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  1. 1. WORLD HISTORY SECTION IINote: This exam uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E.(common era). These labels correspond to B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno Domini), whichare used in some world history textbooks.Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-9. (Thedocuments have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the linedpages of the Section II free-response booklet.This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents.Write an essay that:␣ Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. ␣ Uses all ofthe documents. ␣ Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways aspossible. Does not simplysummarize the documents individually. ␣ Takes into account the sources of the documents andanalyzes the authors’ points of view. ␣ Identifies and explains the need for at least one additionaltype of document.You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents.1. Using the documents below analyze the Chinese attitudes towards the roles that women play in ancient Chinese society.Historical Back Ground: This is from the start of Chinese Society to around the 20thCentury. Go On To The Next Page
  2. 2. Document OneBentley, Jerry H., and Herbert F. Ziegler. "Productivity and Prosperity during the Former Han." Traditions &Encounters A global perspective on the past. 3rd Edition . Vol. . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill HigherEducation, 197. Print.During the Han dynasty, moralists sought to enhance the authority of patriarchal family heads by emphasizingthe importance of filial piety and women’s subordination to their menfolk. The anonymous Confucian Classicof Filial Piety, Composed probably in the early Han dynasty, taught that children should obey and honor theirparents as well as other superiors and political authorities. Similarly, Ban Zhao, a well-educated women froma prominent Han family, wrote a widely read treatise entitled Admonitions for Women that emphasizedhumility, obedience, subservience, and devotion to their husbands as the virtues most appropriate for women.To confucian moralists and government authorities alike, orderly, patriarchal families were the foundations ofa stable society.Document two "Women of All Nations." Primary Source Media Documents: History Resource Center:Modern World. Detroit: Gale, 1908. Gale World History In Context. Web. 6 Dec. 2010.Document URLIt is easy enough to catalogue a Chinese womans clothes, to describe her appearance and the customs to whichshe must conform, to explain her legal and social status and the duties she must fulfil. But, when we have doneall this, we have merely the shell; of the living, breathing woman we hardly catch a glimpse. Writers whoadopt this photographic method leave us with the impression that the Chinese woman is so hemmed in withrestrictions that she scarcely has a personality, that she is so brought up by rule that she can hardly have a soulto call her own. Human nature, however, is the same all the world over, and there are reasons for believingthat, although etiquette not only enforces the seclusion of the Chinese woman but forbids even the mention ofa Chinese wife in society, yet women occupy, whether as mothers or wives, a position of great importance andconsiderable influence in the Middle Kingdom. In any case, a Chinese woman would hardly agree with theforeigner in his estimate of the indignity and helplessness of her position. Go On To The Next Page
  3. 3. Document ThreeKo, Dorothy. "Footbinding." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 2. Detroit:Charles Scribners Sons, 2005. 106-109. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 Dec. 2010.Footbinding was specific to and unique to traditional Chinese culture. Its various names conveyed itsmultifaceted image in Chinese eyes: chanzu (binding feet) called attention to the mundane action ofswaddling the body with a piece of cloth; gongwan (curved arch) described a desired shape of the footsimilar to that of a ballerina in pointe shoe; jinlian (golden lotus, also gilded lilies) evoked a utopianimage of the body that was the subject of fantastical transformation. A related poetic expression of lianbu(lotus steps) suggested that foot-binding was intended to enhance the grace of the body in motion, not tocripple the woman.The much-maligned practice has often been compared to corsetry as evidence that women wereoppressed in cultures East and West, modern and traditional. The comparison is apt albeit for differentreasons. The goal of both practices was to modify the female figure with strips of carefully designed andprecisely positioned fabric, and in so doing alter the way the wearer projected herself into the world.During its millennium-long history, footbinding acquired various cultural meanings: as a sign of status,civility, Han Chinese ethnicity, and femininity. But at its core it was a means of body modification, henceits history should be sought from the foundational garments of binding cloth, socks, and soft-heeledslippers.Document Four"Women, Status of." Encyclopedia of Modern China. Ed. David Pong. Vol. 4. Detroit: Charles ScribnersSons, 2009. 