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Glyn Moody: from open source to open research


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We are moving from closed, analogue innovation to an open, digital form. That was first seen with the creation of GNU/Linux, but is now driving exciting developments like open access, open data and open research.

This presentation was given at the European Parliament in the context of the announcement of Horizon 2020 research programme.

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
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Glyn Moody: from open source to open research

  1. 1. from open source to open research <ul>glyn moody </ul>
  2. 2. <ul>once in a lifetime? </ul><ul><li>global society is passing through a major transition
  3. 3. transition from analogue to digital
  4. 4. *not* once in a lifetime
  5. 5. once in a *civilisation* </li></ul>
  6. 6. ”analogue” innovation <ul><li>traditional innovation in an analogue (pre-Web) world </li><ul><li>centralised
  7. 7. top-down
  8. 8. collaboration hard
  9. 9. not scalable </li></ul><li>*closed* innovation
  10. 10. what does open/digital innovation look like? </li></ul>
  11. 11. GNU/Linux <ul><li>GNU (1984 – Richard Stallman): a free version of the leading Unix operating system
  12. 12. Linux (1991 – Linus Torvalds): operating system kernel
  13. 13. key inflection was August 1991, when Torvalds opened up his ”Linux” project using the Internet </li></ul>
  14. 14. open innovation <ul><li>decentralised </li><ul><li>anyone, anywhere, could join in </li></ul><li>bottom-up </li><ul><li>people fed suggestions, problems and solutions to Linus </li></ul><li>collaboration easy </li><ul><li>Internet was more affordable </li></ul><li>scalable </li><ul><li>no formal training required – everything is out in the open </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Linus' Law <ul><li>Eric Raymond: ”given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow”
  16. 16. adding more people to a project increases the probability that someone’s approach will match the problem in such a way that the solution is obvious (”shallow”) to that person
  17. 17. power of open innovation derives from its openness to all </li></ul>
  18. 18. fruits of open innovation <ul><li>91% of top 500 supercomputers run Linux </li><ul><li>0.2% run Microsoft Windows </li></ul><li>Google runs its services on millions of servers running Linux </li><ul><li>so does Facebook, Twitter etc. </li></ul><li>Android mobile phone system runs on Linux </li><ul><li>200,000,000 handsets activated
  19. 19. launched November 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. open access <ul><li>scientific method based on sharing knowledge originated 17th century
  21. 21. undermined in later 20th century </li><ul><li>US Bayh-Dole Act (1980)
  22. 22. scientific publishing </li></ul><li>open access – free online access to research </li><ul><li> - 713,177 e-prints (1991)
  23. 23. Public Library of Science (2001) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. open access potential <ul><li>increases citations of research articles
  25. 25. increases likelihood of others building on work
  26. 26. allows new discovery through text and data mining
  27. 27. allows schools to explore latest research
  28. 28. allows public to use what they have paid for </li></ul>
  29. 29. open data - HGP <ul><li>Human Genome Project </li><ul><li>started 1991, budget of $3.8 billion
  30. 30. first &quot;complete&quot; human genome published 2001
  31. 31. first and biggest open data project
  32. 32. Bermuda Agreement (1996) </li><ul><li>all human genomic data placed in public domain immediately, no restrictions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. open data potential <ul><li>Human Genome Project </li><ul><li>cost: $3.8 billion
  34. 34. benefit: $796 billion economic impact, created 310,000 jobs </li></ul><li>new ecosystem of open data companies, like open source
  35. 35. mashups - business, educational, general use
  36. 36. allows public to benefit from what they have paid for </li></ul>
  37. 37. open research <ul><li>not just about opening up results and data, but the *process* too
  38. 38. Galaxy Zoo </li><ul><li>July 2007
  39. 39. there are too many galaxy images for experts: 10,000,000
  40. 40. anyone can help classify </li></ul><li>250,000 people taken *active* part in &quot;citizen science&quot; </li></ul>
  41. 41. open research potential <ul><li>citizen science has big benefits for education and public: true democratisation of research
  42. 42. another key part of 21st-century research process is use of computers: need to open that too
  43. 43. as well as results and data, release all research software produced as open source
  44. 44. allows researchers to check, and everyone to use </li></ul>
  45. 45. from open source to open research <ul>[email_address] @glynmoody on Twitter/ </ul>