Sustainability, climate neutral leadership, jim merkel


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Working toward climate neutrality, sustainability in both ones personal life, on campus and in institutions.

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  • Sustainability, climate neutral leadership, jim merkel

    1. 1. Climate Neutral Leadership G lobal L iving P roject
    2. 2. Climate Targets <ul><li>80% reduction by 2050 </li></ul><ul><li>350 PPM carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon neutrality </li></ul><ul><li>Energy independent in 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto -- 7% below 1990 by 2012 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Target atmospheric CO2: Where should humanity aim? <ul><li>If humanity wishes to preserve a planet similar to that on which civilization developed and to which life on Earth is adapted, paleoclimate evidence and ongoing climate change suggest that CO2 will need to be reduced from its current 385 ppm to at most 350 ppm . </li></ul><ul><li>heads the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies [1] </li></ul><ul><li>Adjunct Professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University . </li></ul>
    4. 5. All US electricity to be made renewable within 10 years <ul><li>“ Enough solar energy falls on the surface of the earth every 40 minutes to meet 100 percent of the entire world's energy needs for a full year.” </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;And enough wind power blows through the Midwest corridor every day to also meet 100 percent of US electricity demand.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Geothermal energy, similarly, is capable of providing enormous supplies of electricity for America.&quot; </li></ul>
    5. 6.
    6. 7. 80% Reduction by 2050 Scientists, nations and US politicians
    7. 8. 588 Campuses Signed ON To Become Carbon Neutral The American College & University Presidents Climate Commitment
    8. 9. “… no longer than a decade , at the most…,” Dr. James Hansen Fred R. Conrad/The New York Times Heads the NASA Institute for Space Studies in New York City
    9. 11. <ul><li>Warming Is “unequivocal” </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global mean sea level </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and methane “exceeds by far the natural range over the last 650,000 years” </li></ul>IPCC Fourth Assessment
    10. 12. <ul><li>Species are moving poles-ward at about four miles per decade . </li></ul><ul><li>“Isotherms” are moving pole-ward at about thirty-five miles per decade . </li></ul>
    11. 13. In Greenland annual icequakes: doubled in the late 1990s doubled again by 2005
    12. 14. <ul><li>meltwater descends through crevasses to the ice sheet base </li></ul><ul><li>lubrication increases the movement of the ice sheet </li></ul>the discharge of giant icebergs
    13. 15. Might we: <ul><li>Loose maple syrup? </li></ul><ul><li>Get deer tics? </li></ul>
    14. 16. Iraqi Deaths Related to War <ul><li>654,965 excess deaths related to the war, or 2.5% of the population, through the end of June 2006. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Published in The Lancet , one of the oldest peer-reviewed medical journals founded in 1823 . </li></ul></ul>
    15. 17. Iraqi Infant Mortality (under 1) <ul><li>40 in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>102 in 2005 </li></ul>
    16. 18. Over 200 species go extinct every day 1000 times faster than natural rate $113 B additional to restore Earth Lester Brown Plan B 3.0
    17. 19. Experience in voting for the Environment McCain -- 0 percent in 2007 24 percent life time Obama -- 67% in 2007 86% lifetime. League of Conservation Voters
    18. 20. Radical Disparity Wealthiest Billion $70 per day Poorest Billion $0.25 per day Global Gap = 250:1 and growing Inter-human equity
    19. 21. Alternatives to $700 Billion spending on war or bailouts <ul><li>$700 Billion would double incomes of poorest billion for seven years </li></ul>
    20. 22. We are alive at a unique time! Exponential Growth of Population and Consumerism IPAT
    21. 24. What will we do about it?
    22. 25. Severe addiction Swami Youdhoneedhacara
    23. 26. The primary factors that drive impact are in our control. (IPAT) I mpact = P x A x T <ul><li>A – Affluence . How much we consume. </li></ul><ul><li>P – Population . How many children we have. </li></ul><ul><li>T– Technology . How efficiently we employ tools. </li></ul>
    24. 27. How are campuses taking leadership?
