to learn how to use ICTs in inquiry-based learning environments 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  33. 33. Recommendations• Put a policy in place to guide schools and teachers in ICT use and applications in schools• ICT in the classroom should be integral part of curriculum in teacher preparation programmes• Ministry of Education and private providers should equip their institutions with necessary ICTs 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  34. 34. Recommendations cont’d …• Teacher preparation institutions should include ICT training to offer hands-on experience to student teachers• ICT subject at high school should be made examinable• Ministry of Education and School owners should pay or give ‘jump-startfor operational costs that is, internet connectivity, software and maintenance SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by 03/30/12 University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  35. 35. Recommendations cont’d …• Schools with limited PCs could start with one internet-enabled computer in a room with some projection facility for access by the whole class• Serving teachers should be supported in School- Based CPD activities that should include ICTs uses• Government should give incentives to ICT operators such as zero-rate equipment who invest in ICT for education 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  36. 36. End and Let’s discuss03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe
  37. 37. Contact details Mwewa GodfreyUniversity of Zambia, Institute of Distance Education Email: godfrey.mwewa@unza.zm, & Ndhlovu B.Zanzini (PhD) University of Zambia, School of Education Email: zanzini.ndhlovu@unza.zm 03/30/12 SAARMSTE 2012 Conference, Hosted by University of Malawi, Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe

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