82-87. Gale World History In Context. Web. 9 Dec. 2010.In the nineteenth century, the vast majority of Chinese women received no schooling and wereeconomically dependent on men. Their lives were circumscribed by patriarchal Confucian ideology,according to which the ideal woman was confined within the private sphere, where she served, and wassubservient to, first her father and then her husband and his family. In the late nineteenth and twentiethcenturies, however, Confucian values and institutions eroded, radical new discourses on women emerged,and major improvements in women’s status were achieved.Document Five"DBQintrosamples." Stone Bridge High School. Web. 9 Jan. 2010. <cmsweb1.loudoun.k12.va.us/50912581611627/lib/.../DBQintrosamples.doc>.Ex5: Women in Ancient China were looked down upon. The general idea was for them to be submissive to theirfather, husband, and then to their son. They were there to do chores, such as cooking, cleaning, and tending to thechildren according to Liu Hsang and Fu Xang. But according to Ban Zhao and also the Buddhist song found in thecaves at Dunhuang women have virtue and potential to become developed. The women should be admired for theircompleted tasks, not just ignored. Go On To The Next Page
  4. 4. Document SixAllison, Amy. Life in ancient China. San Diego: Lucent, 2001. Print.Suspect as the advice of diviners may have been, ultimately more destructive to the dynasty was the poisoning ofthe atmosphere at court by the spread of factions, all plotting for power. The eldest son of the empress couldgenerally expect to be appointed heir apparent-that is , the person who would ascend to the throne when the currentemperor died. However the empress’s position (and that of her offspring) was far from secure. She could suddenlybe dismissed by order of the emperor or even handed poison and commanded to commit suicide. Succession, andtherefore the continuity of the dynasty, often depended on the ever-shifting relationships of the emperor and hismany wives and concubines.Among these women, the competition to be appointed empress, or imperial consort, could be fierce and evendeadly. Document seven Seeger, Elizabeth. The pageant of Chinese history. New York: D. McKay Co., 1962. Print. When a little girl was six or eight years old the binding began. Her prettly little foot was bandaged with strips of white cloth in such a way that the four small toes of each foot were bent in under the sole and the whole foot was narrowed. She had to walk, of course, on the joints of these bent toes, and you can imagine how much it hurt. Then the foot was also shortened by wrapping it in tight bandages that drew the ball of the foot nearly back to the heel, bending the arch of the foot up like a bent bow.Document eightBentley , Jerry H. "Early Society in East Asia." Traditions & Encounters. Ed. Emily Barrosse. 3rd ed. Boston, MA:Lyn Uha, 2005. 123., . . Print.Chinese society vested authority principally in elderly males who headed their households. Like its counter in otherregions, Chinese society took on a strongly patriarchal character- one that intensified with the emergence of largestates. During neolithic times Chinese men wielded public authority, but they won their rights to it by virtue of thefemale line of their descent Even if it did not vest power and authority in women, this system provided solid reasonfor a family to honor its female members. As late as Shang times, two queens posthumously received the highhonor of having temples dedicated to their memories.Women occasionaly played prominent roles in public life during Shang times. Fu Hao, for example, the consort ofKing Wu Ding whose tomb has thrown important the later Shang and Zhou dynasties, however, women livedincreasingly in the shadow of men. Large states brought the military and political contributions of men into sharpfocus. The ruling classes performed elaborate ceremonies publicly honoring the spirits of departed ancestors,particularly males who had guided their families and led especially notable lives. Gradually, the emphasis on menbecame so intense that Chinese society lost its matrilineal character. After the Shang dynasty not even queens andempresses merited temples dedicated exclusively to their memories: at most they had the honor of beingremembered in association with their illustrious husbands. Go On To The Next Page
  5. 5. Document Nine Chinese Foot Binding (7). 2009. flickriver. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.Document TenSchafer, Edward H., and Time-Life Books. Ancient China. New York: Time-Life Books, 1967. Print. Go On To The Next Page
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