    25. 28. Cash Flow for implementing Carbon Neutrality at UCSB $1 Million/yr. Positive Cash Flow
    26. 29. Sorted by payback
    27. 30. UCSB <ul><li>14,000 people commute to UCSB by bicycle each day school </li></ul><ul><li>Students living within 2 miles of campus not eligible to purchase parking permits </li></ul><ul><li>AS BIKES $88,000 annual budget </li></ul>
    28. 32. UNH COGEN Plant <ul><li>Will save estimated $20 million over 20 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced GHG 21% </li></ul><ul><li>2005 vs. 2006 </li></ul>
    29. 33. UNH Landfill Gas -- EcoLine <ul><li>12.7 mile underground pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Will reduce the GHG an estimated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>67 percent below 2005 levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>57 percent below 1990 levels. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Will provide 80-85% of campus energy & sell excess to grid by mid-2009. </li></ul>
    30. 34. Cornell Lake Source Cooling
    31. 35. <ul><li>Replaced over 40,000 pounds of CFC refrigerants. </li></ul><ul><li>Saves approximately 25,000,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced electricity demand by 10%. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced GHG by 37 tons/year of SO2, 16 tons/year of NOx, and 11,000 tons/year of CO2. </li></ul>
    32. 36. COA achieves carbon neutrality Maine college reduces and offsets all greenhouse gas emissions <ul><li>Dec. 19, 2007, offset 15 months of GHG - 2,488 tons - (improve signal timing on seventeen Portland arterials) </li></ul><ul><li>All electricity from hydroelectric generator in Maine </li></ul><ul><li>Next year's emissions offset will be reduced by 22 percent </li></ul>
    33. 37. <ul><li>Oberlin’s Dormitory Energy Competition </li></ul>© 2007 Lucid Design Group. All rights reserved. Do not distribute.
    34. 38. Benefits: <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Health </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Reduction: e.g. Oil Dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Management e.g. Understanding system dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation/Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Global Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment with Mission… </li></ul>
    35. 39. CEO of Interface Inc. Ray Anderson has committed: <ul><li>Zero footprint by 2020 – in all of Interface’s operations </li></ul><ul><li>Dematerialization – renewable embodied energy </li></ul>
    36. 40. by shaking it <ul><li>Waste to landfill down 70% </li></ul><ul><li>Saved over $336 million since 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Ghg down 46 % from 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Intensity, down one-third </li></ul><ul><li>Water usage down 78% per yard of carpet </li></ul>“ it is so hard to shake the opiate of status quo”
    37. 41. <ul><li>PRINCIPLE 1: SIMPLICITY </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE 2: UNEXPECTEDNESS </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE 3: CONCRETENESS </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE 4: CREDIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE 5: EMOTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCIPLE 6: STORIES </li></ul>
    38. 42. Is carbon neutrality too idealistic?
    39. 44. What would a reasonable skeptic say? Drill baby drill More nuclear power Clean coal
    40. 45. Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! (1854)
    41. 46. Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity, simplicity,
    42. 47. The good news? There’s lots of low hanging fruit.
    43. 48. Getting to Carbon Neutrality 20 year plan: <ul><li>Area per occupant -- 30 % reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Technology of systems – 30 % more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Envelope effectiveness – 30 % better insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Operational controls – 30 % more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Management effectiveness – 30 % better scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>User habits – 30 % more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Extending useful life – 30 % longer life </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions/BTU of fuel source – 30 % less ghg/BTU </li></ul><ul><li>The total building emissions: </li></ul><ul><li>= A(0.7) x T(0.7) x E(0.7) x O(0.7) x M(0.7) x U(0.7) x L(0.7) x F(0.7) </li></ul><ul><li>= 0.05 or 95% reduction </li></ul><ul><li>… and we haven’t put up a solar panel or wind turbine yet. </li></ul>
    44. 49. Getting to Carbon Neutral 30 percent over 20 years
    45. 50. The more rigorous the design constraints: <ul><li>The more creative and useful the final system. </li></ul>20 percent vs. factor 20 reduction
    46. 51. What is the factor you are using in your payback formula for the rising costs of energy?
    47. 52. <ul><li>Trading externalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading Toxicity for Lower Carbon. (Nuclear) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading Habitat for Independence from Foreign Oil. (Bio fuels) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No value given to natural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores ecosystem services </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores toxicity </li></ul>Caution against bean counting carbon
    48. 53. Quantifying Sustainability Humanity’s Consumption Compared to Biospheric Production
    49. 54. Living Planet Report WWF, Global Footprint Network <ul><li>Approx. 9,000 data points/country. </li></ul><ul><li>Computed for 150 nations from 1961 to the present. </li></ul><ul><li>Sums over 200 categories including cereals, timber, fishmeal and fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Referenced to biosphere to relate to global economy </li></ul>
    50. 55. US Auto Footprint United States
    51. 57. High embodied energy materials and services Computers Food Buildings Communications Insurances Missing from the inventories
    52. 58. Biomass concerns: <ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass has greater CO2/BTU than most fuels. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel Type Pounds of CO2 per Million BTU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wood chips 222 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coal 205 - 227 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#6 oil 174 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#2 oil 161 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill Gas 115 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal 0 (approx) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind 0 (approx) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-impact hydro 0 (approx ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 59. Biomass down sides: <ul><ul><ul><li>Forest Lover -- inherent value. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forests of New England are returning, reindustrialize them? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better alternatives exist. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polluting, immediate release of carbon, dirty, crude, inefficient. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Species extinction currently 1000 times natural rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logging impacts biodiversity, habitat, hydrology and old-growth ecology. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    54. 60. More biomass down sides: <ul><ul><ul><li>Forests have highest ecosystem services of land types. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No value-added component. (Cedar $50 into $5,000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large areas needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forests use ‘waste’ as mulch, habitat & water retention and add carbon and nitrogen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity and food -- priority. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethanol can require more energy to produce than it delivers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    55. 61. Ecosystem services Water purification Carbon sequestration Climate regulation Soil retention Wildlife habitat Pollination
    56. 62. 17 Ecosystem services <ul><li>Is estimated to average of US$33 trillion per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Global gross national product total is around US$18 trillion per year. </li></ul>For the entire biosphere For 16 biomes
    57. 63. Oren Lyons -- Onondaga “ What you people call your natural resources our people call our relatives.” Rewire
    58. 64. Try this at home! Playing with renewables demystifies them.
    59. 65. Quantum Reductions Making At home, can make a believer out of you.
    60. 66. <ul><li>Sharing – Two in car (1/2 footprint) </li></ul><ul><li>Caring –Halve travel (1/4 footprint) </li></ul><ul><li>Conserving – 2 x the mpg (1/8 footprint) </li></ul><ul><li>More sharing – 4 in car (1/16) </li></ul><ul><li>Caring – Half travel again (1/32 ) </li></ul>Bike Commuter Car Commuter Bus Commuter #1 Impact Item: Transportation Factor 24
    61. 67. Zero emission vehicle
    62. 68. #2 Impact item: Housing (sq-ft. & embodied energy) 1/5 area/person X 1/5 impact/area = Factor 25 $1,500
    63. 69. #3. Impact item: utilities One cord of wood (R45 walls)
    64. 70. Micro solar homestead – Vermont
    65. 71. Thermo-siphon solar hot water
    66. 77. #4 Impact item: Diet Localvore food Factor 25 Vegan 1/15 – 1/30 Local/organic --¼ - ½ Organic -- ¼ -½ Veganic
    67. 78. Sometimes you just have too many carrots
    68. 79. Root cellar Stores vegetables for 6 months without energy
    69. 81. Harvesting rye
    70. 82. The threshing floor
    71. 83. Winnowed winter rye
    72. 84. February’s blueberries
    73. 85. A 20 year experiment in detangling from materialism <ul><li>War-tax resistor </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt at Global Living -- Avg. $5,000/year for 16 years </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteered over 20,000 hours </li></ul>
    74. 86. Sustainability at Dartmouth College
    75. 87. Projects include: <ul><li>Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>High performance buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Energy and CO2 reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Solid waste reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Waste-free dining </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability coordinator training </li></ul><ul><li>Outreach and communication </li></ul>
    76. 88. Student initiatives <ul><li>ECO </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Green Bus </li></ul><ul><li>ESD </li></ul><ul><li>Dartmouth Progressives </li></ul><ul><li>The Green Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Project </li></ul><ul><li>Farm and Field </li></ul><ul><li>Green Greeks </li></ul>
    77. 89. Building feedback -- energy and water
    78. 90. Design new facilities to perform in the top 5% by building type 20 % of buildings use 80 % of the energy
    79. 91. Building performance
    80. 92. Enthalpy Heat Recovery
    81. 93. Wastewater heat recovery
    82. 94. Ground source heat pump Standing column Well Well Drilling
    83. 95. <ul><li>Possible solar thermal applications : </li></ul><ul><li>Make-up water for steam plant </li></ul><ul><li>Heating pools and hot water in the gym </li></ul><ul><li>Leased equipment with positive cash flow in one to two years. </li></ul>
    84. 97. Dartmouth’s Garbage EF United States Context
    85. 99. Social marketing
    86. 100. Garbage from over 500 lunches
    87. 101. 12 hours of trash from Collis
    88. 102. Compost facility in action
    89. 103. Sales up 10.1% Customer transactions up 7.3%
    90. 104. in Greek houses, dorms and campus offices Training Sustainability Coordinators
    91. 105. The Chronicle of Higher Education Wednesday, January 24, 2007 <ul><li>Dartmouth Earns Highest Grade on Sustainability Report Card Along with Williams College, Harvard and Stanford. </li></ul><ul><li>Issued by The Sustainable Endowments Institute </li></ul>
    92. 106. Tending the inner fire
    93. 107. Sustainability asks us to look at the world differently.
    94. 108. Yes! We can take back some Proxies
    95. 109. Can we meet some of needs without Corporations and Oil?
    96. 110. But… How will we get around?
    97. 111. Who will feed us?
    98. 112. Who will be my friend?
    99. 113. How will we stay warm?
    100. 114. Where will the sweetness for life come from?
    101. 115. David Orr invites us to: Imagine colleges and universities with a commitment to operate so that they do not undermine the integrity, beauty and stability of the world their students will inherit.
    102. 116. Could institutions of higher education lead in the transition to a new world powered by current sunlight? Why not? The limits are no longer technological or even economic, but those of imagination and commitment.
    103. 117. The Winner? Most fun @ the smallest footprint.